Uccaihs'ravâ: a horse, born from the nectar originating from the churning of the ocean, and is considered a representative of K r i s h n a (see 8.8: 3 and 11.16: 18).

Udâna-vâyu: the air in the body going upward and controlled by the breathing technique of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a (see v â y u).

Uddhava: (sacrificial fire, a festival, holiday; joy, pleasure), the name of K r i s h n a's best friend and cousin. K r i s h n a talks extensively to him at the end of His earthly presence in Canto 11. In the tenth Canto chapters 46 & 47 he mediates between K r i s h n a and the g o p i s.

- S'rî Hari-vams'a states that Uddhava is the son of V a s u d e v a's brother Devabhâga. Thus he is Lord K r i s h n a's cousin-brother.

- K r i s h n a calls him a disciple of B r i h a s p a t i (11.23: 2).

Uddhava Gîtâ: the chapters seven to twenty-nine of the eleventh Canto that make up an alternative G î t â wherein K r i s h n a explains how to live His love in His absence.

Udgâtâ: the priest singing the S â m a - v e d a hymns (see also r i t v i k).

Ugra-karma: bad, harmful action (see also k a r m a).

Ugrasena: also called Âhuka, 'the one of sacrifice'. The old king of the Y a d u s, imprisoned by his own son K a m s a and freed by K r i s h n a. Ugrasena's daughters Kamsâ, Kamsavatî, Kankâ, S'ûrabhû and Râshthrapâlikâ were the wives of the younger brothers of V a s u d e v a, the father of K r i s h n a (9.24: 21-23, see also S â t v a t a s).

Umâ: (splendor, light; fame, reputation; quiet, tranquility; night). Goddess, one of the eleven wives of S' i v a (see 3.12: 13) also called P â r v a t î and D u r g â; the name is said to be derived from umâ!, "O don't", the exclamation addressed to P â r v a t î by her mother not to practice austerities.

- Name of several women.

Universe: (j a g a t);

1) The entire material creation, consisting of countless of universes.

2) Galaxy.

3) A closed sphere with seven material covers, layers or sheaths, in which one finds fourteen planetary systems, whom each consist of countless planets (see also d v î p a and l o k a).

4) The Living Being.

Upa-: prefix for verbs and nouns expressing: to go near, undergo, approaching; by the side of, with, together with, under, down; direction towards, nearness, or in other words: a contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, with the idea of subordination and inferiority, like the finger next to the little finger would be 'upa' (see also u p a p u r â n a and u p a d e v a).

Upâdâna: the material cause, the ingredients; the Lord is the exhibitor of all material causes (6.9: 42).

Upâdânakârana: (logic of) the material cause (see also n i m i t t a).

Upadeva: an inferior or secondary deity like a Y a k s h a, G a n d h a r v a, A p s a r a, V i d y â d h a r a and such.

Upa-dharma: moralizing without love for the truth relating to K r i s h n a (s a t h y a - d h a r m a). Subreligious activity without real servitude.

- The d h a r m a concocted into something else (see 7.15: 12-14).

Upahanyâm: the peace broken (destroyed) by unwanted people.

Upanishads: the underlying mystery, the secret doctrine. Philosophical part of the V e d a s, a hundred-eight in number (see also v e d a) meant to comprehend the personal nature of the Absolute Truth. In the B h â g a v a t a m they are summarized in 10.87.

Upa-purâna, secondary or minor, a smaller collection of classical stories. Also counted in eighteen as listed in the Kûrma-purâna: 1. Sânatkumâra, 2. Nârasimha (fr. Nrisimha) 3. Bhâmda, 4. S'iva-dharma, 5. Daurvâsasa, 6. Nâradîya, 7. Kâpila, 8. Vâmana, 9. Aus'anasa, 10. Brahmânda, 11. Vâruna, 12. Kâlikâ-purâna, 13. Mâhes'vara, 14. Sâmba, 15. Saura, 16. Pârâs'ara, 17. Mârîca, 18. Bhârgava (see P u r â n a).

Upâsana: (serving, service, attendance, waiting upon, respect; homage, adoration, worship) Worship.

- With R â m â n u j a, consisting of five parts, viz.

Abhigamana or approach,
Upâdâna or preparation of offering,
Ijyâ or oblation,
Svâdhyâya or recitation,
Yoga or devotion.

Upâsana-kânda: the part of the V e d a s dealing with devotional service (see also under V e d a s).

Upavedas: 'secondary Vedas.' A class of texts on sacred sciences, composed by r i s h i s over the course of time to amplify and apply the vedic knowledge. The four prominent upavedas (each encompassing numerous texts) are:

1 Arthaveda (statecraft),
2 Âyurveda (health),
3 Dhanurveda (military science) and
4 Gandharvaveda (music and the arts).

Also sometimes classed as upavedas are the:

5 Sthapatyaveda (on architecture) and the
6 Kâma s'astras (texts on erotic love). (
source: Hindu-dictionary).

Upendra: Another name of Lord V â m a n a the son of A d i t i and K a s ' y a p a (8.18).

-Lit.: 'The younger brother of Lord I n d r a.'

- The name of an expansion of the Lord: 'Two sons took birth from the womb of Marutvatî: Marutvân and Jayanta. Jayanta, who is an expansion of Lord Vâsudeva, is known as Upendra' (S.B. 6.6: 8).

Uragas: 'breast-going', the 'semi-divine snakes or serpents', a term used for people of excell.

Ûrdhva-retah: someone whose seed 'streams upwards', internal drive by sexual abstinence. With the K u m â r a s (the four sons of B r a h m â who kept the child-form) leading to four principles of knowledge: s a n k h y a (analysis), t a p a s (penance), v a i r a g h y a (detachment) and y o g a (see 11.17: 25).

Urugâya ('sung by many'): the Lord as the carrier of the conchshell.

Urukrama: (great order, course, arrangement) the Lord with the long strides, V â m a n a d e v a, also called the 'great adventurer' or the performer of transcendental feats (see also U p e n d r a).

Urvas'î: heavenly society girl that married King P u r û r a v â; she was cursed by M i t r a en V a r u n a who in her presence deposited their seed in a clay pot and from that seed were born the sages  g a s t y a and V a s i s h t h h a. (6.18: 6) Her six sons with P u r û r a v â were:  y u, S'rutâyu, Satyâyu, Raya, Vijaya en Jaya (9.15:1).

Us'anâ: another name of S' u k r â c a r y a or Kavi Bhârgava, the spiritual master of the a s u r a s. K r i s h n a calls Himself as such the One among the great thinkers (B.G. 10: 37).

- He is also called R â m a.

Uttama: (supreme, utter) devotion on the highest level: to recognize K r i s h n a in each and all (see 11.2: 45 and also m a h â - b h â g a v a t a).

Uttamas'loka: name of the Lord Praised in the Verses.

Uttânapâda: the son of S v â y a m b h u v a  M a n u and the father of D h r u v a  M a h â r â j a.

Uttarâ: mother of P a r î k c h i t and wife of Abhimanyu, the son born from the marriage between S u b h a d r â, K r i s h n a's sister, and A r j u n a. In 1.8: 9 she requested K r i s h n a to protect her and her unborn child, P a r î k c h i t , from the scorching rays of the b r a h m â s t r a weapon launched by A s' v a t t h â m â (see also S.B. 1.7 & 8).  

Uttara-mimâmsa: the v e d â n t i c philosophy, see also m i m â m s a and d a r s h a n a.

Ûshâ: 'dawn', daughter of B â n a who met A n i r u d d h a in a dream and had Him brought to her palace after which He then was arrested (see 10.62).



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