rule



 

Canto 5

Vibhâvarî S'esha

 


Chapter 21: The Reality of the Sun God Sûrya

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'This is what I could tell you about the size and characteristics of the general outline of the celestial sphere. (2) The experts in this matter are with this outline of instruction about the division of the sky, which they describe as outer space consisting of two divisions adjoined like the two halves of a grain of wheat. (3) In the middle the most powerful master of all the governing heavenly bodies is situated, the burning sun that with its fire heats the three worlds and lights them with its rays. That sun globe passing through the north, through the south or crossing the equator, is known differently depending its slowness, swiftness or equality of movement. In its rising and setting or staying up in different positions, it is making long, short or equally long days while it as ordained moves through the different signs of the [astrological] zodiac beginning with the sign of Makara [Capricorn]. (4) When the sun enters Mesha and Tulâ [Aries and Libra, or at the equinoxes], the days and nights are of an equal length. When it moves through the five first ones headed by Vrishabha [Taurus] the days [first] increase [for Taurus and Gemini] and then decrease by half an hour every month [depending on the latitude]. (5) When it passes the five months beginning with Vris'cika [Scorpio] the lengthening and shortening of the days and nights works opposite. (6) Until the sun moves towards the south [before the summer solstice] the days grow longer and until it moves towards the north [before the winter solstice] the nights get longer. (7) Thus encircling with an orbit before the Mânasottara mountains [thereabout] of ninety-five million one hundred thousand yojanas long, so the scholars teach us, one on the east of Meru finds Devadhânî, the city of King Indra, south of it the one named Samyamanî of Yamarâja, in the west the one named Nimlocanî of Varuna, and in the north the one of the moon named Vibhâvarî. At all the four sides of Meru [as the energetic pivot] thus creating sunrise, sunset, noontime and midnight, it brings about the particular times of the living beings to be active or to cease their activity [*]. (8-9) Those who live in those places are by the sun in the position of the middle of the day always heated. It moves, turning left around the mountain [Meru], from the point where it rises to the diametrically opposite point where it sets.  When one locally no longer sees the sun in the sky because it has set it causes the people to sleep, while diametrically opposite to that place the people are sure to have seen the sun rising which because of its heat makes them sweat. (10) When the sun in fifteen ghathikâs [six hours] moves from the residence of Indra to that of Yamarâja it covers a distance of 23.775.000 yojanas [a quarter of the circumference]. (11) Next it proceeds to the abode of Varuna, followed by the realm of the moon after which it returns to the place of Indra. Along with it also the other planets and stars headed by the moon are seen rising and setting in the celestial sky. (12) Thus the vehicle of the sun god, which represents the three Vedic principles [of uniting by karma, jñâna and bhakti yoga], moves through the four realms covering 3.400.800 yojanas in a muhûrta [modern science: 39.163 million km/hr].

(13) This vehicle has only one wheel with twelve spokes [the months], six segments [the seasons] and three pieces to its hub [four month periods], which in its entirety is known as a solar year [a samvatsara]. Its axle is fixed on the top of Meru with Mânasottara at the other end. The wheel of the chariot of the sun being fixed there rotates to the mountain range of Mânasottara like a wheel of an oil press machine. (14) Fixed to the base of that axle there is a second one which, like with the axle of an oil press machine, measures a quarter of its length. Its upper portion is fixed to Dhruvaloka [the center of the stars].

(15) The inside of the vehicle measures 3.6 million yojanas long and a quarter of that distance wide, it is pulled by seven horses named after the Vedic meters [Gâyatrî, Brihati, Ushnik, Jagatî, Trishthup, Anushthup and Pankti] that, in order to carry the god of the sun, by Arunadeva are harnessed to a yoke as wide as the vehicle [the actual diameter of the sun itself is 1.392 million kilometers]. (16) Even though Aruna, fulfilling his duties as the charioteer, sits in front of the sun god, he looks backward [not to show disrespect]. (17) There, in front of the sun god, the sixty thousand thumb-sized sages named the Vâlikhilyas are engaged in offering their prayers, which they express with eloquence [see also 4.1: 39]. (18) So too fourteen others, viz. the sages, the Gandharvas, Apsaras, Nâgas, Yakshas, Râkshasas and the demigods, worship with a variety of names and different ceremonies, in seven groups of two with for every month different representatives, the Supreme Lord in the form of the sun god Sûrya, he who is the life of the universe and who carries different names [**]. (19) The sun god thus traverses the 95.1 million yojanas of the circumference of the earthly sphere with a speed of two thousand and half a yojana in about a kshana [± 1.6 sec; see also verse 12].'

 

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Third revised edition, loaded September 1, 2011.

 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

S'rî S'uka said: 'This is what I could tell you about the size and characteristics of the general outline of the celestial sphere.
S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus far I so could with certainty tell you about the estimates of the measurement and the characteristics of the arrangement of the whole universe. (Vedabase)

 

Text 2

The experts in this matter are with this outline of instruction about the division of the sky, which they describe as outer space consisting of two divisions adjoined like the two halves of a grain of wheat.

The experts are able to estimate and instruct on the form of the globe of the sky above, that, just as with the two halves of a grain of wheat, is divided in the two adjoining parts of the outer space on both sides. (Vedabase)

 

Text 3

In the middle the most powerful master of all the governing heavenly bodies is situated, the burning sun that with its fire heats the three worlds and lights them with its rays. That sun globe passing through the north, through the south or crossing the equator, is known differently depending its slowness, swiftness or equality of movement. In its rising and setting or staying up in different positions, it is making long, short or equally long days while it as ordained moves through the different signs of the [astrological] zodiac beginning with the sign of Makara [Capricorn].

(3) In the middle is situated the most powerful master of all the heavenly bodies governing, the burning sun, that by his heat heats the three worlds and lights them by his rays; that sunglobe passing through the north and through the south or crossing the equator is known differently depending on his slowness or swiftness or equality of movement in rising and setting or staying up in different positions, as ordained moving through the different signs of the zodiac, making long days, short days or days of equal length. (Vedabase)

 

Text 4

When the sun enters Mesha and Tulâ [Aries and Libra, or at the equinoxes], the days and nights are of an equal length. When it moves through the five first ones headed by Vrishabha [Taurus] the days [first] increase [for Taurus and Gemini] and then decrease by half an hour every month [depending on the latitude].

When the sun is in the first sign and the sign counterbalancing [Mesha and Tulâ, or at the equinoxes] are at that time the days and nights of an equal length, and when he moves through the five first ones headed by Taurus and Gemini do the days [at first] certainly increase and do the nights decrease by half an hour every month [depending on the latitude]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 5

When it passes the five months beginning with Vris'cika [Scorpio] the lengthening and shortening of  the days and nights works opposite.

The time he stays in the five of Scorpio are the days and nights of the opposite. (Vedabase)

  

Text 6

Until the sun moves towards the south [before the summer solstice] the days grow longer and until it moves towards the north [before the winter solstice] the nights get longer.

Until the sun passes through the south are the days longer and until he passes through the north are the nights longer. (Vedabase)

  

Text 7

Thus encircling with an orbit before the Mânasottara mountains [thereabout] of ninety-five million one hundred thousand yojanas long, so the scholars teach us, one on the east of Meru finds Devadhânî, the city of King Indra, south of it the one named Samyamanî of Yamarâja, in the west the one named Nimlocanî of Varuna, and in the north the one of the moon named Vibhâvarî. At all the four sides of Meru [as the energetic pivot] thus creating sunrise, sunset, noontime and midnight, it brings about the particular times of the living beings to be active or to cease their activity [*].

Thus encircling with an orbit to the Mânasottara mountains of ninety-five million one hundred thousand yojanas long, so the scholars teach [see footnote], is on the east of Meru found Devadhânî, the city of king Indra, south of it the one named Samyamanî of Yamarâja, in the west the one named Nimlocanî of Varuna, and in the north the one of the moon named Vibhâvarî. At all of these four sides of Meru thus making for the sunrise, the sunset, the noon and the midst of night causes he the particular times of the living beings to be active or to cease activity. (Vedabase)

 

Text 8-9

Those who live in those places are by the sun in the position of the middle of the day always heated. It moves, turning left around the mountain [Meru], from the point where it rises to the diametrically opposite point where it sets.  When one locally no longer sees the sun in the sky because it has set it causes the people to sleep, while diametrically opposite to that place the people are sure to have seen the sun rising which because of its heat makes them sweat.

The ones living there are, positioned to the middle of the day, by the sun always heated; to the left of the immovable [the mountain] and to the right is where he moves from the point of rising to that position diametrically opposite where he is sure to set. There where one sees the sun no longer because he has set does it cause the people to sleep while diametrically opposite to that place he is sure to make the people sweat heating them. (Vedabase)

 

Text 10

When the sun in fifteen ghathikâs [six hours] moves from the residence of Indra to that of Yamarâja it covers a distance of 23.775.000 yojanas [a quarter of the circumference].

When he in fifteen ghathikâs [six hours] moves from the residence of Indra to that of Yamarâja covers he a distance of 23.775.000 yojanas [a quarter of the circumference]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

Next it proceeds to the abode of Varuna, followed by the realm of the moon after which it returns to the place of Indra. Along with it also the other planets and stars headed by the moon are seen rising and setting in the celestial sky.

From there goes he this way from where Varuna resides to the realm of the moon and then again to the place of Indra with which also the other planets and stars headed by the moon are seen rising and setting in the celestial sky. (Vedabase)

 

Text 12

Thus the vehicle of the sun god, which represents the three Vedic principles [of uniting by karma, jñâna and bhakti yoga], moves through the four realms covering 3.400.800 yojanas in a muhûrta [modern science: 39.163 million km/hr].

So does the vehicle of the sun god, known by the three of heaven, earth and the vital sphere, in 3.400.800 yojanas per muhûrta [modern science: 39.163 million km/hr] move through the four residences. (Vedabase)

 

Text 13

This vehicle has only one wheel with twelve spokes [the months], six segments [the seasons] and three pieces to its hub [four month periods], which in its entirety is known as a solar year [a samvatsara]. Its axle is fixed on the top of Meru with Mânasottara at the other end. The wheel of the chariot of the sun being fixed there rotates to the mountain range of Mânasottara like a wheel of an oil press machine.

It has only one wheel [a solar year] with twelve spokes [the months], six segments [the seasons] and three pieces to its hub [the four month-periods], that in its entirety is known as a tropical year [samvatsara]; its axle is fixed on the top of Meru with Mânasottara at the other end. The wheel of the chariot of the sun is fixed there rotating on the mountain range of Mânasottara like a wheel of an oil-pressing machine. (Vedabase)

 

Text 14

Fixed to the base of that axle there is a second one which, like with the axle of an oil press machine, measures a quarter of its length. Its upper portion is fixed to Dhruvaloka [the center of the stars].

To that axle with its fixed base there is a second one that, like with the axle of an oilpressing machine, measures one quarter of it. By its upper portion it is fixed to Dhruvaloka [the center of the stars]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 15

The inside of the vehicle measures 3.6 million yojanas long and a quarter of that distance wide, it is pulled by seven horses named after the Vedic meters [Gâyatrî, Brihati, Ushnik, Jagatî, Trishthup, Anushthup and Pankti] that, in order to carry the god of the sun, by Arunadeva are harnessed to a yoke as wide as the vehicle [the actual diameter of the sun itself is 1.392 million kilometers].

The inside of the vehicle measuring 3.6 million yojanas long is but a quarter of it as wide, it is pulled by seven horses named to the vedic meters [Gâyatrî, Brihati, Ushnik, Jagatî, Trishthup, Anushthup and Pankti] that are hooked up by Arunadeva to a yoke equally long, in order to carry the god of the sun. [the actual diameter of the sun itself is 1.392 million kilometers]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 16

Even though Aruna, fulfilling his duties as the charioteer, sits in front of the sun god, he looks backward [not to show disrespect].

Although Aruna, sure to keep to the job of being the charioteer, sits in front of the sun god, does he look backward. (Vedabase)

 

Text 17

There, in front of the sun god, the sixty thousand thumb-sized sages named the Vâlikhilyas are engaged in offering their prayers, which they express with eloquence [see also 4.1: 39].

There, in front of the sun god, are the sixty thousand thumbsized great sages named the Vâlikhilyas, engaged in offering their prayers, speaking eloquently [see also 4.1:39]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 18

So too fourteen others, viz. the sages, the Gandharvas, Apsaras, Nâgas, Yakshas, Râkshasas and the demigods, worship with a variety of names and different ceremonies, in seven groups of two with for every month different representatives, the Supreme Lord in the form of the sun god Sûrya, he who is the life of the universe and who carries different names [**].

So too do, with a variety of names, fourteen others knowing the saints, the Gandharvas, Apsaras, Nâgas, Yakshas, Râkshasas and the demigods, thus one by one in seven groups of two, every month worship the most powerful sun god Sûrya, who is the life of the universe and who carries different names depending on the different ceremonies (**). (Vedabase)

 

Text 19

The sun god thus traverses the 95.1 million yojanas of the circumference of the earthly sphere with a speed of two thousand and half a yojana in about a kshana [± 1.6 sec; see also verse 12].'

Thus does the sun god traverse the 95.1 million yojanas of the circumference of the earthly sphere with a speed of two thousand and half a yojana in about a kshana [± 1,6 sec; see also verse 12]. (Vedabase)

   

*: According to modern measurements the earth encircles the sun at an average distance of 92.960.000 miles or 149.591.000 km. The circumference of its orbit is about 940 million km. Considering that this calculation of the apparent geocentric path of the sun to an earthly Mânasottara range would result in a yojana of about 9.8 km in this context. With Meru as the energetic pivot is meant that everything in the galaxy spins around the center where the heap of stars is found of Brahmâ's golden globe. Thus the Pole Star whereabout the stars in the night sky seem to turn is also identified with that point and called Meru while the actual pivot of the stars around us - and thus also our sun - astronomically is found elsewhere, viz. in  Sagittarius A.

 **: The Vishnu Purâna states: 'Worshiping the most powerful demigod Sûrya, the Gandharvas sing in front of him, the Apsaras dance before the chariot, the Nis'âcaras follow the chariot, the Pannagas decorate the chariot, the Yakshas guard the chariot, and the saints called the Vâlikhilyas surround the sun god and offer prayers. The seven groups of fourteen associates arrange the proper times for regular snow, heat and rain throughout the universe [see further 12.11: 32].' 

 

 

 

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