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Y

 

Yâdavas: another name for the Y a d u s.

Yâma: motion, course, going, progress; one eight portion of a day, a period of about three hours, two nâdikâs or d a n d a s of about thirty minutes (3.11: 8).

Yâtudhânas: (from yâtu, sorcery, going against and dhâna, covering) practicioners of tricks and black magic. Class of demons following lord S' i v a.

Yadu: the eldest son of Y a y â t i, brother of P u r u, who was disobedient to his father and therefore was denied by him to be his successor.

- The name of K r i s h n a's family described in 9.23: 18-19 (His familyclan setting Him apart from the Bhojas of K a m s a was called V r i s h n i, which means strong, virile and bull) see also family-tree.

- Because of the curse of Y a y â t i (see 9.18: 42), says K r i s h n a (in 10.45: 13), that one from Yadu should not sit on the throne.

Yaddrichayâ-copapannam: (arrived-of-its-own) without one's knowing. Concerns the innocence of defending K r i s h n a's interests.

Yajña: (sacrifice) name for V i s h n u as the Lord of the Sacrifice. According k a r m a, v a r n â s' r a m a and s v a d h a r m a must everyone who wants to be happy make offerings unto V i s h n u (expressed as: jàknjà).

- Vedic offering, systematically done. A sacrifice, activity to please Lord V i s h n u or the demigods.

Yajña-purusha: the ultimate Personality of all sacrifices.

Yajñesvara: name of Lord K r i s h n a - the controller of the sacrifices.

Yajñabhuk: name of the Lord as the enjoyer of the sacrifices.

Yakshas: the treasure keepers, attendants of K u v e r a, the keepers of wealth, semi-divine beings sometimes considered as ghosts and spirits of demoniac possession.

Yama: austerities, first part of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a, also called the great vow; the don'ts, what one abstains from. Other parts are: a h i m s â: nonviolence, s a t y a: truthfulness, a s t e y a: non-stealing, b r a h m a c â r y a, celibacy and a p a r i g r a h a: non-appropriation. Nonviolent one becomes effective and without desire is one of the commitment that gives the right understanding for the meaning of life.

- According to K r i s h n a: 'Nonviolence, truthfulness, not coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, humility, non-possessiveness, belief in God, celibacy as also silence, steadiness, forgiveness and fearlessness' (see 11.19: 33.35).

Yamarâja or Yama: also called D h a r m a, the son of the sungod, Lord of Death, the Lord of retribution. The demigod awarding sinners punishment after their death. Belongs to the twelve m a h â j a n a s (see also S.B. 5.26).

Yamadûtas: the helpers of Yamarâja.

Yamunâcârya: a great spiritual teacher in the S' r î - S a m p r a d â y a, one of the most important lines of disciplic succession.

Yamunâ: the river near V r a j a where K r i s h n a played.

Yantra: meditation-object.

Yas'odâ: Lord K r i s h n a's stepmother, His stepfather was called N a n d a and His brother B a l a r â m a. His actual father and mother were V a s u d e v a and D e v a k î. They were kept in jail by K a m s a from the time he knew that K r i s h n a would be born. For that reason was the child K r i s h n a lodged with foster parents.

Yas'odâ-nandana: Y a s' o d â's child, K r i s h n a.

Yavanas: foreigners or barbarians, Greeks and later also Muslims, also called m l e c c h a s or meat-eaters (see 4.27: 23).

Yayâti: or Nâhusha, the son of N a h u s h a, called the king who because of his lust was cursed by the sage S u k r â c â r y a to age before his time (see also Y a d u and P u r u).

Yayur: see V e d a s

Yoga: science of the unification or association of consciousness; the linking up of oneself with the absolute truth or God. Yoga in the broader sense is divided in three to the unification in knowledge, to the workload and to devotion: j ñ â n a, k a r m a and b h a k t i - y o g a (see also t r i k â n d a). Narrowly defined as being mystical it refers to the practice of a s h t h â n g a y o g a, the eightfold path (K r i s h n a) of which the division of h a t h a, bodily postures for meditation in the West became popular as yoga. K r i s h n a carries the name Y o g i s' v a r a or Lord, Controller of Yoga, but also lord S' i v a is considered the y o g î of y o g î s. The science of yoga is the foundation of the Hindu belief with V y â s a d e v a as the chief defender and writer of its classical order (see also h a t h a  y o g a, k a r m a  y o g a, j ñ â n a  y o g a, b u d d h i  y o g a and k r i y â - y o g a).

- The act of yoking, joining, attaching, harnessing, putting to (of horses); any junction, union, combination, contact with; a remedy, cure; a means, expedient, device, way, manner, method;employment, use, application, performance.

- The union of the individual soul with the universal soul.

- Devotion, pious seeking after God.

- Contact or mixing with the outer world.

- Conjunction, lucky conjuncture of a star.

- K r i s h n a (B.G. 2:48): connectedness, equanimity, balance of mind.

There are six systems of philosophy or d a r s h a n a s around the yoga, developed in response to counter materialistic, jainistic and buddhistic views:

1: v a i s h e s h i k a; atheistic; metaphysical, atomic view. Propagator: K a n â d a.
2:
n y â y a; logic; method, epistomology, dialectics. Propagagor: G a u t a m a.
3:
s â n k h y a, dualistic realism; division, enumeration of elements. Propagator: K a p i l a.
4:
y o g a, the eightfold path of a s h t h â n g a; differention between the personal and the material. Propagator: P a t a ñ j a l i.
5:
k a r m a - m î m â m s â: exegesis and sacrificing from the idea of a multitude of souls and substance; culture to the hymns of the early V e d a also called purva-mîmâmsâ. Propagator: Jaimini.
6:
v e d â n t a: conclusion, exegesis, commentary at the end of. V e d â n t a - s û t r a or of B r a h m a - s û t r a as the commentary on the U p a n i s h a d s. The later V e d a also thus called uttara mîmâmsâ. Propagator: Bhâdarâyana (V y â s a).

- The p a r a m p a r â states in 10.87: 25: 'Of the six orthodox philosophies of Vedic tradition. - S â n k h y a, Y o g a, N y â y a, V a i s' e s h i k a, M î m â m s â and V e d â n t a - only the V e d â n t a of Bâdarâyana Vyâsa is free of error, and even that only as properly explained by the bona fide v a i s h n a v a â c â r y a s. Each of the six schools, nonetheless, makes some practical contribution to vedic education: atheistic S â n k h y a explains the evolution of natural elements from subtle to gross, P a t a ñ j a l i's y o g a describes the eightfold method of meditation, N y â y a sets forth the techniques of logic, V a i s' e s h i k a considers the basic metaphysical categories of reality, and M î m â m s â establishes the standard tools of scriptural interpretation.'

- Mysticism that leads to the liberation of the soul from her material encasement.

- The practice of austerities and observances, in postures controlling the breath, turning inward and concentrating so that one transcends and attains to absorption in the Supreme (see also a s h t h â n g a  y o g a en v i d h y â).

- P a t a ñ j a l i, Y o g a s û t r a number one and two: 'atha yogânus'âsanam, yogah citta vritti nirodha'; the lesson now about yoga is that the y o g a is to stop the (k a r m i c) reasoning about the livelihood, the moves one makes.

Yoga-mâyâ: The m â y â or magical power of abstract meditation. The mystical, inner potency of Lord K r i s h n a.

- What drags a person away from the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called jadamâyâ, and the mâyâ which acts on the transcendental platform is called yogamâyâ (addendum Prabhupâda canto 1o chapter 1).

- The potency by which K r i s h n a is sometimes manifest and sometimes does not manifest as opposed to m a h â - m â y â, the deluding quality of the material energy.

- The mâyâ from within as opposed to the mâyâ from without.

- The power of God in the creation of the world personified as a deity.

- Special knowledge.

- Mercy.

- Name of D u r g â.

- B h â g a v a t a m explains (addendum P r a b h u p â d a canto 1o chapter 1): 'D u r g â is not different from yogamâyâ. When one understands D u r g â properly, he is immediately liberated, for D u r g â is originally the spiritual potency, h l â d i n î - s' a k t i, by whose mercy one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead very easily. Râdhâ krishna-pranaya-vikritir hlâdinî-s´aktir asmâd (Adi 1.5). The m a h â m â y â - s' a k t i, however, is a covering of yogamâyâ, and she is therefore called the covering potency. By this covering potency, the entire material world is bewildered (yayâ sammohitam jagat). In conclusion, bewildering the conditioned souls and liberating the devotees are both functions belonging to yogamâyâ.'

Yoga-nîdra: 'the slumbering unity'.

- Designation of the meditative slumber wherein M a h â - V i s h n u lies down in the Ocean of Causes (see also K â r a n o d a k a s' â y î  V i s h n u).

- Name for the time of B r a h m â in the body of G a r b h o d a k a s' â y î  V i s h n u.

Yogarûdha: the highest phase of y o g a.

Yoga-siddhis: material perfections one obtains by practicing mystical meditation. E.g. the ability to be lighter than air or smaller than an atom (see further s i d d h i).

Yoga-sûtra: analytic scripture by P a t a ñ j a l i on the ins and outs of the yoga philosophy, concentrating on the a s h t h â n g a yoga-system: the eightfold y o g a.

Yogendra: a master or adept in the y o g a.

- The nava-yogendras: the nine sagacious sons of father R i s h a b h a and mother Yayantî (5.4; 8) who dilated before king N i m i on the science of devotional service (see 11.2-5).

Yogî: someone who practices y o g a.

- Transcendentalist of the first, the second or the third order respectively a devotee or b h a k t a, a y o g î and a j n â n î.

- Transcendentalist of the second plan, adept in a s h t h â n g a - y o g a or one of the allied y o g a s.

Yogîs'vara: 'the controller of yoga' name for K r i s h n a as the Lord of Y o g a.

- Designation for great personalities in y o g a (see also î s' v a r a).

Yojana: vedic measure of length, equaling about thirteen kilometers. In other contexts to a measure of length on a cosmic scale also to consider in the order of light-years and more on earth as distances of about 4-14 km.

- Standard unit for a great distance.

Yoni: female sexual organ, womb, uterus, vulva, vagina; in stone represented together in union with a l i n g a worshiped in the culture of S' i v a as the symbol of the union of cosmic energy.

Yoshita: a woman, a wife also called strî ('bearer of children'). Debated in the B h â g a v a t a m for their positive qualities as well as their enticing capacity. The warning for the wise is just for the peace of their mind not to initiate in the contact with women and also not with men interested in sex, not so much to avoid it. Not to have verse 11.14: 29 misinterpreted to the S a n s k r i t word s a n g a m that one in self-realization would have to shun the association with women in stead of the being intimate with them, was by S v a m î  P r a b h u p â d a stressed, contrary to the tradition in India, that women and men can very well associate both living within one temple or household within the culture of K r i s h n a - c o n s c i o u s n e s s. This was one of his great feats of reform to a traditionally cramped temple tradition negative about living together with women (see also 1.4: 25; 5.5: 2; 5.13: 16; 6.9: 9, 7.12: 9, 9.14: 36, 9.19:17,10.10: 8, 10.51: 51; 10.60: 44,45,48; 11: 26: 22-24).

Yudhisthhira: the eldest of the P â n d a v a-brothers who after the great war of M a h â b h â r a t a ascended the throne as the victor.

Yukta-vairâgya: mature form of renunciation in which one engages everything in the service of the Lord (see also p h a l g u  v a i r â g y a).

Yuga: era varying from 1-4 x 1200 x 360 solar years (see m a h â y u g a) in which one 'year of the gods' is 360 earthly years.

- One distinguishes S a t y a (or K r i t a-y u g a), T r e t a, D v â p a r a and K a l i y u g a to which the last mentioned present yuga is the shortest commencing with K r i s h n a's departure (see also P a r î k c h i t).

- Eras in the existence of the universe, that cycle over and over in rounds of four in which religion and the good qualities of men gradually decline.

- The Lord appears differently in the different yugas: see 11.5: 20-42, 11.17: 10-12, 3.11: 18-24 and 12.2.

Yuga-avatâras: a v a t â r a s who in four different y u g a s (at their junctures) appear to propound the appropriate method of self-realization for the era in question: R â m a (end of T r e t â), K r i s h n a (end of D v â p a r a), K a l k i (end of K a l i).

- Purport CC madhya 20,246: 'The four yuga-avatâras are:

(1) sukla (white) in s a t y a - y u g a (S.B.. 11.5.21),
(2) rakta (red) in
T r e t â - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.24),
(3) âyâma (dark blue) in
D v â p a r a - y u g a
(S.B.
11.5.27) and
(4) generally krishna (black) but in special cases pîta (yellow) as C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u in
K a l i - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.32 and 10.8.13)'.

 

 

 

 

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