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R

 

Râdhâ: see R â d h â r â n î

Râdhârânî, S'rîmate: girlfriend of the young K r i s h n a, cowgirl from V r i n d â v a n a. Stands for the pure love of and for K r i s h n a. The cause of the madness of Lord C a i t a n y a who completely identified Himself with her love for Him (see G o p î and different bhajans about her).

- Eternal companion of K r i s h n a, personal manifestation of His inner hlâdinî potency of spiritual happiness. She embodies the perfect love and devotion unto the Lord.

- The Sanskrit word râdhana means: propitiating, conciliating; pleasure, satisfaction, obtaining, acquisition; the means or instrument of accomplishing anything, worship; and the word ârâdha means gratification, paying homage.

- S'rî Hayes'var das, a dutch translator of P r a b h u p â d a's works, says in his comments: The word "served" in all its intensity is the translation for ârâdhika in 10.30.28, which for the sandhi (the fluent connection at the end of one word with the beginning of a next one) is abbreviated to râdhika. With this word is indirectly the holy name of Râdhikâ revealed of K r i s h n a's eternal companion S' r î  R â d h â: for the rest is the name of Râdhikâ absent in the Bhâgavata Purâna.

Râga: attachment, preference, counterpart of aversion (d v e s h a). A k l e s' a.

- A musical mood, note, harmony, melody. There are six main râgas to excite some affection.

- Coloring, dying.

- Color, hue, tint.

- Redness, inflammation.

- Love, affection, sympathy for.

- Vehement desire, interest joy, delight in.

- Seasoning, condiment.

- Second daughter of Angiras.

- Sun or Moon.

- A prince or King.

Râgânuga-bhakti: devotion of the advanced who took up spontaneous love for K r i s h n a; got attached to Him that way. Also called b h a j a n a (as opposed to arcanâ-bhakti temple-devotion with m u r t i s; see further v a i d h i - b h a k t i and s â d h a n a - b h a k t i). Form of p a r â - b h a k t i, in contrast with v i d d h a - b h a k t i.

Râjasûya-yajña: ('the king of sacrifices-ceremony') vedic ritual to the assuming of the throne by a vedic sovereign meant to settle his rule over other rulers (see 10:72).

Râkshasas: a certain kind of demons, the wild men, also called a s u r as: a concept with a broader meaning indicating everyone not complying with the rules who are bent on enjoyment only. Next to this are also the demons indicated who publicly oppose religious principles and the malicious who fight against K r i s h n a.

- Man-eaters.

Râma ('source of joy') the Highest Enjoyer of eternal Bliss.

- Incarnation of K r i s h n a (V i s h n u - t a t t v a), also called Râmacandra: the V i s h n u - a v a t â r a who together with H a n u m â n and his monkey-hordes and His eternal companion brother L a k s h m â n a (see S a n k a r s h a n, B a l a r â m a and N i t y â n a n d a) defeated the demon R â v a n a, to free S î t â, His wife who was abducted by the demon (see 9:10 & 11).

- Another name of B a l â r a m a.

- Another name for U s' a n â.

- Another name of P a r a s' u r â m a.

Râma-râjya: perfect v e d i c monarchy to the example of the rule of king R a m â c a n d r a, the a v a t â r a of K r i s h n a as the ideal sovereign.

Râsa-lîlâ: the so called r â s a-dance (râsa means game or sport or dance). Famous dance of K r i s h n a with the g o p î s at night outside of V r a j a (the vicinity where He grew up). Erotically charged. Reason of the great renown of the B h â g a v a t a m, especially chapter 33 of the tenth canto, the summum bonum, in India.

Râvana: a mighty demon called ten-head, who wanted to build a staircase to heaven and pave the streets with gold, but by K r i s h n a in His R â m a - incarnation was killed after he had abducted S î t â (see also R a m â y a n a and H a n u m â n and 9: 10).

Raghu: ancestor of R â m a c a n d r a. His dynasty was also called the raghu-dynasty.

Raghavas: decendants of King R a g h u, especially R â m a and L a k s h m â n a.

Rajas, Rajo-guna: the mode of passion (see g u n a s).

Rajo-guna: the mode of passion in material nature (see also: g u n a s, B r a h m â).

Ramâ: good luck, fortune, splendour, opulence, another name for L a k s h m î, the goddess of fortune.

Ramâyana: ('the path of R â m a') the epic written by V â l m î k i on the a v a t â r a  S' r î  R â m a who in His youth was banned to the forest with S î t â, His wife, takes it up against R â v a n a, a demoniac ruler and thus obtained His kingdom (see links).

Rantideva: a king famous for attaining brahmâloka as he, himself emaciated, gave away to guests and even dogs his last bit of food after a long fast (9.11).

Rasa (literal: taste, state of love, relation, mood, emotion, mellow): ecstatic emotional relation with K r i s h n a; relation of the Lord with the living beings (see also v i s h a y a):

seven indirect (by S' r î l a R û p a G o s v â m î in the B h a k t i R a s â m r i t a S i n d h u 2.5.115 -116):

anger (r a u d r a),
wonder (
a d b h u t a),
ghastliness (
b i b h a t s a),
dread (
b h a y â n a k a),
humor (
h â s y a),
chivalry (
v î r a) en
compassion (
d a y â)

and five direct main rasa's:

the neutral (s a n t a),
the servant-Master-relation (dâsya),
friendship (
s â k h y a),
the parent-child relation (
v â t s a l y a)
the amorous relation (
s r i n g â r a).

Marital (mâdhurya) is distinguished s r i n g â r a in:

- svakhya, mature and
- parakhya, youthful. Indirect means distorted by temporality. Direct means experienced to the full in the liberated state.

- Also mentioned in the B h â g a v a t a m Canto 10 in verse 17 of chapter 43 where V y â s a describes the diffent emotional states of the audience at the wrestling arena of K a m s a as K r i s h n a steps forward to wrestle for justice, explained by S' r î l a  S ' r î d h a r a  S v â m î in quoting the verse:

raudro'dbhutas'ca s'ringâro
hâsyam vîro dayâ tathâ
bhayânakas'ca bîbhatsah
s'ântah sa-prema-bhaktikah

"(There are ten different moods:) fury (perceived by the wrestlers), wonder (by the men), conjugal attraction (the women), laughter (the cowherds), chivalry (the kings), mercy (His parents), terror (K a m s a), loathing (the unintelligent), peaceful neutrality (the y o g î s) and loving devotion (the V r i s h n i s)."

- Also in five described in the B h â g a v a t a m 7.1: 30-32 as: (30) Of in lust, hatred, fear, affection and devotion having a mind absorbed in the Supreme have many given up the sin and by that attained the path of liberation. (31) The g o p î s with their lusty desires, K a m s a out of fear, S' i s' u p â l a and others out of hatred, many Kings out of kinship, K r i s h n a 's family out of affection and you and us through b h a k t i did so o King. (32) Anyone but V e n a would adopt one of these five in regard to the Original Person and therefore should one by any means fix one's mind on K r i s h n a.

- Monier Williams dictionary: (...) the taste or character of a work, the feeling or sentiment prevailing in it (from 8 to 10 Rasas are generally enumerated, viz. {s'ringâra}, love; {vîra}, heroism; {bîbhatsa}, disgust; {raudra}, anger or fury; {hâsya}, mirth; {bhayânaka}, terror; {karuNa}, pity; {adbhuta}, wonder; {s'anta}, tranquillity or contentment; {vâtsalya}, paternal fondness; the last or last two are sometimes omitted.

- S' r î l a B h a k t i s i d d h â n t a S a r a s v a t î T h h â k u r quotes the following Vedic statement: raso vai sah rasam hy evâyam labdhvânandî bhavati. "He Himself is rasa, the taste or mellow of a particular relationship. And certainly one who achieves this rasa becomes ânandî, filled with bliss." (Taittirîya Upanishad 2.7.1)

- S' r î l a B h a k t i s i d d h â n t a S a r a s v a t î quotes a further verse to explain the word rasa:

vyatîtya bhâvanâ-vartma
yas'camatkâra-bhâra-bhûh
hridi sattvojjvale bâdham
svadate sa raso matah

"That which is beyond imagination, heavy with wonder and relished in the heart shining with goodness - such is known as rasa."

- The sap or juice of plants, juice of fruit, any liquid or fluid, the best or finest or prime part of anything, essence, marrow, elixir, soup, serum, semen.

Ratha-yâtrâ: festival of the chariot in which K r i s h n a as Lord J a g g a n â t h a is taken around the city placed on a cart, pulled by the devotees.

Raudra: anger as a r a s a (indirect).

Recaka: the phase of breathing in which one exhales (see p r â n â y a m a, p û r a k a, k u m b h a k a)

Regulative principles (see also v i d h i): with this term are indicated the injunctions that are to be followed strictly by anyone who wants to advance spiritually. They are known in categories of values according the different aspects of spiritual life, but the most important, followed naturally by every civilized person, and thus for certain also by the person of self-realization, are the following four:

1) No meat, fish or eggs for food but to be compassionate with respect for all living beings (see d a y â and a h i m s a);

2) No intake of any intoxicant, stimulating or sedating (drugs, alcohol or even coffee, tea and chocolate, tobacco etc.), but have respect for the natural order and the Absolute Truth of His creation (see s a t h y a, k â l a and p u r u s h a);

3) Not to engage in any form of illicit sexuality, but to share faithfully and be pure of spirit and body (see p r e m a, d â n a and s a u c a, no sex for the sake of sex outside of the marriage, and within the marriage only for the purpose of begetting children).

4) Not to engage in any form of gambling, not eat more or acquire more than is needed, but to be austere, not to go beyond necessity and to know where and when to stop (see t a p a s and b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a).

Ribhus (ribhu means: clever, skilful, inventive, prudent) an artist, one who works in iron, a smith, builder of carriages.

- Name of three semi-divine beings Ribhu, Vâja and Vibhvan, the name of the first being applied to all of them; thought by some to represent the three seasons of the year, and celebrated for their skill as artists; they are supposed to dwell in the solar sphere, and are the artists who formed the horses of I n d r a, the carriage of the A s'v i n s, and the miraculous cow of B r i h a s p a t i; they made their parents young, and performed other wonderful works. They appear generally as accompanying I n d r a.

Rishabha: 'the best', a v a t â r a Lord Rishabhadeva was an example as a king but was as an a v a d h û t a misinterpreted (see m â y â v â d a and 5.4-5). He had a hundred sons of whom the n a v a - y o g e n d r a s were the ones best known.

- Of them was indeed the eldest, B h a r a t a, a great practitioner of yoga; he had the best qualities and it was he of whom this land was called B h â r a t a - v a r s h a by the people (5.4: 9).

- As the son of King N â b h i (the pivot) He was born as Rishabha (the best one) from Sudevi to go for the certainty of being equibalanced in the matter of y o g a (2.7: 10).

- Under the tenth M a n u will from Âyusmân from the womb of Ambudhârâ, Rishabhadeva, a partial incarnation of the Supreme Lord, take birth and of him will Adbhuta enjoy all opulence of the three worlds (8.13: 20).

Rishi (rshi): ('seer') sage, vedic scholar, a saint (see also m u n i, v i p r a, s â d h u, m a h â r i s h i).

- From B r a h m â were born the sons M a r î c i, A t r i, A n g i r â, P u l a s t y a, P u l a h a, K r a t u, B h r i g u, V a s i s h t h h a, D a k s h a and the tenth son, N â r a d a (3.12: 22). Not counting D a k s h a, N â r a d a and B h r i g u one speaks also sometimes about the seven sages, who for each m a n v a n t a r a have different names (see also 8.13).

- K a s' y a p a, A t r i, V a s i s h t h h a, V i s' v â m i t r a, G a u t a m a, J a m a d a g n i and B h a r a d v â j a are the names of the seven sages under the present M a n u V a i v a s v a t a also known as S' r a d d a d e v a (8.13: 5).

Rita: (proper, right, fit, apt, suitable, able, brave, honest; settled order, law, rule; divine law, faith, divine truth) term used in contrast with anrita to indicate the true and the false, the real and the unreal (see also s a t - a s a t, 8.7: 25, 11.28).

- Rita is the living on leftovers one says (7.11: 18).

- A decendant of M i t h i l a: Vijaya's son was named Rita (9.13: 25).

- Câkshusha Manu the sixth M a n u gave free from passion via his queen Nadvalâ the world the son, Rita, one out of twelve sons (4.13: 15-16).

Ritvik: the state of being a ritvij or priest; there are four of them:

- the hotâ priest (the one offering oblations and singing the R i g V e d a verses),

- the brahma priest (supervising the proceedings),

- the adhvaryu priest (who chant the y a y u r - m a n t r a s and prepares the sacrifice by arranging the sacrificial ground, the altar, etc.)

- and the udgâtâ priest (singing the S â m a - v e d a hymns) (see 9.11: 2).

- The three forms of sacrifice are constituted by the three V e d a s which provide for the verses used by the offerings of the hotâ, the advaryu and the udgâtâ priest.

Rohinî: the mother of B a l a r â m a, K r i s h n a's elder brother. Another wife of V a s u d e v a.

- The name of a wife of K r i s h n a, who supposedly was the one heading the 16.000 queens held by B h a u m â s u r a.

Romaharshana: a pupil of V y â s a d e v a, a p r a t i l o m a, leading the great sacrifice of the sages in the N a i m i s h a forest, where B a l a r â m a, being on a pilgrimage with K u r u k s h e t r a at hand, beated him 'to death' with a blade of grass because he impudently did not stand up on His arrival. His son S û t a d e v a G o s v â m î took over the vedic responsibility for the p u r â n a (see 10: 78).

Rûpa: form, appearance (see also v i g r a h a, see e.g. 12.11: 14-15).

Rûpa Gosvâmî: author of the B h a k t i - r a s â m r i t a - s i n d h u. Translated and revised by S w a m i  P r a b h u p â d a as the 'Nectar of Devotion'.

- One of the so-called six g o s v â m î s of V r i n d â v a n a; the most important followers of Lord C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u. They wrote his teachings down and are recognized as intimate pupils and great sages (see: Nâma-sankîrtana, Sadgosvâmî Âshthaka, and Je Anilo).

Rudra: the dreadful one; another name for S' î v a, or for his eleven inferior expansions who rose from his male half as the Rudras.

- In the Vâyu-purâna are the Rudras named: Ajaikapad, Ahir-budhnya, Hara, Nirrita, Îs'vara, Bhuvana, Añgâraka, Ardha-ketu, Mrityu, Sarp and Kapâlin.

Rukmî (from rukma: 'golden, what is bright and brilliant'): son of Bhîshmaka and the brother of Rukminî, an ally of J a r â s a n d h a and S' i s'u p â l a conspiring against K r i s h n a who was defeated by K r i s h n a but not killed (see 10.54).

Rukminî: the daughter of the king of Vidarbha or Bhîshmaka: R u k m i n î, the first wife of K r i s h n a (see also V a i d a r b h î). She was abducted just before she had to marry to S' i s' u p â l a.

 

 

 

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