Nâgas: snakes of heaven, inhabitants of Nâgaloka. (see also A n a n t a  S' e s h a); they have a human face but a snake's body. Known snakes: V â s u k i of the churning of the ocean on the back of Kûrma and T a k s h a k a, the snakebird that killed emperor P a r î k c h i t at the end of the reading of the B h â g a v a t a m by S' u k a.

- Snakedevil.

- people with snakelike bodies or such a character.

- A cruel person.

- The air escaping with belching (one of the five airs of the body).

- The best or most excellent of a sort.

Nâbhi: a king, the son of  g n î d h r a and grandson of P r i y a v r a t a who was a son of M a n u, who desiring to have sons with Merudevî who was childless, with great attention offered prayers in worship of the Supreme Lord Vishnu, the enjoyer of all sacrifices and so came to father the a v a t â r a R i s h a b h a (see 5.3).

Nâma: name, holy name, see also H a r i n â m a.

Nâmâcârya: teacher in the chanting of the holy name (see also â c â r y a).

Nârada Muni: a great devotee of the Lord, who freely moves about in the spiritual and material world to disseminate the glories of the Lord (is also considered an a v a t â r a and named b h a g a v â n). His story is explained in 1.5: 23-31. He was cursed by D a k s h a for spoiling the youths with his pleading for the renounced order in 6.5, his previous life he explains in 7.15. 69-77, the canto consisting entirely of his instructions.

- First among the devotees, patron of the devotees. Purely transcendental personality, teacher of V y â s a d e v a, pupil of B r a h m â. Known for his v i n â (stringed instrument).

- He incited V y â s a d e v a to write the B h â g a v a t a m.

- He is counted among the ten sons of B r a h m â, the m a h â r i s h i s.

- Belongs to the P a ñ c a - t a t t v a in the form of S' r î  V â s â d i.

Nârada-pancarâtra: N â r a d a  M u n i's book on the methods of m û r t i-worship and m a n t r a-meditation.

Nârâyana: (path of man, God of man, son of the original man): V i s h n u - t a t t v a - a v a t â r a. He in whom all reside. Is presented with four arms as the one resisting worldly temptations in the holding out of heavenly beauties (see Vishnu).

- Plenary expansion of K r i s h n a with four hands, holding the conch, the disc, the mace and the lotusflower.

- Lord of the heavenly worlds, the V a i k u n t h h a planets.

- Name of the Supreme Personality of God, He who is the source and destination of all living beings (see also V i s h n u and p u r u s h a).

- The part (or lead) of God relating to man, that source from which the waters originated. (10.14: 14).

- Monier Williams dictionary: 'the son of the original Man with whom he is generally associated; he is identified with B r a h m â, with V i s h n u or K r i s h n a; the A p s a r a U r v a s' i is said to have sprung from his thigh; elsewhere he is regarded as K a s' y a p a or A n g i r a s a, also as chief of the S â d h y a s, and with the Jains as the eigth of the nine black V â s u d e v a s; the Purusha-hymn is said to have been composed by Him....'

- Sage Nârâyana: for the welfare, in this and the next life, of the human beings abiding in d h a r m a, j ñ â n a and self-control in B h â r a t a - v a r s h a, has he been performing penances from the beginning of B r a h m â's day (see 10.87: 6).

Nahusha: Ancestor of Y a d u. Of a son of P u r û r a v â, Âyu, there was the powerful son of Nahusha and other sons. Nahusha got Y a y â t i (also called Nâhusha) as his son plus five others (9.17: 1-3). He is known by the brahmins to be forced down from his elevated position, because of insulting I n d r a's wife S'acî, because of which he degraded to the life of a snake (9.18: 1-3).

- S'rîdhara Svâmî: 'He became puffed up when he temporarily assumed the post of I n d r a. When out of pride Nahusha ordered some brâhmanas to carry him in a palanquin to an illicit meeting with Lord I n d r a's chaste wife, S'acî, the brâhmanas made him fall down from his position and become an old man.'

Naimishâranya: the sacred forest in central India that is considered the exact middle of the universe. Here the sages listened to S û t a G o s v â m î telling the story of S' u k a d e v a  G o s v â m î relating the B h â g a v a t a m to P a r î k c h i t (see S.B. 1.1: 4).

Nais (-kama) karma: selfless work free from desire (see a k a r m a).

Naiskarma: see a k a r m a.

Nakula: one of A r j u n a's younger brothers; twin brother of S a h a d e v a.

Nanda Mahârâja: the king of V r a j a Lord K r i s h n a's foster father.

Nanda-nandana: a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead K r i s h n a, who is the darling son of N a n d a  M a h â r â j a.

Nanda and Sunanda: principal associates of the Lord in V a i k u n t h h a who came to get D h r u v a in a celestial chariot at the end of his life and addressed him with wisdom (4.12: 23-27).

- Nanda and Sunanda as the foster father of K r i s h n a and his younger brother (10.34: 4).

Nara-Nârâyana: an incarnation of Lord K r i s h n a appearing as two sages to teach by their example the practice of austerities (see 5.19: 9-15 2.7: 6, 4.1: 49-57, 11.4, 12.8: 35) (see also V i s h n u).

- From Mûrti, the wife of D h a r m a and the daughter of D a k s h a, He took the form of N a r a - N â r â y a n a (man, the course of man). Thus by seeing the strength of His personal penances the Supreme Lord never would see His vows broken by the celestial beauties that came to Him with Cupid (2.7: 6).

- Monier-Williams dictionary: Nara: the primeval Man or eternal Spirit pervading the universe (always associated with Nârâyana, son of the primeval man'), both are considered either as gods or sages and accordingly called devau.'

Narâdhama: (literally: lowest among man): those politically and societally developed, but who have no religious principles.

Naraka: hell, the hellish planets, a hellish life. Described in 5.26.

- Another name of B h a u m â s u r a.

Narottama dâsa Thhâkur: v a i s h n a v a-spiritual teacher in the disciplic line of Lord S' r î C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u; pupil of K r i s n a d â s a  K a v i r â j a  G o s v â m î and the spiritual teacher of V i s v a n â t h a  C a k r a v a r t î  T h h â k u r. Composed many of the Vaishnava Bhajans.

Nastân: the being destroyed of the careless.

- nasta as a break in the disciplic succession; scattered.

Nature, gross or material: another name for e n e r g y, m a t e r i a l (see s' a k t i, d h a r m a, m â y â, y o g a - m â y â).

Nava-mûrti: the nine forms of the Lord: the c a t u r v y û h a (V â s u d e v a, S a n k a r s h a n a, P r a d y u m n a, A n i r u d d h a) N â r â y a n a, V a r â h a, N r i s i m h a, H a y a g r î v a and V â m a n a (also is B r a h m â mentioned in stead of the latter) (see also 11.16: 32).

Nava-yogendras: see y o g e n d r a.

Nawab Hussain Shah: the muslim governor of Bengal during the time of Lord S' r î C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u's appearance.

Neti neti: this nor that: the way P r a h l â d a meditates on the essence of the Soul. See 7.7: 23 and also 12.6: 32-33.

Nihilism: atheistic teaching according which everything originally came from the 'void' and finally will return to the void again (see M â y â v â d î s).

Nidhana: (having no property, poor but also: settling, destroying, finding an end) the characteristic of all who are conquered; term used for all who were defeated at K u r u k s h e t r a, term for all who are not as A r j u n a with K r i s h n a (11.19: 12).

Nidhis: The eight treasures or nidhis of K u v e r a of whom is said that he also has only eight teeth (see also k o s' a).

- S' r î l a  S' r î d h a r a  S v â m î mentions: padma, mahâpadma, matsya, kûrma, audaka (growing in water), nîla, mukunda en s'ankha (the conch).

- Or to the M.W. lexicon: padma (purity, lotus), mahâpadma (great lotus, refuge), makara (m a t s y a, fish, related to the crest-jewel or shark-shaped earrings of K r i s h n a), kacchapa (also k û r m a, support or tortoise), mukunda (giver of liberation), nanda (happiness, or a flute), nîla (a residence) en karva (love). They are also personified with the eight attendants of K u v e r a or L a k s h m î.

Nimi: the son of I k s h v â k u and father of a son called Vaideha; he was also known as Videha for losing his body as he was cursed by V a s i s h t h h a for not following his instructions. The godly trying to revive him he denied the wish to revive and thus was his body churned. Because of that were the son Vaideha born from that churning and city he founded both named M i t h i l a (see 9.13 for his story). De dynasty had always good ties with the V i s h n u - a v a t â r a, S î t â the wife of R â m a came from the dynasty through King J a n a k a and also K r i s h n a had fine relations with the faithful ruler Bahulas'va of M i t h i l a (see 10.87).

Nimitta: the material cause, the direct, efficient cause. The period or moment of time which may be regared as causing the event (see also k â r a n a).

Nimitta-matram: the remote cause; logic to the causality of the divine (see also k â r a n a, u p â d â n a).

Nirahankâra: freedom from false ego (see a h a m k â r a).

Nirâs'îh: causelessness; to have no ulterior motive, leading motive for obedience to the spiritual teacher.

Nirguna: to be above the modes of nature. Nature of K r i s h n a-consciousness (see g u n a).

- Characteristic of K r i s h n a, His being above the material modes (see also A d h o k s' a j a).

Nirguna-brahma: the impersonal concept of the Absolute Truth as being without qualities.

Nirmama: (see also a p a r i g r a h a) indifferent, unselfish, freedom from greed or possessiveness, vow of poverty, sharing with others (see also y a m a and the S'ikshâshthaka).

Nirukta: the practice and process of the explicit use of the names of the Lord in pronouncing, explaining and defining the m a n t r a s and verses aloud as they are written and thus arriving at the knowledge of the V e d a s.

Nirvâna: the end of one's material activities or one's material existence, which with the V a i s h n a v a s doesn't mean that one denies spiritual activities or a spiritual existence (see e.g. 11.9: 12).

- State of being in which the material existence recedes; it precedes all spiritual, devotional activity.

- Final emancipation, beautitude, complete bliss, perfect calm, being immersed, quieted, extinguished, immovable, vanished.

Nishâda: see B â h u k a.

Nitya: eternal (continuing, maintaining).

Nitya-mukta: eternally liberated. Characteristic of the liberated, spiritual being. The state of most of the living beings. Also called nitya-siddha as opposed to nitya-baddha, eternally bound (see also: s v a r û p a.)

- The question of the confusing issue of at the same time being bound and being free as a soul was raised by U d d h a v a in 11.10: 35-37.

Nityânanda: P a ñ c a - t a t t v a-incarnation (a v a t â r a) of Lord B a l a r â m a. The original spiritual teacher of the C a i t a n y a-mission. Most important (eternal) companion of Lord C a i t a n y a. Also celebrated as B h a g a v â n. Was a g r i h a s t h a.

- Incarnation of Lord Baladeva (see B a l a r â m a).

Nivritti-mârga: the path of liberation (see also a p a v a r g a). There are two dharmas: nivritti and p r a v r i t t i or duties relating to detachment and duties relating to attachment (see 3-32: 2, 4.4: 20, 7.15: 47, 11.10: 4 and p r a v r i t t i - m â r g a).

Niyama: (restraining, checking, holding back, preventing, controlling) K r i s h n a's term for regulation, the things one has to do in devotional service.

- According to K r i s h n a: 'cleanliness (internal and external), doing the rosary, penance, austerity, sacrifice, trustfulness, hospitality, worship of Me, visiting holy places, acting and desiring for the Supreme, contentment and serving the spiritual master' (11.19: 33-35)

- With P a t a ñ j a l i is niyama the second part of the eightfold of y o g a concerning the observances. Consists of: s a u c a m (purity), t a p a s, (penance), s v â d h y â y a (study), s a n t o s h a (contentment), d h â n a m (charity) of î s' v a r a p r a n i d h â n a (to dedicate oneself to Him).

- Any fixed rule or law, necessity, obligation or agreement.

Niyamya: having restrained or to be restrained, limited, checked, bound, restricted, defined.

Non-devotee: everyone who, contrary to the devotee, ignores or rejects the principles of devotional service.

Nonviolence: real nonviolence means that one does nothing of which whatever other living being, be it man, animal or plant, unnecessarily has to suffer or experience fear or because of which one hinders its spiritual progress (see a h i m s â).

Nriga: king in the s û r y a - v a m s' a who turned into a chameleon over an affair of stealing from a brahmin but was released by K r i s h n a (9.1: 11-12, 9.2: 17 & 10: 64).

Nrisimha-deva: half-man half-lion incarnation of Lord K r i s h n a who liberated P r a h l â d a M a h â r â j a by killing the demoniac leader H i r a n y a k a s' i p u (S.B. 7: 8).

Nyâya: method, standard, rule, axioma, plan, manner, the right approach, justice, logical argument, inference (see further d a r s h a n a s, n y â y i k a and p r a m â n a).

Nyâya-s'âstra: by the Vedic science of epistemology, the nyâya-s'âstra, it is understood that the knowledge of an object (prameya) depends on a valid method of knowing (p r a m â n a) (see 11.21: 10; pp 10.86: 54).

Nyâyika: Logic; standard logic in vedic philosophy comprises (not unlike the cartesian method or n y â y a of doubt, division, order and completeness):

vishaya, or general thesis,
sams'aya, or an expression of doubt,
pûrva-paksha, or opposing argument,
s i d d h â n t a, or conclusion and
sangati, the summary.

The sangati, or final word, is that one should become a pure devotee of the Personality of Godhead and worship the Lord's lotus feet (see also 11.3: 35-40; see also S' r î l a  B h a k t i s i d d h â n t a  S a r a s v a t î  T h h â k u r as quoted in pp 11.3: 40).

- K a v i r â j a G o s v â m î has said to this, s'rî-krishna-caitanya-dayâ karaha vicâra vicâra karile citte pâbe camatkâra: 'If you are indeed interested in logic and argument, kindly apply them to the mercy of S' r î C a i t a n y a M a h â p r a b h u. If you do so, you will find such mercy strikingly wonderful.' (Cc. Âdi 8.15).



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