Vâda: argument; to speak of or about. End of words to clarify the argument like with m â y â v â d a.
Vâlakhilyas: the sixty thousand sages surrounding the sungod (see 4.1: 39 and 5.21: 17).
Vâlmîki: the sage that harbored S î t â after her exile. Writer of the R a m â y a n a, the epic of Lord R â m a defeating the demon R â v a n a.
Vâmana (-deva): the Lord who incarnated in the form of a dwarf, a brahmin boy (see also B a l i M a h â r â j a, and chapter 18, canto 8) (see also U p e n d r a).
- A V i s h n u - a v a t â r a who in asking for a few steps of land seized the whole world (see also U r u k r a m a).
Vânaprastha: the withdrawn position, normally the third phase of life between 40 and 60. Third â s' r a m a of the v a r n â s' r a m a - system: the system of classes (vocations of servitude) and spiritual departments (forms of civil status). The term is often reserved for pure devotees (initiates) who reside no longer in the temple and already had their offspring or have lost interest in having children. Phase of life of contemplation and preparation for the renounced state (see s a n n y â s a, 7.12: 17-31 and 11.18).
- Period of purification, pilgrimage, study, remorse and transference of knowledge and power to the next generation.
- The detaching from one's family-life.
- Someone who lives according the rules of this â s' r a m a.
Vânaras: half-apes led by H a n u m â n, who helped Lord R â m a with the liberation of S î t â, His wife (see also k i m p u r u s h as).
Vânî: words, speech, messages, association with K r i s h n a at the acoustic level. Preferred by the v a i s h n a v a s before v a p u.
Vântâs'î: 'one who eats his own vomit'. A renounced person again giving priority to the civil values and materialistic activities of household life, is considered a shameless person who as it were eats his own vomit (see 7.15: 36 and 11.18: 12).
Vârunî: kind of spirit prepared from hogweed mixed with the juice of the date or palm and distilled; according the p a r a m p a r â is it mixed with honey. Flowed as ordained by V a r u n a from the hollow of a tree when B a l a r â m a once visited the Y a m u n â with the g o p î s at night (see 10.65, 10.67: 9-10 and m a i r e y a).
- Daughter of V a r u n a, a goddess.
Vâsâdi, S'rî: P a ñ c a - t a t t v a-incarnation of N â r a d a M u n i. First devotee, leader in devotional service.
Vâsanâ: one's propensity, one's aptitude, based on one's k a r m a. Hindrance in one's own conditioning and experience of possibly also previous lives. Also the actual consciousness of previous realizations. Thus also traumas, memories etc. (see also l i n g a and s a m s k â r a and 10.51:60 and 12.7: 12).
Vâsudeva: (vâsu means supreme being of V i s h n u dwelling in each, literally: 'God of the Spirit, the Soul or the consciousness', see 4.3: 23) name for K r i s h n a as the son of V a s u d e v a (his foster father was called Nanda, see also D e v a k î).
- Name for K r i s h n a in His manifestation as the cosmic time (see S' i s' u m â r a - c a k r a).
- Vâsudeva: the level at which one understands what is God and how one has to act according His different energies.
- Name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the original proprietor, material and spiritual.
- One of the four basic forms of the Lord (see V y û h a).
Vâsuki: the snake used as a rope with which in the ocean of milk the mountain M a n d a r a was churned (see 8.7).
Vâyu: (air, vital energy) movement of the air in the control of the breathing process (see p r â n â y â m a). In five types: going up (udana), going down (apâna) expanding (vyâna) balanced (samâna) and higher (prânavâyu).
- The demigod ruling the wind.
Vaibhâsikas: a group of philosophers related to the Buddhists, who were there at the time when K r i s h n a spoke the B h a g a v a d - g î t â. They accept that life originates from a certain ripening of a mixture of material elements.
Vaibhava-prakâs'a: the perfection of the Lord to expand Himself in more than one form and act simultaneously as happens in 10.33: 20 10.69: 41, 10.13: 18, and 10.86: 26.
Vaidarbhî: the daughter of the king of Vidarbha or Bhîshmaka: R u k m i n î, the first wife of K r i s h n a.
Vaidhi-bhakti: devotion on the level of strictly following of rules on worship of the m û r t i. Devotion in obedience. Beginning phase of b h a k t i (see also r â g â n u g a- and s â d h a n a - b h a k t i).
Vaidûrya: ('cat-eye' gemstone); a gem often mentioned in the descriptions of the vedic architecture of opulently decorated buildings and palaces.
Vaijayantî: 'of the victory' the name of K r i s h n a's garland consisting of flowers in five different colors.
Vaikunthha (-loka): literally the place where there is no laziness, indolence, stupidity, foolishness or - rethorically - fear. The heavenly abode of Lord N â r â y a n a. The ideal planet, the spiritual world. There are many vaikunthhalokas: depending on the form of the Lord worshiped there.
- The spiritual kingdom, where everything is s a t - c i t - â n a n d a, eternal, full of wisdom and bliss (see also 3.15).
Vairâgya: detachment (see also V i d h y a).
- Withdrawal from the material world and attaching of the spirit to the transcendence.
Vais'eshika (special, peculiar, specific, characteristic, distinguished, excellent, pre-eminent) one of the six d a r s h a n a s relating or belonging to or based on or dealing with the Vais'eshika doctrine. Name of the later of the two great divisions of the N y â y a school of philosophy (it was founded by K a n â d a, and differs from the, N y â y a 'proper' founded by G a u t a m a, in propounding only seven categories or topics instead of sixteen; and more especially in its doctrine of vis'esha, or eternally distinct nature of the nine substances of air, fire, water, earth, mind, ether, time, space, and soul, of which the first five, including mind, are held to be atomic.
Vaishnavas: devotees of Lord V i s h n u - persons following the v i d h i: no meat, fish, eggs, intoxication, illicit sex, gambling, and daily rounds of chanting j a p a (see also C a i t a n y a).
- A person who gave up his material life and lives in full surrender to V i s h n u, K r i s h n a as the Supreme One and His representative, the spiritual teacher (see also b h a k t a and â c â r y a).
- Anyone who dedicates his life to K r i s h n a and recognizes in Him the Godhead of Maintenance, Lord V i s h n u (see also â r y a n).
- Another name for b h a k t a or devotee.
- Used as an adjective: proper for, to the nature of the vaishnava.
Vaishnavism: the v a i s h n a v a-teaching, that considers everything related to V i s h n u, God, and requires that one operates from this relation.
Vais'ya: farmers and traders. They provide to the needs of society and wake over the well-being of the animals, especially of the cows.
- One of the v a r n a s (see v a r n â s' r a m a)
Vaivasvata Manu: see M a n u.
False Ego: (or a h a n k â r a); see under F.
Vams'a: dynasty; Lord R â m a appeared in the sûrya-vams'a of I k s h v â k u or the sun-dynasty and Lord K r i s h n a appeared in the candra-vams'a or the moon-dynasty.
Vapu: the body, association with K r i s h n a at the physical level (see v a n i).
Varâha: incarnation of Lord K r i s h n a, as a gigantic boar (see S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m, 3-13, 18 & 19).
- a V i s h n u - a v a t â r a.
Varna: each of the four departments of society divided to the natural service of function of her members.
- Vocational interests, professions, vocations, classes.
- In four:- B r â h m a n a s: brahmins, spiritual and intellectual.
- K s h a t r i y a s: officials, administrators, the military.
- V a i s' y a s: traders and farmers.
- S' û d r a s: laborers and artisans (see also v a r n â s' r a m a).
Honoring this system gives harmony and balance in the society. As a caste-system though subdued by Lord C a i t a n y a who put the love for K r i s h n a before all (see also B.G. 4:13).
- See also verse 11.23: 43 where K r i s h n a connects these classes to the diffent modes and colors.
- Important is 7.11: 35: 'if with a person the symptoms indicating a certain class other than his own are observed, should one for sure also designate him by that (: who behaves like a brahmin e.g. must be considered so).'
- Unwanted offspring, begotten when one is no longer following the religious principles.
- Mixed marriage of different castes.
- Confusion of identity, e.g. emancipation on material values.
Varsha: area, dominion, land marked out by mountain ranges. There is a - galactic, universal, supernatural, holistic - central area named I l â v r i t a - v a r s h a where Lord B r a h m â sits on the mountain M e r u and where Lord S' i v a as the only man is there to the happiness of the Supreme Personality. Next to that there are eight varshas stretching to all sides of which B h a r a t a - v a r s h a also is the name of India (see also d v î p a, 5.16 and 17).
Varnâs'rama: system of the four statusoriëntations of the v a r n a s, social divisions, individual professional oriëntations or classes, and â s' r a m a s spiritual orders or statusses of life together that before Lord C a i t a n y a descended was preached as the proper approach of serving K r i s h n a, but thereafter for the b h a k t i was no longer valid as the final criterion of distinction since also transcendence in devotional service (see a s h t h â n g a and b h â g a v a t a d h a r m a) and quality (experience, see g u n a) do count (see also B.G. 3: 35, 4: 13 and the basis 7.11-14; 11.17 & 18, the relative 7.11: 35 and the critical about it: S B 1.2: 8, 10.60.52).
Varnâs'rama-dharma: each his fulfillment of duty to birth, the class or one's vocation (v a r n a), and spiritual emancipation, the spiritual department of a civil status- or age-group (â s' r a m a). .
Varuna: the demigod ruling the waters (see 3.17: 25-31).
Vasishthha Muni: one of the ten or seven great and famous sages, a b r â h m a n a. He figured in the R a m â y a n a as the sage who entertained a discussion with Lord R â m a as his pupil over the meaning of God, soul and world as being one. This sage wrote a book about it known as the Yogavasishthha. Also appears in other eras as one of the greatest wise who takes birth again and again (see also r i s h i).
Vasu: name ulitized for U d d h a v a or anyone who is wealthy (see S.B. 3.4: 11).
- One son, not mentioned in the Bhâgavatam, of U t t â n a p â d a, the father of D h r u v a (4.8: 8).
- Name of a wife of Y a m a r â j a who gave birth to the eight V a s u s (6.6: 10-11).
- Of Dhrishtha a son of M a n u (or Shrishtha) came a caste of k s h a t r i y a s about who in the world, having achieved the position of brahmins, received the name Dhârshtha. Of Nriga was there in succession first Sumati, then Bhûtajyoti and after him Vasu. From Vasu there was a son named Pratîka (9.2: 17-18).
- One of the six sons that Vasudeva, K r i s h n a's father had with S'rîdevâ (see 9.24: 51).
- A son K r i s h n a had with Nâgnajitî, or Satyâ (see 10.61: 13).
- Name of a companion of B h a u m â s u r a (see 10.59: 12).
- A son of king Vatsara (4.13: 12).
- Name of the mother-in-law of Parâs'ara, the father of V y â s a d e v a (see 1.4: 14).
- Son of Kus'a, one of the scions of Puru (9.15: 4).
- A son of Hiranyaretâ, a son of Mahârâja P r i y a v r a t a (5.20: 14).
Vasudeva: the father of Lord K r i s h n a.
- Son of grandfather S'ûra (see 9.24: 27-31).
- Is also called Â n a k a d u n d u b h i.
Vasus: literally: 'the good of clarity'. Certain gods, notably the Â d i t y a s, M a r u t s, A s v i n s, I n d r a, R u d r a, V â y u, V i s h n u, S' i v a, and K u v e r a (see B.G. 10.23; as also 7.8: 37-56).
- Name of a particular class of gods, whose number is usually eight, and whose chief is I n d r a, later A g n i and V i s h n u; they form one of the nine G a n a s or classes enumerated under gana-devatâ (de Â d i t y a s, V i s' v a s, Vasus, Tushitas , Âbhâsvaras, Anilas, Mahârâjikas, S â d h y a s, and R u d r a s).
The eight Vasus were originally personifications, like other vedic deities, of natural phenomena. According the V i s h n u P u r â n a they are the following eight: 1. Âpa, 'water'; 2. Dhruva, 'the Pole-star'; 3. S o m a, 'the Moon'; 4. Dhara, 'Earth'; 5. Anila, 'Wind'; 6. Anala or Pâvaka, 'Fire'; 7. Pratyusha, 'the Dawn'; 8. Prabhâsa, 'Splendor' (M.W.-dictionary).
- The eight Vasus according the Brihadaranyak Upanishad 3.9: 2. are: A g n i (god of fire), Prithivi (goddess of the earth), V â y u (god of the wind), Antariksh (god of the space), Aditya (sun god), Dyo (god of the luminous sky), Chandrama (moon god) and Nakshatra (god of the nakshatras, asterism. Nakshatras are 27, called Magha, Rohini etc.)
Vatsalya: one of the five direct, main or primary r a s a s or manifestations of love: the parental.
Veda: (knowledge) spiritual knowledge, see s' r u t i (see further under: v e d a s).
- The original Veda, divided in four (see V e d a s and 12.6. 48-80).
Vedângas: certain works or classes of works regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the V e d a s. There are six a n g a s, explanatory limbs or divisions of explanations, to the V e d a s:A Two for correct reading and reciting.1. S'iksha, the science of correct articulation and pronunciation.
2. Chandas: metres (as represented by Pingalanâga or Pingalâcârya).
B Two for the correct understanding of the vedic texts.3. Vyâkarana: the analysis of language or grammar (represented by the celebrated s û t r a s of Panini).
4. Nirukta: the explanation of difficult vedic terms (by Yâska).
C Two for correct excecution in sacrificial offerings.5. Jyotisha: astronomy, or rather the vedic calendar; a small directive for determining the most favorable days for having a sacrifice.
6. K a l p a: the ceremonial (represented by a great number of s û t r a works, the srauta, grihya, dharma and sulba, of the different r i s h i s ).
Vedânta: (knowledge-end): the conclusions of vedic knowledge as laid down in the B h a g a v a d G î t â, V e d â n t a - s û t r a and the U p a n i s h a d s and next in the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m, who teach the highest realization of the Absolute Truth: surrender to K r i s h n a; the essence of the vedic philosophy.
- 'Complete knowledge of the V e d a', sometimes called u t t a r a - m i m â m s a. With the mimamsa part of the third duplet of vedic d a r s h a n a s. Teaches the ultimate scope of the V e d a or simply what is explained in the U p a n i s h a d s one finds at the end of the V e d a (see also s' r u t i).
- During the "scholastic period" (700-1700), there were three main variations developed of the classic vedânta:1) Advaita vedânta, or pure dualism, represented by S' a n k a r a (788-820); (see also M o n i s m)
2) Vis'ishthadvaita vedânta, or qualified non-dualism: the human spirit is separate and different from the one Supreme Spirit though dependent on it and ultimately to be united with it in its fulness expressed in the v a i s h n a v a doctrine of Râmânuja. (1017-1137);
3) Dvaita vedânta, dualism propagated by the v a i s h n a v a saint Madhvâ (1197-1278) (see further: systems of y o g a philosophy and s i d d h a n t a).
In sum one knows six schools founded by:- Râmânuja 1017-1127, vis'ishthadvaita the adapted, or qualified Non-dualistic school. Oneness, but the individual souls are different.
- Madhvâ 1197-1273, dvaita the dualistic school.
- Nimbârka late 13th century, dvaitadvaita the dualistic non-dualistic school.
- Vallabha 1480-1530, s'udda advaita the pure advaita school.
- C a i t a n y a 1485-1533, acintya bhedabheda tattva: inscrutable oneness in diversity. (this school is the school of Prabhupâda who fathered the translations at this site).
- Baladeva early 18th century, acintya bheda-abheda follower of C a i t a n y a.
Vedânta-sûtra or Brahma-sûtra: philosophical treatise of V y â s a d e v a, consisting of aphorisms (s û t r a s) concerning the nature of the Absolute Truth, by him laid down as the conclusion of the vedic knowledge.
Vedânta-s'ruti: the V e d i c teaching, of which the essence is found in the V e d â n t a (V e d â n t a - s û t r a) and next in the comment on it of the author himself, the S' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m.
Vedas: comprise the four Vedas (the Rik, Yajur, Sâma and Atharva) and the hundred -and-eight U p a n i s h a d s, containing the philosophical part, and the supplement, the 'fifth Veda' to it: the eighteen P u r â n a s with the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m as the Bhagavata Purâna, the M a h â b h â r a t a (of which the B h a g a v a d G î t â is a part), the V e d â n t a - s û t r a. The a v a t â r a V y â s a d e v a propounded five thousand years ago in it the spiritual knowledge, which was originally delivered by K r i s h n a Himself handed down by oral tradition (to the vedic scriptures belong all p a r a m p a r â-literatures, like the R a m â y a n a, the B h a k t i - r a s â m r i t a - s i n d h u, the C a i t a n y a - c a r i t â m r i t a etc.).
- Originally by V y â s a in four divided spiritual inheritance of the vedic culture (see 12.6: 48-49).- Rik or Rigveda: the prayers; 1028 verses about sacrificing to the gods and the creation of man out of the P u r u s h a;
- Yajur: hymns for oblations; the mantras of the lunar culture,
- Sâma: songs of same prayers and hymns in meters for singing accompanying the sacrifices;
- Atharva-veda: mystical hymns on body/world maintenance and destruction, in order to explain them to civilized society.
Later literature, the p u r â n a s (G î t â, B h â g a v a t a m, M a h â b h â r a t) are considered the fifth V e d a.
- One also speaks sometimes of the three Vedas, of which the Rig-veda is considered the most original, not mentioning the by some later said to be added Atharva-veda with the mystical hymns. The threefold division in vedic principles in this context refers to u p â s a n â: sacrifice, song and prayer; k a r m a: fruitive labor and j ñ â n a: spiritual knowledge.
- Each of the Vedas has two portions both being termed s' r u t i, revelation orally communicated by the deity, and heard but not composed or written down by men;1. Mantra, the words of prayer and adoration often addressed either to fire or to some form of the sun or to some form of the air, sky, wind, and praying for health, wealth, long life, cattle, offspring, victory, and even forgiveness of sins.
2. Brâhmana , consisting of v i d h i and a r t h a - v â d a: directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the mantras were to be used and explanations of the legends connected with the mantras (see b r â h m a n a and v i d h i).
- The mantras are with the three Vedas in three forms :1. Rig, which are verses of praise in metre , and intended for loud recitation.
2. Yajur, which are in prose, and intended for recitation in a lower tone at sacrifices.
3. Sâman, which are in metre, and intended for chanting at the Soma or Moon-plant ceremonies.
The Mantras of the fourth or Atharva-veda have no special name. While borrowing largely from the Rig-veda are the Yajur-veda and Sâma-veda in fact not so much collections of prayers and hymns as special prayer- and hymn-books intended as manuals for the Adhvaryu and Udgâtri priests respectively (see r i t v i k). But the atharva mantras borrow little from the Rig-veda being a real collection of original hymns mixed up with incantations; they have no direct relation to sacrifices, but are supposed by mere recitation to produce long life, cure diseases, ruin enemies and such.
- To the brâhmana portion two other departments of Vedic literature grew, sometimes included under the general name Veda:1) The s û t r a s; the strings of aphoristic rules
2) The U p a n i s h a d s; the mystical treatises on the nature of God and the relation of soul and matter which were appended to the Â r a n y a k a s, and became the real Veda of thinking Hindus, leading to the D a r s h a n a s or systems of philosophy.
- Veda also means feeling, perception; finding, obtaining, acquisition; property, goods; to weave or bind together a tuft or bunch of strong grass made into a broom or to serve another purpose in vedic sacrifices like mats or fuel for a fire.
Vedic: anything concerning the spiritual knowledge of the V e d a s and literature thereafter (see also u p a n i s h a d s, p u r â n a s, i t i h a s a s).
- Two types of vedic knowledge:- S' r u t i, knowledge straight from Him, the four V e d a s and the 108 U p a n i s h a d s, and:
- S m r i t i, descriptions of vedic truth by liberated souls like V y â s a, P a t a ñ j a l i and V â l m î k i; the R a m â y a n a, the Y o g a s û t r a, the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m and the B h a g a v a d G î t â.
Vena: the demoniac son of king A n g a and father of king P r i t h u (see 4.14).
Vetâla: vampire, eviol spirit taking possession of a corpse. Associate of Lord S' i v a.
- A form, a name of D u r g â.
(Des'a kâla) Vi-bhâgavit: adaptation to time and circumstances. Quality of K r i s h n a (see p a r a m p a r â-method and S. B. 4.8: 54).
Vibhrama: confusion by lustmotives, lack of concentration.
Vibhu-âtmâ: another name for the Supersoul, p a r a m â t m â to indicate His potency as opposed to a n u - â t m â, the atomic j î v a - â t m â.
Viddhâ-bhakti: devotion contaminated with material motives (see also p a r â - b h a k t i).
Vidhi: (of vidha, to get in order) regulative principles: no meat eating (see e.g. 10.1: 4), no illicit sex no intoxication or gambling. They are derived from the eternal values of respectively d a y â, s a u c a (or d â n a), s a t y a, t a p a s; compassion, cleanliness or loyalty, truth, and sobriety or penance (see also r e g u l a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s, K a l i- y u g a, 1. 17: 24 and 12.3: 18).
Vidura: great devotee, a member of the k u r u - d y n a s t y, who heard of the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m from M a i t r e y a M u n i (see cantos 3 & 4). Son of V y â s a and the maidservant Sûdri, brother of D h r i t a r â s h t r a and P â n d u.
Vidya: finding, acquiring, gaining.
Vidyâ: any knowledge whether true or false; science, learning, scholarship, philosophy. Spiritually depending on the four principles that lead to the spiritual knowing of j ñ â n a: t a p a s, s â n k h y a, v a i r â g y a and y o g a: penance, analysis, detachment and unification of the consciousness (see: û r d h v a r e t a s a h).
- M.W.-dictionary: 'knowledge of soul or of spiritual truth; according to others, Vidyâ has fourteen divisions, viz. the four V e d a s, the six v e d â n g a s, the p u r â n a s, the m î m â m s â, n y â y a, and d h a r m a or law; or with the four u p a - v e d a s, eighteen divisions; others reckon thirty-three and even sixty-four sciences'.
- Knowledge is also personified and identified with D u r g â; she is even said to have composed prayers and magical formulas.
- A small bell.
- A mystical skill.
Vidyâdhara ('possessed of science or spells'): class of lesser demigods standing for the scientists, the ones founded in knowledge. Supposed to dwell in the Himalayas, attending upon S' i v a, and possessed of magical power,
- Fairy, magician.
- Name of various scholars.
- The paramount lord of all fairy-like beings (-cakravartin).
- Spelled as vidyâdhâra: 'receptacle of knowledge', a great scholar.
- The lord of the Vidyâdharas is called Sudars'ana and is discussed in 10: 34.
Vigata-jvara: free from laxity, excitement or cowardice; wakefulness: K r i s h n a's plea against pragmatism (the easygoing, see B.G. 3.30).
- Arcâ-vigraha: His deity (see also m û r t i).
Vijñâna: wisdom, realized knowledge, the result of j ñ â n a, spiritual knowledge (see 11.19: 15).
Vijñânam-brahman: the spiritual, the spiritual soul.
Vikâra: the transformations or derivatives of material nature in the sense of producers: the seven vikâra t a t t v a s, knowing intelligence, false ego and the five sense-objects or t a n m â t r â s, and their sixteen vikâra products: the five basic elements (m a h â b h û t a s) and the perceiving and acting senses (i n d r y a s) plus the mind (m a n a s).
Vikarma: unwanted activities. Cause of fall-down: moving away from K r i s h n a.
Vimâna: (of vi: apart from, order, increasingly, and mâna: building, altar, measure, but also: opinion, notion and idea) meaning palace, airplane, high in the sky rising building, elevated abode or means of transport and also temple. Also the idea of vimâna as a separate notion or opinion or a general idea of order standing apart should be considered in understanding this concept often used in the context of going to heaven.
- As a means of transport or heavenly vehicle: see S.B. 4.3: 12, 4.12: 19, 6.2: 44.
- As palace: see S.B. 3.23: 45.
- As high rising building S.B. 2.9: 13.
- As a temple in 11: 10: 24.
- As a notion of order in 11: 10: 25.
- As a higher spirit in 11.30: 40.
- Some translators speak also of flying palaces and there are even speculators who associate them with flying saucers.
Vimûdha: bewildered, illusioned, confused, unconscious (see also m û d h h a).
Vînâ: the stringed instrument of N â r a d a M u n i.
Vetâla: vampire, evil spirit occupying a dead body. Attendant of lord S' i v a
- A form, a name of D û r g a.
Vinâyakas: (from vinaya: education, distraction, humility, control) demons of education, distracters, humiliaters, control-freaks. Attendants of lord S' i v a.
Vipra: learned one of v e d i c wisdom.
Vipra-lipsa: propensity to cheat as a human weakness (see also b h r a m a).
Vira (hero): chivalry as a r a s a (indirect).
- Most intimate form of servitude in K r i s h n a - l î l â.
- Form of t a n t r a - y o g a with which one, under the guidance of a holy man, one after the other can have several partners, as a 'hero' of love. Also can one by detaching from a steady partner spiritually profundity be realized so that ultimately the sex is under control and may be spoken of pure devotion without material motives.
Virâth-purusha: the universe as the original person; the visible person of the Lord as the entirety of all physical manifestation.
Virâth-rûpa: great (cosmic) manifestation of the universal form of K r i s h n a. External manifestation as described in the second canto first chapter of the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m.
- The form that K r i s h n a revealed to A r j u n a on the battlefield, as described in chapter eleven of the G î t â (also: v i s' v a - r û p a of v i r â t h r û p a).
Viriñca: the pure one beyond passion, name for lord B r a h m â.
Virya: energy, capacity, potency, knowledge, power or effort as a consequence of being convinced in continence (see b r a h m â c a r y a).
Visarga: the secondary creation, the resultant activities of the interaction to the modes of s a r g a, or the primary creation, is called the secondary creation (2.10: 3).
Vishaya; the senses having each their proper vishaya or object: viz. - 1. s' a b d a, "sound", for the ear; 2. spars'a, "tangibility", for the skin; 3. r û p a, "form" or "colour", for the eye; 4. r a s a, "savour", for the tongue and 5. gandha, "odour" for the nose: These five vishayas are sometimes called the g u n a s or the "properties" of the five elements, ether, air, fire, water, and earth, respectively (see also t a n m â t r a and i n d r i y a).
Vis'eshas: the attributes, the marks of identity, that set things apart from other things, give them their identity (see also s v a r û p a and v a i s' e s i k a).
Vishnu: God the maintainer, ruler over the mode of goodness. Divided in three known as p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a s (see also c a t u r - v y û h a).- M a h â - V i s h n u or K â r a n o d a k a s' â y î Vishnu from whose pores all universes appear (see V â s u d e v a and N â r â y a n a).
- G a r b h o d a k a s' â y î Vishnu: for each universe laying down on a snake bed (see Â d i - s' e s h a or S a n k a r s h a n a) and with Lord B r a h m â generating the complete diversity (P r a d y u m n a).
- K s h i r o d a k s' â y î Vishnu: for each living entity locally present as the P a r a m â t m â or God in the heart (zie A n i r u d d h a).
- See for a description of the Vishnu-a v a t â r a s 2.7 and 11: 5.
Vishnu-jana: another name for B h a k t a.
Vishnu-mâyâ: the special mercy of V i s h n u that also took birth in different potencies of relating to Him when K r i s h n a descended. It has two features: unmukha ('looking up to'), the liberated way of relating in the different r â s a s and âvaranikâ ('the covered way'), the conditioned way of being caught in the clutches of k a r m a (see 10.1: 25).
Vishnupâda: 'Vishnu's Feet', another name for P r a b h u p â d a, the 'Master of the Feet'.
Vishnu Purâna: see P u r â n a s.
Vishnu-tattva: the status or category of Godhead, the reaity of V i s h n u (see a v a t â r a).
- All those divine manifestations, the first expansions, the plenary expansions of expansions of plenary expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who in no respect differ from Him, as opposed to j î v a - t a t t v a (see expansion, plenary -).
Vishnu-tattva-avatâra: all incarnations of K r i s h n a in matter as plenary portion with His full potency (as opposed to j î v a - t a t t v a: incomplete expansions with a limited capacity).
Vis'vakarma: the architect of the gods who built a city, I n d r a p r a s t h a, for K r i s h n a serving the P â n d a v a s (see 10.58: 24).
Vis'vakos'a: an old S a n s k r i t dictionary (see also a modern Sanskrit dictionary).
Vishvaksena: ('the Lord whose powers are found throughout the universe') a personal associate, a guardian and expansion of the Lord who is known as the personification of the t a n t r a scriptures (see 12.11: 20 en 5.20: 40).
- Brahmadatta, a y o g î who in the womb of his wife Sarasvatî created a son called Vishvaksena. By the instruction of the rishi Jaigîshavya was in the past by him a description of y o g a (a so-called t a n t r a ) compiled (9.21: 25-26).
Vis'vâmitra: a famous sage in the time of R â m a who with a sacrifice defended His honor of indeed under the supervision of L a k s h m â n a, having killed the enemy (see 9.10: 5). He was in competition with V a s i s h t h h a as two birds; as a k s h a t r i y a, he underwent severe austerities to become a brahmin (see also H a r i s c a n d a).
- He had one hundred-and-one sons who because of the middle one called Madhucchandâ as a group were celebrated as the Madhucchandâs. (9.16: 28).
Vis'va-rûpa: (v i r â t h - r û p a) the universal form of Lord K r i s h n a, as described in Chapter eleven of the B h a g a v a d - G î t â.
- Name of a great devotee, the son of Tvashthâ (5.15: 14-15), who by I n d r a was killed because he offered for the a s u r a s, which later lead to the battle with V r i t â s u r a (see from 6.7: 25).
Vis'vâvasu: ('all-generating') the name of the Lord among the G h a n d a r v a s (see 11.16: 33).
Vis'vadevas (or vis'vedeva): (vis'wa means: all, everyone; entire, whole, universal, pervading all, that is: Vishnu, the intellect, etc.); all the gods or as a class the All-gods standing for the intellect, the universe (see 2.3: 2-7).
Vis'vanâtha Cakravartî Thhâkur: V a i s h n a v a - â c â r y a, sixth in the disciplic succession of C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u (see p a r a m p a r â).
- V a i s h n a v a-spiritual teacher who wrote a comment on the S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m in the disciplic succession of Lord S' r î C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u.
Vitarka: with v i c â r a, â n a n d a - s â n a n d a, a s m i t â - s â s m i t a, the stages of s a m â d h i on the level of the five elements earth, water, fire, air, ether explained as the study, the intellect, the happiness taken to enrapture and the I to goodness for liberation (see also m u k t i).
Vivasvân: the name of the present sungod, to whom the B h a g a v a d - G î t â was explained a 120.400.000 years ago. See also P a r a m p a r â.
Viveka: power of discrimination. Through knowledge of the k l e s' a s that disturb the continence, the keeping to the soul, one attains to spiritual sophistication.
Vraja: cow-community, name of the village in the forest of V r i n d â v a n a where K r i s h n a grew up after G o k u l a.
Vrika, Vrikâsura: ('the tearer, the wolf') a demoniac son of S'akuni (see 9.24: 5), who challenged the grace of lord S' i v a by offering the flesh of his own body and consequently pursued him to his great terror, with the blessing obtained that anyone would die whom he put his hand on the head. Mentioned as an example to the problem of the ingrate or unworthy one turning against his own benefactor in 10.88.
Vrindâvana: ('woods of bunches').
- The transdendental abode of Lord K r i s h n a. It is also called Goloka V r i n d â v a n a or Krishnaloka. The town of V r i n d â v a n a in the M a t h u r â District of Uttar Pradesh, India, where K r i s h n a appeared five thousand years ago, is a manifestation on earth of K r i s h n a's abode in the spiritual world.
- Place of pilgrimage at the spot where K r i s h n a spent His youth.
- Woods rich of T u l s î of Lord K r i s h n a's l î l â.
- Where K r i s h n a lived after V r a j a or also G o k u l a.
Vrishni: the name of K r i s h n a's family clan to a common ancestor described in 9.24: 3-4 (see also D a s' a r h a and Y a d u).
Vritra (Vritrâsura): great demon that was killed by I n d r a. In fact was it the devoted Vis'varûpa, his 'brother' as he says himself, that was killed by Indra for his offerings for the asuras (zie S. B. 6.8-12).
Vritti: livelihood, conduct, character, treatment, inclination, functioning, appearing (see e.g.: 10.85: 45 and also the Vedabase on the different use of this word, and 12.7: 13).
- P a t a ñ j a l i, Y o g a s û t r a number one and two: 'atha yogânus'âsanam, yogah citta vritti nirodha; the lesson now about y o g a is that the y o g a is to stop the (k a r m i c) reasoning about the livelihood, the moves one makes.
Vritti-traya: the three stages of waking, sleep and dreamless sleep (see also a v a s t h â t r a y a).
Vyâna-vâyu: one of the movements of air, vital energies in the body that are controlled by a s h t h â n g a- y o g a. The vyâna-vâyu concerns the distribution of the energy throughout the body of the increasing and decreasing (see v â y u).
Vyâsa-deva (lit.: 'the compiler, the godhead who assembled the verses'), Krishna-dvaipâyana: author of the G î t â and S' r î m a d B h â g a v a t a m, M a h â b h â r a t a, and the V e d â n t a - s û t r a. Compressed the v e d i c knowledge. Teacher of S a ñ j a y a. Pupil of N â r a d a M u n i, father of S' u k a d e v a.
- The greatest philosopher from yore, divided the V e d a in four. Is considered an expansion of V i s h n u, as a b h a g a v â n, empowered to perform literary activities.
Vyâsâsana: elevated seat on which the representative of V y â s a d e v a has the right to take place. Vedic stand.
(Catur-)Vyûha: placing apart, distribution, arrangement but also: reasoning, logic (or from vyu: to urge on, incite, animate) the four eternal forms of the Lord: V â s u d e v a, the Lord of Consciousness; S a n k a r s h a n a, the Lord of Ego, the individuality, the j î v a; A n i r u d d h a, the Lord of the Mind and P r a d y u m n a, the Lord of Intellligence (see also p a ñ c a - t a t t v a and 12.11: 21).
- Divided to the three (p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a) forms of V i s h n u: 'The original being is Vâsudeva, the Personality of Godhead. When the Godhead manifests His primeval energies and opulences, He is called S a n k a r s h a n a. P r a d y u m n a is the basis of the V i s h n u expansion who is the soul of the entire universe, and A n i r u d d h a is the basis of the personal manifestation of V i s h n u as the Supersoul of every individual entity within the universe' (pp 11, 5: 29-3).
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