Âcârya: bona fide, selfrealized, spiritual teacher (g u r u) who instructs by example in representing the  p a r a m p a r â and whose statements can be verified in the scriptures.

Âdhâra: basis, fundament, foundation (t a p a s - is the â d h â r a of the teaching of K r i s h n a see 11.6: 26-27).

Âdhi: place, situation, (see l o k a).

Âdityas: the twelve demigod sons of A d i t i.

Âdi-s'esha: ('the secondary from the beginning') also S'esha-nâga or Ananta-s'esha: the snakebed of G a r b h o d a k a s' â y î  V i s h n u. Represents the secondary matter in the service to K r i s h n a. Portion of S a n k a r s h a n a and is sometimes also so named. (see also A n a n t a, S a n k a r s h a n and S.B. 5.25)

Âgastya: 'He whose senses are not independent': a great sage, a seer, son of Kumbha, the pot. Residing in the Malaya hills he worshiped the Lord (6.3:35). Was with V a s i s h t h h a born from the seed that M i t r a and V a r u n a deposited in a clay pot when they saw U r v a s 'î. He wed the first daughter of Malayadhvaja and from her was born a son called Drdhacyuta. (4.28: 32) He cursed the king of Pândya to become an elephant because he failed to receive him properly when he roaming the Malaya hills payed an unexpected visit. That elephant is known as G a j e n d r a.

- A son begotten by Pulastya in Havirbhû who in his next life was called Dahrâgni, he of the fire of digestion, and Vis'ravâ, the great one of austerity (4.1: 36).

- A name of S 'i v a.

Âgnîdhra: son of P r i y a v r a t a and grandson of M a n u. he desired a woman from heaven and thus won the hand of the a p s a r a Pûrvacitti. Thus he had good offspring like N â b h i, the father of a v a t â r a R i s h a b h a (see 5.2).

Âkûti: one of S v â y a m b h u v a M a n u's three daughters and the wife of Ruci (see 4.1)

Ânakadundubhi: another name for Vasudeva, the father of Lord K r i s h n a, as the one who gave the Lord His place of birth (see 9.24: 28-31).

Ânanda: heavenly bliss, see also s a t - c i t- â n a n d a, eternity, consciousness, and happiness as the fundamental qualities of Divine consciousness.

Âranyaka: name of a class of religious and philosophical writings closely connected with the b r â h m a n a s and called so because they were either composed in forests or studied there. The u p a n i s h a d s are considered to be attached to them (see also V e d a s).

Ârati: lightoffering; ritual at which before the idol, His a r c â - form (see M û r t i), flowers, water, incense and light are being offered.

- One of the nine activities of devotional service (see b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a).

- Ceremony with a lamp for welcoming or leaving the Lord.

Âroha: induction, generalization, to generalize from an impersonal, material denominator; the 'ascending' method of knowledge acquisition. Characteristic of u p â d â n a_k â r a r a n a.

Ârunis: saintly persons headed by Âruni, also called Uddâlaka, who is a renown b r a h m i n teacher, son of Aruna Aupaves'i and father of S'veta-ketu (10.87: 18).

- Superior yogîs.

Âryan: the civilized, progressive, cultured person of spiritual realization (abused: arian).

Âsana: bodily postures (see a s h t h â n g a - y o g a).

Âs'rama: refuge for the spiritual seeker.

- Department of spiritual life. Four kinds:

- B r a h m a c â r î: bachelor, celibate, continent student of a bona fide spiritual teacher.
G r i h a s t h a: married.
V â n a p r a s t h a: withdrawn.
S a n n y â s a: detached (see v a r n â s' r a m a).

- Going through these stages makes it possible to achieve full selfrealization before one abandons the body. Thus one does not return to the material world and is one liberated from the cycle of birth and rebirth. (see also s a m s â r a, m u k t i)

- Remote hut serving as a place for meditation.

- Place or space where one together strives for selfrealization, a hermitage.

Âsuram bhâvam âsrita: plainly atheistic persons.

Âs'utosha: name for L o r d  S' i v a as the one who is quickly pleased (see e.g. 9.9: 8).

Âtma: in the self, of the soul or the self, selfrealized, of the living being, of one's own, the body, what is personal, what is of the self.

Âtmâ: soul, but also: body, mind, senses.

-'The soul is eternal, does not dwindle, is pure, the individual, the knower of the field, the original foundation, the unchanging, self-illumined, actual cause, pervading all, independent and unmoving. From these twelve symptoms of the soul is a conscious person impelled to give up the false conception of 'I' and 'Mine' that originates from the illusion of everything that belongs to having a body (7.7: 19-20)'.

- The being of God and man,

- Selfremembrance in alignment with K r i s h n a,

- The end of the illusion of I (see a h a n k â r a).

Âtmâ-jyoti:'the light of the soul'. Spiritual knowledge (see also v i d y â, â t m â - t a t t va and B r a h m a j y o t i).

Âtmânandis: devotees who in seclusion with K r i s h n a want to stay alone and do not preach.

Âtma-râma: the Lord satisfied within Himself attractive to all as explained by the famous verse of the Bhâgavatam named to this (see 1.7: 10).

: full surrender to K r i s h n a. Final position of the ninefold process of devotional service (see b h â g a v a t a - d h a r m a). Surrender to K r i s h n a from the inside (see also c h a i t y a).

Âtmatattva: term indicating the essential knowledge concerning the difference between the body and the soul.

- The perfect knowledge of the soul itself.

- The reality of the soul under the authority of regulation (see n i y a m a).

Âyu(s of Âyur): the son of P u r û r a v â and U r v a s' î, the sage ruling over the month Pushya or Pausha, December/January (see 12.11: 42).

Âvritya: concealment, the being covered (of the soul by the matter).

Abhinives'a: one of the five k l e s' a s, the hindrances on the path of selfrealization: the attachment to life.

Abhyâsa: steadiness, fortitude, endurance, resilience, discipline, regulated practice, repetition, repeated reading, study; use, habit, custom, the effort of the mind to remain in its unmodified condition of purity (s a t t v a).

Acinthya-bhedâbheda-tattva: Lord C a i t a n y a's doctrine of K r i s h n a as the "inconceivable oneness and difference" of God and His energies (see also s i d d h â n t a).

- The heuristic, the rule of thumb of the  C a i t a n y a- v a i s h n a v a who poses: He is Me, but I am not Him; He is the unity in the manifold of the to Him only qualitatively equal parts and parcels; He is the Person of God that is the universe, of which I am only a part k a l â (ekatvena prithâktvena bahudhâ B.G. 9.15).

Acyuta: (literally: someone who never falls); the Infallible One, said of K r i s h n a.

Adbhuta: wonderment, amazement or bewilderment as an indirect r a s a.

Adharma: godlessness, neglect of duty, the counternatural, injustice, irreligion (see also d h a r m a).

- What obstructs the original purpose of one's own duty is vidharma, misconceived or strange to one's own is it paradharma, directions that are turned against one's purpose in life are upadharma and one speaks of chala when by an opponent the words of the scripture are twisted and covered with pretense. That what by persons whimsically, as a dim reflection, is done in defiance of the purpose of one's own order of life [one's âs'rama] is âbhâsa; [to all of this one has to pose the question:] in what respect would that what to one's own nature as being the appropriate dharma is arranged not be capable of bringing peace? (S.B. 7.15: 12-13)

- The irreligious counterparts of falsehood, violence, dissatisfaction and quarrel (12.3: 20).

- See also: m â y â v â d i.

Adhi: a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses above, over and above, besides.

Adhibhûtam: material nature.

Adhidaivatam: the universal form of the Lord called adhidaiva (see B.G. 8.4)

Adhidaivika, adhyâtmika, adhibhautika kles'as: hindrances stemming from resp. nature, oneself and others, see further k l e s' a s.

Adhikâri: devotee.

- Term for surrendered devotees in the temple. Three kinds:

- K a n i s h t h h a: beginners (b h a k t a s) At this level one develops:
- s' r a d d h â, faith;
- sadhu-sanga
, association with devotees;
- bhajana kriya: the regular spiritual practice of chanting the names reading the scriptures and such; this stage bridges to the next level via
d î k s h â.

- M a d h y a m a: advanced (the initiated) At this level one develops:

- anârtha nivritti: sins gradually disappear: the purification of the heart;
- nishtha; determination; durable surrender.
- ruci, a higher taste;
- as'akti
: the deeper relation with
K r i s h n a; the individual character of a r a s a.

- U t t a m a: pure devotees stable in transcendence (see also 11.2: 45-47, B h a k t a). At this level one develops:

- b h a v a: a strong emotional experience, ecstacy, of relating to K r i s h n a.
p r e m a: full-blown love of God.

Adhîshthâya: to that circumstance, time and again (does He take birth).

Adhiyajña: the Supersoul, plenary part of the Lord in the heart of each living being. 

Adhokshaja: name for the supreme Personality, V i s h n u or the V i s h n u- a v a t â r a as being situated above and beyond the senses.

Adhyâtma-cetasâ: someone exclusively depending on K r i s h n a. 

Aditi: the mother of the twelve demigods Vivasvân, Aryamâ, Pûshâ and Tvashthâ, Savitâ, Bhaga, Dhâtâ, Vidhâtâ, Varuna, Mitra, S'atru and Lord Urukrama (Vâmana) (6.6: 38-39; 8: 18).

- One of sage K a s' y a p a 's wives (see S.B. 8.16 & 17).

Advaita: without duality, which relating to the Lord means that His body and Himself are non-different.

- S.B.: 7.15: 63-65 (63) To the observation that, like with the substance of the threads of a cloth, the effect and cause (of this existence) are one because ultimately setting them apart constitutes the unreal, does one speak of the conception of oneness (bhâvâdvaita, see also B.G.: 18: 16). (64) In all activities of the mind, the words and the body directly to be of dedication unto the Supreme of the transcendental Absolute, o Yudhishthhira, is called oneness in activities (kriyâdvaita, compare B.G. 9: 27). (65) When the ultimate goal and interest of oneself, the wife and the children, the others or whatever living beings is one, is that oneness called oneness of interest (dravyâdvaita).

Advaita-âcârya (Advaita Prabhu): P a ñ c a - t a t t v a - incarnation of M a h â - V i s h n u. The oldest associate of Lord C a i t a n y a responsible for beseeching His descend into the material world.

Adhvaryu: the priest reciting the y a y u r - m a n t r a s at the beginning of a sacrifice (see also r i t v i k).

Aghampâpâh: serious sin.

Agni: the demigod ruling fire.

Agni-traya: name or the three sacred fires, called respectively

Garhapatya: the fire from which sacrificial fires are lighted.
Ahavaniya: the fire prepared for receiving oblations; especially the eastern of the three fires burning at a sacrifice
Dakshina: the fire to the south, the fire of collecting, where the cooking is done.

Agnihotra-yajña: sacrifice of fire. The ceremonial fire sacrifice performed in Vedic rituals.

Aham brahmâsmi: the vedic aphorism "I am spiritual".

Ahamkâra (Ahankâra): f a l s e e g o derived from being identified with the body is the seat of fear. In the behavioral science of psychology often called neurotic, viz, spiritually ineffective, because of being estranged from the True Self or self-ideal (K r i s h n a, see also a s m i t â). Also commonly called simply ego. One cures from the neurosis of false identification by restoring the priority of the regulative principles defining the humanity (see v i d h i) or, in other words, by accepting the authority of K r i s h n a and His representatives (see â c â r y a, p a r a m p a r â, g u r u, m â y â v a d i). If one refuses this, is one troubled by a n a r t h a s (non-virtues) and k l e s' a s (hindrances) or with symptoms of psychic disfunctioning: repression (ignorance, lack of consiousness, unknowing, see a v i d y â), projection (d v e s' a), fear (fobias, b h a y a), and obsessive compulsory behavior (the counter-natural, hysteria, perversion, false religion or a d h a r m a).

- The illusion of 'I' and 'mine' as discussed in e.g. 2.9: 2, 4.28: 17, 4.29: 5, 5.5: 8, 6.16: 41, 10.85: 17, and 11.28: 15.

Ahimsa: nonviolence, not injuring anything, harmlessness, safeness, security (see e.g. 11.8: 9).

Airâvata: the elephant of I n d r a.

Aja: (the Unborn One) name of K r i s h n a referring to His eternal transcendental nature.

- Name of the Supreme Personality of God, "He who is unborn".

Ajana: 'being unborn', name of the Lord as the Unborn One.

Ajita: name for K r i s h n a as the Invincible One.

Ajâmila: a fallen brahmin who was saved from hell by unintentionally chanting the Lord's name at the time of death (see 6.1&2).

Akarma: 'not-working', freedom from reactions, selfless activity, devotional service, activity leading to self-realization. (see n a i s - k â m a - k a r m a).

Akrûra: 'not cruel, gentle'; name of K r i s h n a's trusted paternal uncle who was sent to V r a j a by K a m s a to invite K r i s h n a and B a l a r â m a for a wrestling match (see 10.36).

Akshauhinî: army division consisting of 21.870 chariots, 21.870 elephants, 109.350 infantry en 65.610 cavalry or tien anikini's (see also g a n a).

Ambarîsha Mahârâja: great king and devotee, who perfectly exercised all nine methods of devotional service (see b h â g a v a t a d h a r m a, see 9: 4&5).

Ambikâ: means mother, good woman, a name scripturally associated with the feminine of U m â and P â r v a t î relating to S k a n d a, S' i v a or R u d r a, as a term of respect. Together with P a s'u p a t i worshiped by the g o p a s in 10.34.

Amrit: nectar, the nectar of the Gods. A substance procured from the churning of the ocean of milk (see canto 8.7, 8. 8, 8. 9 and 8. 10)

Ams'a-avatâra: (partial descend of the Lord) the Lord incarnates to inspire the inner life, but then for one particular purpose only (see also C h a n n a and A v a t â r a).

Ananga: 'the bodiless one'; name of K â m a d e v a or Cupid the God of Love so called because he was made bodiless by a flash from the eye of S' i v a, for having attempted to disturb his life of austerity by filling him with love for P â r v a t î, his consort.

- the ether (akas'a), the air, the sky; the mind ; that which is not the a n g a.

Ananta/Ananta S'esha/Anantadeva: name for the divine snake with the countless heads on which he carries the universe; the snakebed on which V i s h n u reclines. (see also S a n k a r s h a n a and 5.25)

Anantavijaya: the name of King Y u d h i s h t h h i r a's conchshell.

Anartha's: (non-goals) unwanted quality, divided in six: k â m a: lust, k r o d h a: anger, l o b h a: possessiveness, m a d a: pride, m â t s a r y a: envy and m o h a: delusion.

Anasûyantah: life without envy.

Anga Mahârâja: the father of king V e n a.

Angamejayatva: instability of the body.

Angas: limbs, accessories of the V e d a, viz. S'îkshâ (phonetics; how to represent vocal sounds by signs and written characters), kalpa (the rituals, prescriptions of rules for ceremony and sacrifice) Vyâkarana, (grammar; the art concerned with the right use and application of the rules of a language ), chandas (prosody: syllable accents; the laws of versification or metrical composition) Jyotisha (astronomy), Nirukta (etymology; to retrace the original meaning of single or composite terms).

Angirâ (Angiras): one of the seven great sages (see 8.13) directly born from L o r d B r a h m â (see also m a h a r i s h i). He wrote hymns, a code of law and an astronomical treatise.

- Renown sage and founding father or prajâpati who instructed C i t r a k e t u (see 6.14 &15, 4.1: 33).

- One of the ten sons of B r a h m â who came forth from his mouth (3.12: 20-24).

- Far relative of Bharata (5.9: 1).

- Sage married to two daughters of D a k s h a (6.6: 2).

- Sage married to S'raddha a daughter of K a r d a m a (3.24: 22).

- Sage begotten by Pushkarinî in Ulmuka (4.13: 17)

Aniruddha: (Unobstructed, ungovernable, self-willed) one of the four original expansions of Lord K r i s h n a in the spiritual world dominating the mind (see also S a n k a r s h a n a- of the ego, P r a d y u m n a - of the intelligence and V â s u d e v a of the consciousness, see also V y û h a s S.B. 4.24:35-37 en p a ñ c a t a t t v a).

- Aniruddha, the son of P r a d y u m n a who was the son of K r i s h n a, was enticed by the daughter of B â n â s u r a into illicit sex, upon which a war followed in which B â n a was defeated (see chapter 10.62)

- A descendant of V r i s h n i

- The rope for fastening cattle.

Anna-prâsana: ritual at which a child for the first time receives solid food. One of the ten s a m s k â r a's.

Anna: food in four types called carvya, cûshya, lehya and pehy - resp. food that is chewed, sucked in (swallowed as a whole), licked up and drunk (mentioned in 4.19: 9, see also p r a s â d a m).

Anta: the end (see v e d â n t a and s i d d h â n t a).

Antardhâna: ('disappearance'), Vijitâs'va or 'he who won the horse', the son of P r i t h u who retreived the by I n d r a stolen horse of the A s' v a m e d h a sacrifice held by A t r i after the demise of king V e n a (see S.B. 4.24: 3).

Anu-âtmâ: the atomic minute soul that is part and parcel of K r i s h n a (see also v i b h u - â t m â en j î v - â t m â).

Anuloma: the father is of a higher class than the mother as opposed to pratiloma, the reverse situation (see 11.20: 2). Other divisions are:

- The vaidehakas consist of those born of a s' û d r a father and b r â h m a n a mother,
- the sûtas are those born from a
k s h a t r i y a father and a b r â h m a n a mother or from a s' û d r a father and k s h a t r i y a mother.
- The mûrdhâvasiktas are those born of a
b r â h m a n a father and k s h a t r i y a mother.
- Ambasthhas are those born from a
b r â h m a n a father and v a i s ' y a mother (these often work in the healthcare business).
- Karana indicates those born of a
v a i s ' y a father and s' û d r a mother or of a k s h a t r i y a father and vais'ya mother.

Anukarana: imitation, blind following, third class devotion (see k a n i s h t h h a).

Anusarana: to follow, in accord to serve to one's own nature in devotion; with an initiative of one's own. Second and first class devotion (see m a d h y a m a en u t t a m a).

Anavasthitva: complain, inability to maintain progress (see also a v i d h y a: a n d h a - t â m i s r a m).

Apahrita-cetasam: term of K r i s h n a for confused people.

Apâna-vâyu: one of the internal bodily air-movements, which trough the a s h t h â n g a - y o g a -system can be controlled. The a p â n a - v â y u goes downward.

Aparâ prakriti: the lower, material energy of the Lord.

Aparigraha: to be without possessions (or possessiveness), nonacceptance of gifts. (see y a m a and n i r m a m a).

Apaurusha: 'not spoken by a material person' (see s' r u t i).

Apavarga: the way towards liberation as revealed by K r i s h n a. (see also k a i v a l y a - p a n t h â). There are four stages of yogic evolution: that of k a r m a-, j ñ â n a-, a s h t h â n g a- to b h a k t i - y o g a (zie ook t r i - k â n d a).

- Heaven, liberation, completion, end.

- The emancipation of the soul from bodily existence, exemption from further transmigration; final beatitude.

- Gift, donation, restriction.

Apsaras: heavenly dancing girls, denizens of heaven. Wives of the G a n d h a r v a's.

- Pûrvacitti is the name of the a p s a r a recognized by the Lord (see 11.16: 33).

Arcana: honoring, praise, homage paid, the reverence before a m û r t i or the connecting of one's senses in the service of the Lord (see: b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a).

Arca-vigraha: the incarnation of the Lord in a seemingly materially created form meant to facilitate new devotees, to worship Him (see M û r t i).

Arci: the wife of king P r i t h u (4.23: 19-28).

Arjuna: son of Queen Kuntî (P r i t h a) and King P â n d u. Friend and nephew of K r i s h n a. The one to whom the G î t â is spoken (see also p â n d a v a's and family tree, g u d â k e s'a and p a r a n t a p a).

Artha: economic activity, economic development, profit. One of the four main goals of a material life (see p u r u s h â r t h a's)

Aruni: a sage, not to confuse with Âruni - see before-, mentioned in 4.8: 1 and 6.15: 12-15.

Aryamâ: the demigod in charge of P i t r i l o k a, the world of the ancestors. One of the twelve sons of A d i t i (6.6: 38-39) and K a s'y a p a.

- Of the union of Aryamâ with his wife Mâtrikâ were born many scholarly sons among whom Lord B r a h m â created a species of man that was like them with an aptitude for self-examination (6.6: 42).

- As long as V i d u r a played the part of a s'û d r a, administered Aryamâ officiating for Y a m a r â j a, punishment as was suitable for the sinful ones (1.13: 15).

Asamprajnatasamâdhi: unintentional, natural absorption in K r i s h n a, nor negative, nor positive, without false ego (see s a m â d h i and d h a r m a m e g h a - s a m â d h i).

Asânga: to detach oneself from material consciousness.

Asat: of a temporary nature, temporal material form, the untrue, de material cause (see also s a t en u p â d â n a).

Asat-kâla: time assuming a certain form and with that is falsified (e.g. standard time). This term is not directly mentioned in the s' â s t r a- it is used for modern preaching to connect two essential terms. There is mention though of the k â l a - k û t h a ('false time' also called h â l a h a l a) poison that was produced from the churning of the ocean and which Lord S' i v a drank (see k â l a, 8.7: 18 en 8.6: 25).

Ashthânga-yoga: the eightfold path of y o g a. Selfrealization in eight consecutive phases: austerities (y a m a), observances (n i y a m a), sitting postures (â s a n a), breath control (p r â n â y â m a), turning inward (p r a t y â h â r a), concentration (d h â r a n â), meditation (d h y â n a), absorption, oneness (s a m â d h i).

Ashtha-siddhis: the eight mystical perfections, acquired by the practice of y o g a (see s i d d h i).

Asita: an ancient authority on the V e d a s. One of the masters of perfection that are the wandering spiritual educators (6.15: 12).

Asmitâ: the illusion of I and Mine. Identification with the material and the notion of being the proprietor. Opposes the term soul and sharing (see k l e s'a, j î v â t m â, n i r m a m a and a h a m k â r a).

Asteya: non-stealing, free from unrighteous appropriation (see y a m a).

Âstikyam: religious connectedness, faithfullness, trust in the principles of religion, piety.

Asura: (lit..: not of S u r y a, the sungod of s u r a, the light, enlightenment) a godless one, a demon, someone going against the rules, someone of darkness, an atheist, an unenlightened person of desire driven by lust and anger (see also s u r a and R â k s h a s a's).

- Anyone who does not follow scriptural injunctions and whose only aim in life is to constantly enjoy worldly pleasures.

- Purely demonic being who publicly opposes the principles of the religion.

- Malicious monster of the kind that with K r i s h n a's stay on earth fought against Him.

As'ubhât: evil fate avoided by the knowledge of action (see k a r m a and B.G. 4.16 & 9.1).

As'vamedha-yajña: Horse-sacrifice. At the end of the life or the rule of a king is a horse sent out with a plaquette around its neck followed by an army. Anyone contesting the honor inscribed on that plaquette is then fought.

- Method to take leave of worldly attachments and status.

- The sons of S a g a r a were burnt to ashes when the horse of their as'vamedha-sacrifice was found in the â s' r a m a of sage K a p i l a whom they offended for it (see 9.8).

As'vattha: the holy fig tree, also called bodhi or p i p p a l a, or one with no specific property, also often called a banyan; mentioned in the G î t â (10: 26) and in the Bhâgavatam (11.16: 21 and 11.30).

As'vatthâmâ: the evil son of the great military leader D r o n â c â r y a who murdered the children of the P â n d a v a s.

As'vins, the As'vini Kumâras: twin gods responsible for medical care and herbs born from V i v a s v â n and his wife Vadavâ. They gave sage C y a v a n a his youth and thus achieved a share in the soma-rasa that before was denied to them. They recieved the protective shield of mantra's that made them immortal from Dadhyanca (zie: 4.7: 5, 5.23: 7, 6.9: 52, 8.13: 10, 9.23: 11).

- The twins Kula en Nakula of the P â n d a v a's are regarded as incarnations of them.

Atri Muni: one of the ten m a h a r i s h i s born from B r a h m â. Received from K a r d a m a his daughter Anasûyâ in marriage (3.24: 22).

- Meditated for a hundred years on the mountain named Riksha and achieved the blessing of the demigods to be born from him (4.1: 17-28).'

- The wife of Atri Muni, named Anasûyâ, bore three very famous sons: D a t t â t r e y a, D u r v â s â and S o m a (the moongod), which are (partial) incarnations of respectively the Supersoul (V i s h n u), Lord S' i v a and Lord B r a h m â.' (4.1: 15 and 9.14: 2).

- The sage that was involved in a conflict between I n d r a and P r i t h u about stealing a horse (see 4.19).

AUM: see o m k â r a.

Avabhritha: a concluding ceremony in vedic sacrifices in which one washes oneself and the utensils of the sacrifice.

Avadhûta: a saint of full renunciation, someone unconcerned about the things of the world like clothing or even being clean (see e.g. R i s h a b h a).

- Is discussed by K r i s h n a as as having 24 masters (in 11.7,8 & 9).

- Is questioned by P a r î k c h i t in 7.13.

Avaroha-panthâ: the materialist wants to understand everything by the âroha-pa nthâ - the path of argument and reason - but transcendental matters cannot be understood in this way. Rather, one must follow the avaroha-panthâ, the process of descending knowledge, the path of surrender to the p a r a m p a r â and acceptance of spiritual knowledge.

Avasah: helplessness (of materialists e.g.).

Avasthâtraya: the three states of consiousness (see also v r i t t i - t r a y a): waking, jâgrat, sleep svapna and deep sleep sushupti that are the functions of the intelligence that follow the modes of nature; with characteristics different from them is the individual soul ascertained as being the witness (see 1.18: 26, 4.29: 71 & 1b, 6.16: 61-62, 7.7: 25 10.47: 31, 10.84: 24-25 ,11.13: 27, 11.25: 20, and 11.28: 20).

- Above these three philosophically also designated as the vis'wa (the external), taijasa (physical power) and prâjña (thought) state of the Lord, one also finds turîya (the superconscious state of the soul its selfrealization, see 12.11: 22).

Avatâra: descend of the Supreme Lord. Basically there are two kinds: vibhûti- and âves'a/sâkshad-avatâras: resp. empowered entities and incarnations and expansions of the full potency. The latter come in six types: Purusha, Lîlâ, Guna, Manvantara, Yuga and S'akti-âves'a avatâras (see below). Also divided in vaibhâva temporary, less known two-handed forms (like the M o h i n î, V y â s a and H a m s a forms) and prabhâva eternal incarnations of the four-handed type (like the universal form K r i s h n a showed on the battlefield). Vaibhâva, are also appearances like K û r m a, M a t s y a, N a r a - N â r â y a n a, V a r â h a, H a y a g r î v a. There are 24 of these vaibhâva incarnations (see further purport C.C. adi. 2.97). Another difference is constituted by what is called the vilâsa (expansions) or the prakas'a (His own form) aspects of avatâras.

- A plenary expansion of the Lord.

- The empowered devotee of the Lord.

- Deductive process of the descending of the (Super-) soul in matter.

- Purport CC madhya 20,246 : The G u n â - a v a t â r a s are three - Lord B r a h m â, Lord S' i v a and Lord V i s h n u.

- All avatâras in K a l i - y u g a after K r i s h n a are, exept for K a l k i, C h a n n a - a v a t â r a s or covert incarnations operating as a devotee, a son or a prophet of Himself.

- Of the P u r u s h a - a v a t â r a s there are also three, the three V i s h n u s.

- Of the l î l â and V i s h n u - a v a t â r a s there are a countless number.

- Of the avatâras who appear during the reign of each M a n u, known as M a n v a n t a r a - a v a t â r a s or also vaibhâva-avatâras, there are thus listed fourteen.

- Yajña and Vâmana are also counted among the L î l â - a v a t â r a s and Rishabha under the S' a k t y â v e s ' a - a v a t â r a s .

- 'The four Y u g a - a v a t â r a s are: (1) sukla (white) in S a t y a - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.21), (2) rakta (red) in T r e t â - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.24), (3) âyâma (dark blue) in D v â p a r a - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.27) and (4) generally krishna (black) but in special cases pîta (yellow) as C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u in K a l i - y u g a (S.B. 11.5.32 and 10.8.13.

- The S' a k t y â v e s ' a - a v a t â r a s are categorized into (1) forms of divine absorption (bhagavad-âves'a), such as Kapiladeva or Rishabhadeva, and (2) divinely empowered forms (s'aktyâves'a), of whom are seven foremost.

(see further c h a n n a, s v a y a m r û p a and V i s h n u- t a t t v a - a v a t â r a, g u n â v a t â r a, y u g â v a t â r a, a m s' a - a v a t â r a, p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a, l î l â - a v a t â r a, m a n v a n t a r a - a v a t â r a, s' a k t y â v e s ' a - a v a t â r a s and see S.B. 2: 7, for a description of V i s h n u - a v a t â r a s).

Avidyâ: ignorance born from 'the shadow of B r a h m â', darkness, unknowing. In five kinds:

1. false ego as slowness in ignorance (t a m a s),
2. lust as anger in jealousy (tâmisra),
3. pride as false ownership in materialism (mahâ-moha),
4. complaining as the sense for death in death-illusion (andha-tâmisra),
5. doubt as self-deception in delusion (
m o h a) (see 3.20: 18).

- First introduced in 3.12: 2 as: 'First came about [as the five types of ignorance:] the idea that one would die [andhatâmisra], then indignation [tâmisra], next all the craving of infatuation [mahâmoha] and then there was the delusional of error [like identifying oneself with the body, etc., m o h a] as well as the darkness of the nescience about one's own engagements [t a m a s]'.

- As a mode of nature (see g u n a): t a m a s or slowness.

- One of the five k l e s' a's.

Avyaya: changelessness. Characteristic of the soul.

Avyakta: non-manifest, not visible to our limited vision.

Ayodhyâ: city of Lord R â m a and the kings of the s û r y a  v a m s' a.


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