Mâdhava: of Madhu (sweetness, the blooming) name for K r i s h n a as the blooming hero, the sweet Lord, of the g o p i s; or to Mâ, the goddess of Fortune, as the spouse of the Goddess of Fortune.

- S' r î l a S a n â t a n a G o s v â m î has explained the various meanings of the word mâdhava as follows: 'Mâdhava normally indicates Krishna to be "the Lord, who is the consort of the goddess of fortune, Lakshmî." This name also implies that Lord Krishna descended in the dynasty of Madhu. Since the spring season is also known as Mâdhava, it is understood that as soon as Lord Krishna entered the Vrindâvana forest, it automatically exhibited all the opulences of spring, becoming filled with flowers, breezes and a celestial atmosphere. Another reason Lord Krishna is known as Mâdhava is that He enjoys His pastimes in madhu, the taste of conjugal love.' (from the purport to 10.15: 2)

Mâdrî: the co-wife (with K u n t î) of King P â n d u and mother of N a k u l a and S a h a d e v a.

Mândhâtâ: Yuvanâs'va's son Mândhâtâ ruled by the power of the Infallible One the surface of the earth with its seven continents as its one and only master. He also in full awareness of the true self worshiped Y a j ñ a, the Lord of Sacrifices, the God and Supersoul of everyone above the sensual, in great ritualistic performances. From where the sun rises above the horizon to everywhere speaks one of the field of action of the son of Yuvanâs'va, Mândhâtâ (9.6: 33-37).

Mârishâ: The lotus-eyed daughter sage K a n d u got from the heavenly girl named P r a m l o c â. She was left to the (divinity of the) trees to care for her, (4.30: 13) and later married by the trees to the P r a c e t a s to pacify them (4.30: 48). From her D a k s h a took birth again after his demise in offense with Lord S' i v a (6.4: 15).

Mârkandeya Rishi: the son of Mrikandu and foremost descendant of B h r i g u who till the end of the k a l p a as the only soul remaining as a sage meditates in the Himalayas and became known as the eternal celibate yielding to no temptation of K â m a d e v a (Cupid) - sent by I n d r a - whatsoever. He receives from V i s h n u the vision of His bewildering potency and finally the vision of the Lord Himself with His foot in His mouth lying on a banana leaf. He was visited by N a r a - N â r â y a n a and ultimately glorified by lord S' i v a. Discussed in 12.8-10.

Mârkandeya Purâna: see P u r â n a s.

Mâsa: month. The vedic months, their names, their rulers and their correspondence to the gregorian calendar are described in 12.11: 33-45. The months of end April to the end of September know 31 days in a row as a consequence of the indian nirayana year which leaps the month to the hour-angle relative to the stars and not regularly every second month the way the old roman calendar did originally and the gregorian calendar still does more or less.

Mâtsarya: jealousy, an a n a r t h a.

Mâyâ: (not-this; what is not): that what is not, the deluding quality of the material is, also called m a h â - m â y â (see also y o g a - m â y â); separateness from K r i s h n a.)

- Because of her does, by identifying itself with the deluding material energy (a h a m k â r a), the individual soul think itself the lord and supreme enjoyer over the creation; that is to say: with the body (the senses), the mind and the material intelligence, with the consequence of losing the eternal bond (s v a r û p a) with the Lord, the thus conditioned soul indulges in the pursuit of worldly pleasure and gets because of this more and more entangled in the cycle of birth and death (see s a m s â r a).

- Bewilderment; the forgetfulness about one's relation with K r i s h n a.

Mâyâvâda: the doctrine affirming the world to be illusion. Related to the doctrine of v e d â n t a and b h u d d h i s m.

1) The philosophical school to which the m â y â v â d î s belong, as opposed to the b h â g a v a t a s.

2) Name of the philosophy the m â y â v â d î s adhere to.

Mâyâvâdi: With this name are all adherents indicated of the two main philosophies known as impersonalism, or s'ankarism (preaching oneness of the soul with Brahman), and the nihilism (also known as the philosophy of voidism), that is related to Buddhism (which denies the existence of God).

- In the strict sense of the term not to confuse with the esoterical philosophers who express themselves indirectly and who are affirmed by Krishna as being of His love (see also 11.21: 35).

- But mainly is this title used for those to whom the Absolute Truth is without a form, personality, intelligence, senses etc., and who therefore reject the existence of God as the Supreme Personality, or who think that the form and activities of the Supreme Lord would be subject to the influence of m â y â, the deluding material energy (the term mâyâvâdî can also be used as an adjective (singular) meaning 'typical for mâyâvâdîs'.)

- In the broader sense, retorically used as a general negative: (one speaking of illusion) Nonofficial spiritual teachers or non-â c â r y a s who do not instruct by example, or who are not capable of giving one a better stability in transcendence. Narrowly defined: adherents of impersonalism (oneness, s'ankarism) and nihilism (voidism, denial of god and soul).

- Spiritual teachers outside a by the Lord enforced disciplic succession.

- Therapists and other mental healthcare people who deny K r i s h n a, but despite of that want to give spiritual directions.

- False teachers and preachers, prophets, cheaters and/or charlatans who allure people with nice discourses, but estrange them from God and their fellow man by some or another cult.

- Someone following the misery of vedic heresy which found its beginning with king Arhat who misinterpreted the example of R i s h a b a d e v a after His disappearance (see 5.6: 9).

- Follower of b u d d h i s m.

Mada: false pride, arrogance (see a n a r t h a).

- Hilarity, rapture, excitement, inspiration, intoxication; ardent passion for; sexual desire or enjoyment, wantonness, lust, ruttishness, rut, pride, arrogance, presumption, conceit of or about; intoxication or insanity personified.

- Any exhilarating or intoxicating drink, spirituous liquor, wine, Soma; honey; the fluid or juice that exudes from a rutting elephant; semen; musk.

- Any beautiful object.

- A river.

- Name of the 7th astrological mansion.

- Any agricultural implement (as a plough).

Madana: Cupid, the demigod giving lusty desires to living beings.

Madana-Mohana: name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He who even captivates Cupid.

Madhu: (sweet, delicious, pleasant, charming) K r i s h n a is sometimes described as the Lord of, or the enemy of Madhu or Madhusûdana with Madhu being a demon defeated by Him of which the story is not found in the Bhâgavatam but in the R a m â y a n a. He was a brother of Kaitabha and father of Lavana. As Mâdhava He is then the Sweet Lord descended.

- Madhu as being the V r i s h n i-descendant of Devakshatra the son of Devarâta. From Madhu there was Kuruvas'a who begot Anu (see 9.24: 5).

- A descendant of P r i y a v r a t a: from Utkalâ Marîci's wife Saraghâ there was a child named Madhu and from Madhu his wife Sumanâ came a son Vîravrata (5.15: 14-15).

- Name of the first month of the Hindu-calendar (Caitra, March-April).

- The season of spring.

Madhusûdana: (killer of Madhu) name of K r i s h n a as the one who kills the demons.

Madhvâcârya: a thirteenth-century V a i s h n a v a spiritual master who preached the theistic philosophy of pure dualism.

Madhya: kind of world or planet (see l o k a).

Madhyama: (middle) second rank devotion; association with K r i s h n a and His devotees without recognizing His omnipresence (see a d h i k â r i, 11.2: 46).

Maha: literally: great. See M a h â -p r a b h u. Also used for the external material potency of Y o g a m â y â.

Mahâbhâgavata: pure devotee, traveling preachers v a i s h n a v a; p a r a m p a r â - s a n n y â s î (see also u t t a m a and b h â g a v a t a).

Mahâbhârata: epic relating the history of B h a r a t a v a r s h a, the empire of India that controlled the world five thousand years ago. It deals with the struggle of the nobles of the v e d i c culture at the time of K r i s h n a from which is taken the G î t â (see V y â s a d e v a).

Mahâ-bhâva: the highest stage of love for God.

Mahâbhûta: the five physical, gross e l e m e n t s: earth, water, fire, air and ether or sky.

Mahâdeva: 'great god', see S' i v a.

Mahâjanas: they represent the highest authorities in the spiritual field. The 'fathers of the religion', all great devotees, numbering twelve: B r a h m â, S' i v a, M a n u, K a p i l a, N â r a d a  M u n i, K u m â r a, P r a h l â d a, B h î s h m a, S' u k a d e v a  G o s v â m î, Y a m a r â j a, J a n a k a and B a l i  M a h â r â j a.

Mahâ-laksmî: see L a k s h m î.

Mahâmantra: ('the great m a n t r a'), the song of redemption, H a r e K r i s h n a H a r e K r i s h n a, K r i s h n a K r i s h n a, H a r e H a r e H a r e R â m a H a r e R â m a, R â m a R â m a H a r e H a r e. called M a h â because of the fact that it can be as well as aloud as softly, alone as well as together be sung or chanted. Broadcasted by C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u as the remedy to liberate the material man in K a l i- y u g a from the deluding power of matter and to awaken God and the ecstasy of a spiritual life (see also m a n t r a, g â y a t r î).

Mahâmâyâ: 'the great illusion'. The bewildering potency of the material world (see also y o g a m â y â).

Mahâprabhu: great master, name of Lord C a i t a n y a.

Mahâprasâda: food that is offered to the M û r t i s.

Mahâpurusha: the great person, the original person, the Supreme Person (see also v i r â t h p u r u s h a)

Mahârâja: great king.

- Honorary title for an â c â r y a.

Mahâratha: invincible, never defeated warrior. Warrior all by himself able to withstand, so one says, thousands of enemies at the same time.

Mahâr(i)shi: a great Rishi or seer, any great sage or saint.

- Ten Mahârishis that sprouted with M a n u S v â y a m b h u v a from B r a h m â: M a r î c i, A t r i, A n g i r â, P u l a s t y a, P u l a h a, K r a t u, P r a c e t a s, V a s i s h t h h a, B h r i g u, N â r a d a (see 3.12: 21-22); also called the ten P r a j â p a t i s; sometimes the number is restricted to seven (see 8.1 & 8.13), and sometimes are D a k s h a, Dharma, Gautama, Kanva, V â l m î k i, V y â s a, M a n u and Vibhândhaka added (see e.g. 4.29: 42-44).

- Name of lord S' i v a.

Maharloka: the higher world, the greater world of the vedic verses, the world of the seers to which one attains after prolonged penances as a v â n a p r a s t h a, see l o k a.

- The abode of those saints who survive a destruction of the world (M.W.)

Mahat-tattva: ('the great principle, the principle of cosmic intelligence') the complete of material nature in her original undifferentiated form (see t a t t v a, b r a h m a n).

- As the great principle we have the false ego, the three modes, the five elements, the individual way and the eleven senses (the five senses of action and perception, including the mind) as the material body of the living entity that sprouted from the egg that is the universe (3.32: 29).

- Also called m a h â - b r a h m a n: the complete of the twenty-four e l e m e n t s of material nature.

- The Intelllect. The cosmic intelligence also called mahat.

- The second of the so called sankhya-tattvas.

- Name of one of D u r g a's servants.

Mahâtmâ: (literally: great soul): he who is perfectly convinced that K r i s h n a is all and is therefore surrendered to Him fully absorbed in devotional service to the Lord (see also â t m â).

Mahâ-Vishnu: another name for K â r a n o d a k a s' â y î  V i s h n u.

Mahâ-yajñas: the five great sacrifices, are defined as follows: pâthho homas'câtithînâm saparyâ tarpanam balih - "reciting the V e d a s, offering oblations into the sacrificial fire, waiting on guests, making offerings to the forefathers, and offering (a share of one's food) to living entities in general."

- P r a b h u p â d a: "This y a j ñ a is also known as pañca-sûnâ. Knowingly or unknowingly, everyone, specifically the householder, is committing five kinds of sinful activities. When we receive water from a water pitcher, we kill many germs that are in it. Similarly, when we use a grinding machine or take foodstuffs, we kill many germs. When sweeping the floor or igniting a fire, we kill many germs. When we walk on the street we kill many ants and other insects. Consciously or unconsciously, in all our different activities we are killing. Therefore it is incumbent upon every householder to perform the pañca-sûnâ sacrifice to rid himself of the reactions to such sinful activities."

Mahâyuga: period of four y u g a s, named S a t y a, T r e t â, D v â p a r a, K a l i, together covering 4.32 million years taking 1/1000 day of B r a h m â. Individual duration: 1200 x 360 years to multiply with a factor of respectively 4, 3, 2 en 1. To this constitute 360 earthly years one year of the gods.

Mahes'vara: name of S' i v a meaning the great lord.

Maithunya âgâra: the material world as a prison of sexuality; one is locked up in ones lusts.

Maireya: the intoxicating drink that the Y a d u s, the family clan of K r i s h n a, drank just before their self-destruction at P r a b h â s a (see 11.30: 12, 6.1: 58-60 and v â r u n î).

Maitreya Muni: the great sage who in the S' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m in Canto three and four is described as the one imparting fundamental vedic truths to V i d u r a.

Makara-dhvaja: a name for the demigod C u p i d.

Manas: the mind or the thinking that one liberates with a mantra (manas trayate).

Mandara: the golden mountain used for churning the ocean in the fight between the s u r a s and the a s u r a s (see 8.5, 6 & 7).

Mâdhâi: see J a g â i and M â d h â i.

Mandir (mandira): (any waiting or abiding-place, habitation, dwelling, house, palace, temple, town, camp) Hindu temple.

- The body.

- The sea.

- Hollow back of the knee.

Mangala-ârati: ceremony before sunrise to salute the Lord, with offerings of food, lamps, whisks, flowers and incense.

Manimân: name of the Lord as the One with the K a u s t u b h a jewel.

Mantra: sound vibration or series of sounds freeing the mind (m a n a s).

- The best known mantras are the p r a n â v a, the g â y a t r î and the m a h â m a n t r a.

- There is also a shield of mantras: see k a v a c a.

- The mantra AUM, the p r a n a v a or o m k â r a must according K r i s h n a by a y o g î three times a day ten times be resonated in the nose (see 11.14: 35).

Manu: impersonation of K r i s h n a as the ruler, father and legislator of humanity. There are fourteen of them for each day of B r a h m â or kalpa (see m a h â y u g a) 308.6 millions of years ruling. Present Manu, the seventh: S' r â d d h a d e v a (also called Vaivasvata see further image and S.B. 8.1).

- Writer of the M a n u - s a m h i t â.

- The first earthly creature created from B r a h m â

- The fourteen Manus appearing in one day of B r a h m â are: (1) Svâyambhuva, (2) Svârocisha, (3) Uttama, (4) Tâmasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Câkshusha, (7) Vaivasvata, (8) Sâvarni, (9) Daksha-sâvarni, (10) Brahma-sâvarni, (11) Dharma-sâvarni, (12) Rudra-sâvarni, (13) Deva-sâvarni and (14) Indra-sâvarni.

- To each period of Manu there is the sixfold of the Lord (see 12.7: 15).

Manu-samhitâ: the lawbook of mankind written by M a n u.

Manu (Svâyambhuva): the founding father of mankind and the grandfather of D h r u v a  M a h â r â j a.

Manvantara: a period of M a n u of which there are fourteen in a day of B r a h m â (see further 3.11: 23).

Manvantara-avatâras: also named vaibhava-avatâras; the incarnations to the reighns of the M a n u s, of which there are fourteen in a day of B r a h m â (see image and S.B. 8.1).

- (S.B. 8.1, 5 & 13): (1) Yajña, (2) Vibhu, (3) Satyasena, (4) Hari, (5) Vaikunthha, (6) Ajita, (7) Vâmana, (8) Sârvabhauma, (9) Rishabha, (10) Vishvaksena, (11) Dharmasetu, (12) Sudhâmâ, (13) Yoges'vara and (14) Brîhadbhânu.

Marîci: one of the seven great sages who were directly born from Lord B r a h m â (see m a h â r i s h i).

Maruts: 'the flashing one's';

- Associates of king I n d r a.

- The gods of the wind.

- Gods or godheads in general.

- Children of Diti (wife of Kasyapa Muni see S.B. 3.14) seven or seven times seven in number (S.B. 6.18).

Ma(taji): mother. Name of all female devotees.

Math: name for a school of v a i s h n a v a s who on their turn are part of a certain division (s a m p r a d â y a) or branch of V i s h n u-devotion. Name of the math for the West as founded by S w a m i  P r a b h u p â d a: ISKCON.

Mathurâ: the capital where K r i s h n a was born, His parents were incarcerated and where He defeated His bad uncle K a m s a.

- His original dwelling place after V r i n d â v a n a.

Matsya: the fish-incarnation of the Lord protecting S a t y a v r a t a  M u n i, the planet earth and the herbs (see 8: 24).

Maura: carbonized iron, a type of iron used for maces, the gigantic clubs used in battles.

Mausala-lîlâ: K r i s h n a's illusory disappearance and appearance as a material form. A game to bewilder the demoniac and to defend the World.

- The by Lord K r i s h n a wanted self-destruction of the Yadu-dynasty.

Maya Dânava: the architect of the a s u r a s challenging Lord S' i v a's dominance which led to the fall of the city of T r i p u r a (see 7.10).

Meru: the central, transcendental mountain, the highest mountain on which Lord B r a h m â is sitting. It is situated in I l â v r i t a - v a r s h a, the central region. Must holistically be taken as the center of as well the spiritual as the material world, thus as well galactic, as the center of the universe, as spiritual, as the highest that one possibly can attain in contemplation and transcendence.

Menakâ: the famous society girl of the heavenly planets who seduced the sage V i s' v â m i t r a.

Mîmâmsâ: one of the six d a r s h a n a s; purva-mimâmsâ also called karma-mimâmsâ, concerns the ritual nature of the earlier portion of the V e d a s dealing with predominantly the m a n t r a s and the b r a h m a n a s. It is called purva because it, logically spoken, precedes, or is earlier (purva) than, the uttara-mimâmsâ, which is another name for the v e d â n t a vision.

Mitra: the controlling deity of everything running to its end (see 2.6:9) associated with Y a m a r â j a, the Lord of death and retribution.

Mithila: see N i m i.

Mleccha: offensive meateater.

- A foreigner, barbarian, non-A r y a n, man of an outcast race.

- Any person who does not speak S a n s k r i t and does not conform to the usual Hindu institutions.

- A person who lives by agriculture or by making weapons.

- A wicked or bad man, a sinner.

- He who eats beef and indulges in self-contradictory statements and is devoid of righteousness and purity of conduct (according the law-giver Baudhâyana).

- Copper; vermilion.

Modes of material nature (g u n a s): three in number: s a t t v a - g u n a (goodness), r a j o - g u n a (passion) and t a m o - g u n a (ignorance). They are the different influences of the bewildering material energy upon the living beings and things. They e.g. determine how the soul, bound or conditioned by it, thinks and acts (see also m â y â).

Mogha: useless, in vain, concerning the material existence.

Moha: bewilderment. An illusion of power in controlling and enjoying. Follows anger. Consists of misconception, misattribution (wrong attribution); leads to a confusion of memory and the fall of intelligence.

- Illusion, see also m â y â (sammoha: of illusion).

- Self-deception; one of the five great obstacles (with a h a m k â r a, k â m a, m a d a en a n v a s t h i t v a) or a v i d h y â, ignorance, because of which the planet with a lack of sacrifice gets neglected.

Mohinî-mûrti: K r i s h n a's incarnation as the most beautiful woman to pacify the s u r a s en a s u r a s fighting about M a n d a r a, the mountain of gold (8.9)

- The woman because of which Lord S' i v a fell down madly intoxicated running after her (8.12).

Moksha: liberation, see further under m u k t i.

Monism: the from the viewpoint of dualism (see v e d â n t a) heretical theory according which the individual living being in all respects is equal to God and therefore can only be one with Him.

- Of S'u k a d e v a is in 1.4: 4 mentioned that he, despite of being a devotee, was a balanced monist before he, not being recognized as the teacher of the teachers of example, the first â c â r y a who spoke the B h â g a v a t a m, frequented the houses of the people for his sustenance.

Mridanga: a drum played at two sides made of clay, bronze or plastic that is often used in devotional service.

Mrida: lord S' i v a as the compassionate one.

Mrityu: death, dying; death in person, the god of disease. Sometimes: the god of love.

Mudgala, Uñchavritti: a famous king who followed the practice of gathering grains left behind in the fields after the harvest. Yet still he was hospitable toward uninvited guests, even after his family had been suffering in poverty for six months. Thus he also went to B r a h m a l o k a (hailed in 10.72: 21).

- S'ânti's son Sus'ânti had Puruja, Arka was his son and from him generated Bharmyâs'va who had five sons with Mudgala as the eldest. He prayed to them: 'My sons, if you're really capable, then care for all the different states'. Thus received they the name the Pañcâla s (to the five states). From Mudgala was there a line consisting of brahmins known as Maudgalya (9.21: 31-33).

Mûdha: fool, dull slave of work or donkey.

Mudrâ: gesture. The gestures of the Lord represent the essence of purposeful action (12.11: 16).

Mukti (Moksha): the final liberation from material existence meaning that one restores one's eternal bond with K r i s h n a in arriving at devotional service unto Him (see also: s v a r û p a and k a i v a l y a).

- Liberation or redemption. With this usually is indicated that one escapes the strict laws of material nature (birth, disease, old age and death).

- Vimukti is the special liberation of devotees on the spiritual platform of love and affection with the Lord.

- Further also (according the M â y â v â d î concept) to unify oneself with B r a h m a n in the sense of trying to destroy the ego (a h a n k â r a) with the purpose of becoming one with the Absolute (which is thus an artificial, concocted form of liberation). The ultimate liberation of the human being means that it restores its eternal bond eternal, personal bond with God, S' r î K r i s h n a.

- Ramanuja (see v e d â n t a): we become just like God but for two aspects: one remains a spark, an atomic soul, and one is of a limited creativity.

- M a d h v â (see v e d â n t a): there are four degrees of Moksha:

1) sâlokya: the enrapturing vision of a God in heaven.

2) sâmapiya: living in the proximity of God, like the sages do.

3) sârûpya: living like a servant of God, with a form equal to His.

4) sâyujya: merging with the body of God - the prerogative of the Gods.

- Lord K a p i l a in S. B.3.29: 13: Without being of My service, will pure devotees not even when being offered these, accept to be living on the same planet, to have the same opulence, to be a personal associate, to have the same bodily features or to be in oneness (the so-called five forms of liberation of sâlokya, sârsti, sâmipya, sârûpya and ekatva).

Mukti-devi: the goddess granting Liberation.

Mukunda: the Lord of Liberation, K r i s h n a as the one redeeming.

Muni: wise or self-realized soul. E.g. N â r a d a M u n i (see also s t i t h a  p r a j ñ a, r i s h i and s â d h u)

Murâri: Lord K r i s h n a as the enemy of Mura, a demon defending the city of Prâgjyotisha (B h a u m a's capital) with a trident (see 10.59).

Muraripu (Muradvis'a): a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, K r i s h n a, the killer of the demon Mura (see 10.59).

Mûrti: idol, portrait, image, object of devotion and worship (see 11.27).

- Idol of K r i s h n a Himself, also called a r c â-form, considered a veritable incarnation of Him (manifestation).

- Difficulty (see also 3.29: 24 -25 and 7.14: 40, 11.3*4).

- Remembered in eight forms (11: 27: 12).

- Manifestation of the Personal form of God in certain kinds of material; like one finds in temples. (see also v i g r a h a)

- A deity, a in a temple normally formally installed image of a godhead, with which a certain spiritual culture is defended.

- But also as being of a lesser importance than the sage to be respected in person: mûrtis are there for beginners, see 10.48: 31, 3.29: 25, B.G. 18: 68 & 69, 10.86: 54, 12.10: 23.

- The material type of devotion (see p r â k r i t a) in the western countries or to the western model in the east consists mainly of the worship of God in His impersonal form: clocks, timeschedules and calenders are worshiped as the one and all of God.

- From Mûrti, the wife of D h a r m a and the daughter of D a k s h a, He took the form of N a r a - N â r â y a n a (2.7: 6).


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