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K

 

Kâla: eternal Time, cosmic time. The impersonal visible aspect of K r i s h n a. That what moves the material energy. Consecution of moments in relation to the sun, the moon and the stars, known by the rotation of the earth (see also t r i - k â l i k a, S' i s' u m â r a and y u g a).

- The p a r a m p a r â says: 'It is understood from the Vedic science of epistemology, the 'Nyâya -s'âstra', that knowledge of an object (prameya) depends on a valid means of knowing (pramâna)' (pp 10.86: 54). So would to know K r i s h n a in the form of Time as-He-is (I am the Time, the light of the sun and the moon, as He says in the G î t â to be the objective of the universe) - by means of clocks managed validly to His nature, the Sun as with a sundial, and calendars managed validly to His order, the moon, like with its phases - constitute the proper brahminical conduct. With weeks to the moon and clocks to the sun, would standardtime with its mean time deadness, zone time arbitrary false oneness and summertime instability, constitute the time of ignorance in denial of K r i s h n a, the father of Time, even though K r i s h n a affirms the worship of Time with the pragmatical and thus karmic dictate of standardtime, to which He still calls that demigod (...) worship less attractive and wrong (see also c a k r a, S.B. 1.2: 26 B.G. 9.23, 10: 21, 30 & 33, 7: 8 and the Bhâgavatam time-quotes page).

- There are four ways of settling for the purity of time in reference to something else: by speech, by ritual, by accordance or by telling the difference; thus seen is standard time acceptable provided one is of these four methods (see S.B. 11.21: 10).

- To the body there are of time six phases: birth, growth, maintenance, production of by-products, dwindling and death.

- That time is valid which, either by its own nature (the not-for-profit time of nature) or the same way to the person (the Lord, or the object, the l a k s h m î, the time for harvesting etc.), is suitable for executing one's prescribed duty; and bad and offensive is the time that impedes one's duty, the time that is unsuitable for doing work (lust- and profit-minded time (see also kâlakûta and S.B. 11.21: 9).

- Mathematically is the complete of the division of time described in 3.11 and in 5.20-23. Summarized here: according 3.11 is the time divided to the duration of occupying the space by - or the full of or a part of a cycle of - a combination of atoms. Thus we have as the smallest unit of time the atom of a parama-anu, and are there one after the other a strasarenu (double atom), a truthi or hexatom of three strasarenus (1/16.875 second), that times hundred forms a vedha; three of them are called one lava; three lavas are one nimesha (± 0.53 second) and the time of the three of them is called a kshana (± 1.6 second), the five of them are a kâshthhâ (± 8 seconds) of which a laghu consists of fifteen (± 2 minutes). Fifteen of those laghus are named a nâdikâ (or danda, ± 30 minutes) and the two of them constitute one muhûrta (about an hour) while about three of these are a yâma or prahara, depending on the season or the latitude (in case of irregular hours). Eight yâmas cover a night and day or a pañcânga figuring as a thirtieth of a lunation called a tithi and to the sun is named a kurukshetrin or saura divasa - (with one single saura for one degree of the ecliptic, so that a year next may count360 sauras) and fifteen days (of eight yâmas each) form one paksha or pañca-das'a which being measured is known as being either black or white (sukla or krishna depending whether there is a full or waxing moon or either a waning or new moon). Two pakshas constitute a mâsha (solar month) of which the two of them are a ritu or seizoen of which there are six in (resp. 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' of vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counted from the 22-e dec.). A tropical year, described as one solar course from the north to the south and back, is a samvatsara. There are five different types of years depending the heavenly body in question: a samvatsara (solar year of six seasons), a parivatsara (a planetary year, e.g. of Jupiter), an idâvatsara (year to the stars, viz. a galactic year, not to confuse with the optical illusion of the ± four minutes shorter siderical year - for the stars do not spin around the polar star but around Sagittarius A in the centre of the Milky Way), een anuvatsara (a 'lunar year' or a lunar cycle or lunation) and a common vatsara, a year of celebration like the civil year and other other tropical years measured. A year of the gods is a period of 360 jaren and 12.000 of those divine years constitute a m a h â y u g a or diviya yuga consisting of four y u g a's of respectively four, three, two and one times 1200 years of the gods; 71 6/14 m a h â y u g a s constitute a m a n t v a n t a r a of 852.000 years of the gods preceded and followed by a period of of transition called a sandhya-yuga of about the length of a s a t y a - y u g a of 4.800 years of the gods; there are fourteen m a n t v a n t a r a 's in a k a l p a, a day of B r a h m â and a night of B r a h m â takes about as long, namely ± 1000 m a h â y u g a s , a year of B r a h m â consists of 360 of his days and equally long nights, and fifty of B r a h m â's years form a p a r â r d h a, the duration of 100 years of B r a h m â constitutes the total lifespan of the cosmic creation which is called a brahmânda of cosmic egg and thus measured in human years exists for 311.040.000.000.000 years (311 biljoen years 311. 1012 jaren). The life of B r a h m â is but one course of breath of M a h â - V i s h n u, of which there are, repeating themselves over and over with p r a l a y a's or periods of destruction in between, thus an endless number (see also the v a i s h n a v a encyclopedia about the time of the p u r â n a s).

- N.B. A religious, subcultural year, in India and with the v a i s h n a v a's is usually a luni-solar year which depending the local customs, may start at all sorts of dates; viz. once in the three years is a month leaped to it to realign the calendar with the sun, so that birthdays e.g are celebrated at different dates within the same month. But with the above description one could just as well use a solar calendar starting with the wintersolstice with the lunations separately indicated. The assumption of a 'lunar year' with it's gross and arbitrary way of leaping is, with respect for the lunations, not necessary and thus may the caledaring chaos in India be overcome with the respect for the western tradition to ignore these 'lunar years' which as early as 45 B.C. were abolished by the roman empire.

- We now live in K a l i - y u g a of the 28e divya-yuga of the seventh m a n t v a n t a r a of the twlfth k a l p a called Sveta-Varaha (S.B. 2.10.46 p., Skanda P. 2.39-42), in the fifty-first year of v. This day of B r a h m â began 2.3 billion years ago. thus would the age of B r a h m â be settled at 155.521.972.949.000 human years. 12.2: 31 states that K a l i - y u g a started when the constellation of the seven wise (saptarsi) passed through the lunar mansion of Magha. Hindu astrologers determined that this happened at 2h 27min of the 18th of February 3102 BC. This took place about thirty-six years after the battle of K u r u k s h e t r a (see also s a t - k â l a en a s a t - k â l a).

- The progress of kâla is described as being of a continuous (nitya), occasional (naimittika), natural (elemental or prâkrita) and final (âtyantika) type of annihilation or p r a l a y a (S.B. 12.4: 38).

- A name of S' i v a (3.12: 12)

Kâlakûtha: ('the false, the untruth or illusion of time', 'the peak, body or summit of time') the poison also called h a l â h a l a, produced at the churning of the ocean swallowed by S' i v a and causing the blueness of his neck (see S.B. 8.7).

- poison in general.

Kâma: lust, avarice. The desire for more plus the unwillingness to let go because of emotional preferences. Reprehensible trait: a n a r t h a.

- Term also used to indicate the regulation of desires (see p u r u s â r t h a s).

- That what binds to the material world; the unregulated, undifferentiated, ignorant preference (see a v i d y â).

- The product of attachment (see r â g a).

Kâmadeva: the love god.

Kâmadhenu: the celestial cow giving unlimited amounts of milk found in Goloka V r i n d â v a n a (see also s u r a b h i).

Kâlî: goddess unto whom meat-eaters perform their sacrifices (see D u r g â).

Kâliya: the snake subdued by K r i s h n a dancing on His hoods see (S.B. 10: 16 & 17).

Kânti: 'the female beauty, the brightness of the moon', a name of L a k s h m î mentioned in S.B. 10.65: 31.

Kânda: (sections, departments, chapters, books) see t r i - k â n d a and c a n t o.

Kârana: the original cause, the remote, the underlying cause, the cause of everything, causality to the logic of divinity (see n i m i t t a).

Kârana ocean: the primal waters of God, the causal waters, the corner of the spiritual universe where Lord M a h â - V i s h n u lies down to create the complete of the material universes (see esp. canto two of the S.B.).

Kâranodakas'âyî Vishnu, or M a h â - V i s h n u: first p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a: the plenary expansion of the Lord, fundamental to the material manifestation. From Him originate the m a h a t - t a t t v a and all universes, who return back to Him at the time of annihilation. 

Kârtavîryârjuna; great king in the y a d u - d y n a s t y also called Arjuna who became emperor over the seven continents and obtained all the great qualities (the eight s i d d h i s) of yoga from Lord D a t t â t r e y a. There was indeed none to find on this earth who could equal him in his qualities of sacrifice, charity, austerity, yogic achievement, education, strength and mercy. For eighty-five thousand years was his strength without deterioration indeed to be factually inexhaustible. Of his thousand sons only five remained alive in the fight with P a r a s' u r â m a: Jayadhvaja, S'ûrasena, Vrishabha, Madhu and Ûrjita (S.B. 9.23: 24-27).

Kâr(t)tikeya (S k a n d a): the younger son of Lord S' i v a and his consort P â r v a t î; the presiding deity of warfare.

Kâtyâyanî: zie D u r g â.

Kaivalya: transcendence or the will for liberation; enlightenment, one realizes one's original state of being as being a plenary portion of Him. Spiritual independence. Phase preceding m u k t i. Aim of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a.

- Emancipation in/towards K r i s h n a -consciousness (see also k a i v a l y a p a n t h â).

- Final beautitude (see also n i r v â n a and S.B. 11.9: 17).

Kaivalya-panthâ: the path of enlightenment leading to liberation in devotional service; the ability to stand up after falling down; the way back to God that each human being has to figure out for himself (see m u k t i).

Kalâ: a portion of, part of an expansion. E.g. B a l a r â m a is K r i s h n a's first (plenary) expansion and V i s h n u is a part, k a l â of that expansion.

- S' r î l a  V i s' v a n â t h a  C a k r a v a r t î quotes the Medinî dictionary's definition of the word kalâ as follows: kalâ mûle pravriddhau syâc chilâdâv ams'a-mâtrake. "The word kalâ means 'a root', 'increase', 'a stone' or 'a mere part'."

Kali-yuga: (iron age) era of quarrel and strife that commenced after K r i s h n a's departure 5000 years ago, eighteenth of February 3102 B.C, and is characterized by the four human weaknesses that form the opposite of the four religious virtues, the four legs of the bull of d h a r m a (s a u c a, t a p a h, d a y â, s a t y a): free sex, gambling, eating of meat and intoxication as opposed to purity, sobriety, compassion and truthfulness: the regulative principles (see: also v i d h i and S.B. 5.6: 10, 1.16 & 17).

- The faithful ones (of spiritual progress) knowing of the value, praise the age of Kali pointing out it's essence that by (mere) congregational chanting as good as all one's goals are attained (S.B. 11.5: 36).

- Last y u g a of a m a h â y u g a with a duration of 1200 x 360 = 432.000 years (see also d h a r m a).

- To this S' r î  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u qouted a verse from the Brahma-vaivarta Purâna:

asvamedham gavâlambham
sannyâsam pala-paitrkam
devarena sutotpattim
kalau panca vivarjayet

"In this age of Kali, five acts are forbidden: the offering of a horse in sacrifice, the offering of a cow in sacrifice, the acceptance of the order of s a n n y â s a, the offering of oblations of flesh to the forefathers, and a man begetting children in his brother's wife."

- Discussed in: S.B. 1.1.10, 1.15: 36, 1.16, 5.6: 9, 7.9: 38, 10.1: 14, 10.52: 2, 9.12: 6, 9.22: 33-45, 10.20: 8, 11.7: 4-5, 11.5: 32-34 and 12: 1 and other chapters of that Canto.

Kalki: the expected incarnation of V i s h n u concluding K a l i - y u g a. At the end of K a l i - y u g a the Lord appears on a white horse to annihilate the burden of a s u r a s posing as leaders in the world (see also S.B. 1.3: 26).

Kalpa: a day to the calculation of time of Lord B r a h m â, consisting of a thousand cycles of four eras or m a h â - y u g a s or: 4.320.000.000 years.

- Practicable, feasible, possible, proper, fit, able, competent, equal to, competent for duty (see also k a l p a - v r i k s h a).

- A sacred precept, law, rule, ordinance (v i d h i, n y â y a), manner of acting, proceeding, practice, a rule to be observed before any other rule, first duty, in this way.

- The most complete of the six v e d â n g a s (that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or sacrificial acts).

- One of two cases, one side of an argument, an alternative (p a k s h a; vikalpa); investigation, research.

- Resolve, determination.

- Treatment of the sick, manner of curing; the art of preparing medicine, pharmacy; the doctrine of poisons and antidotes.

- Having the manner or form of anything, similar to, resembling.

Kalpataru/kalpavriksha: desire tree; one of the five trees of S v a r g a or I n d r a's paradise fabled to fulfill all desires, the wishing tree, tree of plenty; any productive or bountiful source; a generous person; name of various works; a particular kind of mixture.

Kamsa: king of the Bhoja-dynasty; K r i s h n a's uncle, who constantly tried to kill Him, but in His youth by Him was thrown off the throne and killed (see canto 10 e.g chapter 4).

Kanâda: founder of the v a i s' e s h i k a d a r s h a n a or school of indian philosophy (see also N y â y a).

Kandarpa: (love, lust) 'inflamer even of a god'; 'of great wantonness'; name of K â m a d e v a or C u p i d, the god of love (see also P r a d y u m n a).

- In music the name of a certain r â g a.

- A form of time.

Kandu: a sage mentioned in the R a m â y a n a (IV-48) of whose severe austerities I n d r a was very afraid; I n d r a then sent the heavenly girl P r a m l o c â to break his vows and austerity. The daughter he got was M â r i s h â, who married later with D a k s h a.

Kanishthha: immature undeveloped devotion. Name for beginners in K r i s h n a -consciousness or non-spontaneous devotees (see: b h a k t a and a d h i k â r i).

Kanva: ('praiser') a renown r i s h i, author of several hymns of the R i g - v e d a; he is called a son of Ghora and is said to belong to the family of A n g i r â.

- Born in the dynasty of P û r u as Apratiratha's son. Of him there was Medhâtithi of whom came Praskanna and others who were all twice born souls. Of Sumati there was Rebhi whose son was the renown Dushmanta (see S.B. 9.20: 6-7).

- The sage that wed king Dushmanta, an early P û r u - ancestor of B h a r a t a, with V i s'v â m i t r a's daughter S'akuntala, whom he had met in Kanva's âs'rama (see S.B. 9.20: 18).

- According S' r î d h a r a  S v â m î would Lord K r i s h n a in S.B. 10.70: 6 before sunrise first offering oblations and then doing the mantra follow to the disciplic succession from Kanva Muni.

Kapila: an incarnation (a v a t â r a) of K r i s h n a, who appeared in S a t y a - y u g a as the son of D e v a h û t i and K a r d a m a M u n i (see S. B. 3-22) and expounded the s â n k y a-philosophy; the analysis of matter and spirit, as a means of cultivating devotional service to the Lord (see S.B. 3.24-33).

Karanâpâtava: one of the four weaknesses of man: imperfection of the senses; failing perception (see b h r a m a).

Karatâla's: cymbals, also called karatalas.

- Little cymbals used in k î r t a n a.

Kardama: sage who, married to D e v a h û t i, the daughter of M a n u, became the father of avatâra K a p i l a (see S.B. canto 3: 21-24).

Karma: literally: labor. Most of the time the term refers to fruitive labor or the attachment to the result of labor. Is also regarded as the consequence of the deeds in the past or as the consequence of greed. K r i s h n a speaks of three kinds:

- Karma: fruitive labor.

- A k a r m a: free from karma or devotional service. To work as a volunteer, to work for God.

- V i k a r m a: unwanted activity, crime.

- See also S.B. 10.1: 39-40 and 10.24: 13-18 where He says '... as their enemy, their friend or impartial judge; that karma alone is their controller, their guru'.

- Law of -: law of cause and effect: all material activities, good or bad give reactions to what one does and not does.

- Each activity according the k a r m a - k â n d a -rules.

- Activity in the most general sense.

- R û p a G o s v â m î, in S'rî Bhakti-rasâmrita-sindhu, his definitive treatise on the process of devotional service, explains how with a V a i s h n a v a who is relieved of all karmic reactions, there are those that have not yet begun to manifest (aprârabdha), those that are just about to manifest (kûtha), those that are barely manifesting (bîja) and those that have manifested fully (prârabdha) (see p.p. 10.88: 8 and the verse describing the gradual decline of the attachments in worship: 10.88: 8).

Karma-avaram: horrible work. (see also u g r a).

Karma-kânda: the part of the V e d a s in which is explained how the heavily entangled material person can turn his fruitive labor into that activity by which he is gradually purified.

Karma-mîmâmsâ: see m î m â m s â.

Karma-yoga: connectedness with God through labor that is free from desiring the fruits, characteristic of b h a k t i.

- By diverse activities to one's ability endeavoring, so that one is released from the bondage to the material world and one's actions get purified; undoing of k a r m a so that one gets closer to K r i s h n a.

- Acting in K r i s h n a -consciousness; another name for b h a k t i - y o g a.

- One of the first steps on the ladder of the y o g a-system. By means of karma-yoga rids the karma-y o g î himself gradually more and more of all material contamination and learns he to purify his doing and not doing.

- Activity in devotional service.

- Fruitive activity performed in accord with vedic precepts.

- Discussed by K r i s h n a in the first six chapter of the G î t â; in the Bhâgavatam in: 8.1: 14, 11.3: 41-55, 11.20: 7.

Karmendriyas: the working senses of the mouth (de speech), the hands, the legs, the genitals and the excretion organs, see i n d r i y a s.

Karmi: fruitive person. Materially determined person. Person who builds up k a r m a.

- The normal nature of the conditioned human being bent upon working and making money.

- Materialist, whose only goal it is to have sensual pleasure. The only result is that he gets more and more entangled in the never ending cycle of birth and death. 

- Karma-yogî, or someone performing k a r m a - y o g a.

Karna: son of K u n t î and half brother of A r j u n a. In the struggle at K u r u k s h e t r a he fought against the P â n d a v a s.

Karuna: compassion, conviviality.

Kas'yapa: sage tempted by his wife D i t i to break with the d h a r m a as a consequence of which he became the father of two of the greatest demons, the fallen gatekeepers of heaven Jaya and Vijaya (see canto: 3.15-16) H i r a n y â k s h a and H i r a n y a k a s' i p u. (see canto 3.14 also V a r â h a).

- Father of the dwarf-incarnation of the Lord, V â m a n a d e v a.

Katha Upanishad: see U p a n i s h a d s.

Kathâ: stories, anecdotes about Him; the pure of worship.

Kaunteya: the son of K u n t î (A r j u n a, see also P r i t h â).

Kauravas: another name for the K u r u - sons of D h r i t a r â s h t h r a.

- Those descendants of K u r u who fought against their nephews the P â n d a v a s in the Battle of K u r u k s h e t r a.

Kaustubha: the jewel K r i s h n a wears around His neck.

- The jewel was obtained with thirteen other precious things at the churning of the ocean (see S.B. 8.7).

- A manner of joining the fingers.

- A kind of oil.

Kavaca (nârâyana-): shield, term used for the protection by m a n t r a s as decribed in S.B. 6.8: 30-10, see also 6.6: 39 (see also t i l a k a).

- K r i s h n a speaks of bathing in m a n t r a s with the application of clay marks in S.B. 11: 27: 10.

Kes'ava: (killer of Kes'i): name of K r i s h n a as the killer of the demon K e s' i who as a mad horse threatened G o k u l a.

- Also: He with the fine black hair.

Kes'î: demon that attacked the inhabitants of V r i n d â v a n a in the form of a wild horse, but who was killed by Lord K r i s h n a.

Kevala-bhakti: the devotion unto K r i s h n a from within the pure love of the g o p î s and S' r î m a t e  R â d h â r â n î (see also s a h a j i y â).

Khaga: (a bird, a hawk, falcon or vulture) name used for a type of divine being labeled as a bird of heaven or in relation to birds, possibly denoting excentric personalities in enumerations of societal personalities (used in S.B. 10: 74: 14-16). Also G a r u d a is a khaga.

- Also: a grasshopper, the sun, planet, air and wind.

Khathvânga: a king born from the famous king Vis'vasaha. He, killing many a d a i t y a, became an emperor, who in loving service gave up on all his wordly interests and reached the Spiritual Abode of V â s u d e v a (see S.B. 9.9: 41-49). He was an ancestor of R â m a (see S.B. 9.10: 1).

- Mentioned by Lord K r i s h n a as an example of renunciation at the end of one's life (S.B. 11.23: 30).

Ki: (what?) used to call for an exclamation of joy (j a y a). After mentioning the names of the litany it is called out loud.

Kîrtana: loudly chanting together. Second part of the ninefold process of devotional service (see b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a). S a n k î r t a n or communal chanting is also used to indicate the preaching of the holy names: Lord C a i t a n y a's s a n k î r t a n a movement. (see also j a p a, defended in the B h â g a v a t a m in e.g. the verses: 1.18: 19, 2.3: 24, 3.7: 14, 3.25: 23-25, 3.28: 18, 3.29: 18, 4.10: 30, 6.3: 22-25, 7.9: 12, 10.14: 5, 10.44: 15, 11.2: 39-40, 11.5: 36-37, 11.27: 35 &44 , and 12:3: 51-52).

Kinnaras: the ones of superpower (see also S.B. 7.8: 55) said to be capable of changing their form at will.

Kimdevas: humanoids, human beings living on other planets.

Kimpurushas: the inhabitants of that region, apelike humans (see S.B. 5.16: 9 and 5.19).

Kles'a: obstacle of a mental or emotional nature on the path of selfrealization.

- The substance, the activity and the doer as impurities (see S.B. 12.6: 38).

- To P a t a ñ j a l i (Y.S. 5-9) five in number: a v i d h y â, a s m i t â, r â g a, d v e s h a, a b h i n i d v e s' a,: (resp.) ignorance, I/Mine-illusion or egotism, desire or emotional preference, hate or aversion and death fear or tenacity of mundane existence.

- In three in the preaching of the v a i s h n a v a: limitations from within the person, from other people or from external influences of the world (resp. adhiâtmika, adhibhautika en adhidaivika-kles'a's) (see S.B. 1.17: 19, 3.6: 9, and 11.22: 30).

- In devotional service hindrances are overcome with the six leaves of the creeper of unfolding b h a k t i: "When we are beginning bhakti-sâdhana, two leaves appear, and they are kles'aghni (relief from distress) and subhada (auspiciousness). When bhâva-bhakti is coming, the second two leaves come, and they are moksha-laghutâkrit (elevation beyond the desire of liberation) and sudurlabha (the rarely attained love of R â d h â). When p r e m a is coming, two more leaves appear, and they are sandrânanda-vis'eshâtma (special happiness; When the essence of hlâdinî and samvit mix together and appear on the platform of sandhinî, or s'uddha-sattva - see s a t - c i t - â n a n d a) and s'ri-krishnakarshani ca sa (to find K r i s h n a Himself attracted) " (Tirtha Mahârâja: lecture june 2001).

Kos'a: (layer, whirl, hole, the inside, the covering, a sphere but also: treasure, scrotum, seedpod and dictionary), there are seven layers, dimensions or departments in the body of a person or the greater universe that must be seen as the body of God. The p a r a m p a r â in the texts S.B. 2.1-25 and 4.26-1-3, 2.6:1, 6.16.37 speaks of the five elements, the noumenal and the phenomenal. The b h â g a v a t a m speaks of layers each ten times the size of the preceding one after the other consisting of earth, water, fire, air, ether, the totality of energy and the false ego. In other v e d â n t a schools there is also mention of the layers anna-maya kos'a to the earth of the senses of action, prâna-maya kos'a to the water of the senses of perception, mano-maya kos'a to the fire of the spirit, vijñana-maya kos'a to the air of the intellect, ânanda-maya kos'a to the ether of I-consciousness, citta-maya kos'a to the citta, the consciousness of the dual, the total energy of the phenomenal and âtma-maya kos'a to mahat, the total energy of the p u r u s h a, the noumenal. It is also associated with the parts of the brain and the stages of s a m â d h i: earth and water kos'as for the frontal areas, the backbrain for the fire kos'a, the air-kos'a the base of the brain and the cortex the ether kos'a (see also d v î p a and d h â t a v a).

- The koshas are by the p a r a m p a r â explained as being first four material stages before the development of Krishna consiousness: anna-maya, prâna-maya, mano-maya and vijñâna-maya. In the last vijñâna-maya stage, the intellectual one, one realizes to be different from the body. The following fifth ânanda-maya stage is explained in the B h a g a v a d - g î t â as the b r a h m a - b h û t a stage wherein one is equally disposed towards all living entities. Thus one, by devotional service expands to the higher stages of blissfulness, consciousness and soul (or ânanda, citta and âtma) in K r i s h n a - c o n s c i o u n e s s (see pp 10.87: 17).

- There is also mention of seven (layered) constituents or ingredients of the body (2.10: 31): nails, skin, fat, flesh, blood, bone and marrow (chyle and semen are also mentioned sometimes instead of skin and nails).

- The seven measures of this body of the totality of matter, the false ego, ether, air, fire, water and earth 'that surrounds me like a pot'. (SB 10.14: 11).

- The seven layers of the cosmic golden egg as conceived by the five elements ego and mind (Shâstri, 11.6: 16).

- Monier-Williams Dictionary: 'a term for the three sheaths or succession of cases which make up the various frames (or 'bodies') of the body enveloping the soul

1. the ânanda-maya kos'a or "sheath of pleasure", forming the kârana-s'arîra or "causal frame";
2. the vijñâna-maya or buddhi-maya-kos'a or mano-maya-kos'a or prâna-maya-kos'a, "the sheath of intellect or will or life", forming the sûkshma-s'arira or "subtle frame";
3. the anna-maya-kos'a, "the sheath of nourishment", forming the sthûla-s'arîra or "gross frame".

- The eight treasures or n i d h i s of K u v e r a whom is also said to have eight teeth only.

Kratu: (ritual) one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord B r a h m â. He married Kriyâ, daughter of K a r d a m a Muni (S.B. 3.24: 22). With her he fathered the sixty thousand v â l a k h i l y a s, the sages surrounding the sungod (see also m a h â r i s h i).

- One op the ten sons of B r a h m â (S.B. 3.12: 22).

- A descendant of D h r u v a begotten by Ulmuka in Puskarinî as one of six very good sons. (S.B. 4.13: 17)

- In the dictionary kratu stands next to worhip and sacrifice for: plan, design, intention, resolution, determination, purpose, desire, will, deliberation, consultation, intelligence and understanding.

- In the worship of Lord V a r â h a is kratu one of the limbs or functions of the Lord: the Lord is y a j ñ a and kratu, sacrifice and ritual (S.B. 5.18: 35, according to P r a b h u p â d a).

Kripâcârya (Kripa): 'the teacher with pity' spiritual master of the K u r u-family later on selected by Emperor P a r î k c h i t as this spiritual master whom he properly awarded at the Ganges were he had three horse-sacrifices performed (see S.B. 1.16: 3).

- One of the seven sages in the eighth m a n v a t a r a to come (S.B. 8.13: 15-16).

- M.W: A friend of I n d r a and the son of the sage S'aradvat who performed severe penance upon which the jealous I n d r a therefore sent a nymph to tempt him, but without success; however, a twin was born to the sage in a clump of grass, who were found by king S'ântanu (see S.B. 9.22: 16) and out of pity (or kripa) taken home and reared; the daughter, Kripî, married D r o n a, and had by him a son called As'vatthâma.

- M.W.: As the counselor at H a s t i n â p u r a also named sometimes G a u t a m a and S'âradvata.

Krishna: (written in Sanskrit as Krsna with dots under the r, the s and the n) the All-attractive One. Cowherd, warlord, lover, father, husband, friend and vedic sovereign. V i s h n u - a v a t â r a.

- His Life: He took birth in the Y a d u-dynasty from D e v a k î with V a s u d e v a as His father. According many authorities was that in 3182 B.C. at the eighth day in the dark half of the month Bhâdra or S'râvana (August-September). He was born in the prison where his uncle K a m s a had incarcerated His parents after he heard a voice from the sky predict that their eighth son would kill him. K a m s a persecuted Him for that reason so that already in His childhood many demons were killed by Him as He grew up hidden from the enemy with the cowherds first in G o k u l a and later in V r a j a near M a t h u r â where he stayed in the forest of V r i n d â v a n a with His foster-parents N a n d a and Y a s' o d â. A village with the same name is to the day of today with Him the place of pilgrimage and the center of K r i s h n a - b h a k t i in the world. The girlfriend He had there so one says (not directly with her name mentioned in the Bhâgavatam though) is known as R â d h â or S' r î m a t e  R â d h â r â n î and the love of those two stands for the purest love of Godhead or personal love for God possible for a human being. The emotionality of that relation is called r a s a and offers for each a wide range of human possibilities to relate to Him spiritually (see also j a l p a). His relation with also the other cowherd girls, the g o p î s, figures for the relation between Him and His devotees in the form of the different r a s a s. He fought all false rulers on earth and had as His life's mission to take the burden away from the earth. Next to K a m s a whom He defeated first, were later especially J a r â s a n d h a and S' i s' u p â l a and their associates His archenemies. He fought them always together with His half-brother B a l a r â m a also called R â m a, who was begotten by V a s u d e v a in another wife of his named R o h i n î. B a l a r â m a is considered His first plenary portion with the same divine status as Him and seen as an incarnation of S a n k a r s h a n a. For the sake of His mission, had He build a separate city in the ocean named D v â r a k â and developed He, married to R u k m i n î and the 16107 other wives He mostly liberated from being controlled by the scoundrels that He defeated, an enormous family of over a million members, the Y a d u s who, when all enemies were defeated, according His will at last fought against each other though, so that also they wouldn't burden the earth. He assisted His nephew A r j u n a as his charioteer during the great battle of K u r u k s h e t r a when the entire K u r u-dynasty found its demise as a consequence of the injustice caused by family-attachments and favoritism. After the war disappeared Krishna to His heavenly abode after being hit in His foot by an arrow fired by a hunter named J a r â shortly after the battle at P r a b h â s a where as good as all the Y a d u s found their end. His life is described in the tenth Canto and His teaching He expounds in especially the eleventh Canto. The B h a g a v a d - G î t â He spoke to His friend and nephew A r j u n a on the battlefield is very similar to the y o g a-teachings explained by Him in the eleventh Canto to His nephew U d d h a v a. For the former He did so to inspire to fight injustice, for the latter He did so to clarify how one should live on this earth with Him physically not there anymore.

He is recognized as the p u r u s h a, the original personality of Godhead from whom B r a h m â, the Creator originated. He is considered the most important, most complete and Supreme Personality of Godhead to descend on earth, who during His lifetime already was celebrated as such by His own family because of His great heroism and favorable influence. Literally His name means: dark, because of His dark blue-gray skin. He is, among other names, called H r i s h î k e s h a as the master of the senses; B h a g a v â n as the Fortunate One of all opulences; as M â d h a v a, as a scion of M a d h u, as the blooming one and as our Sweet Lord; as M a d h u s û d a n a, being the one who defeated the demon M a d h u; S' a u r i as the son of the mighty one, - knowing His father V a s u d e v a - and as the scion of an ancestor called S'ûra; A c y u t a as the infallible one; J a g a n n a t h a as the Lord of the universe, the living being; S' y â m a s u n d a r a as the beautiful one with the dark complexion; K e s' a v a as the Lord who defeated K e s' i or else the lord with the beautiful locks of hair; G o v i n d a and G o p a l a as the protector and pleaser of the cows; M u k u n d a as the Lord of liberation, M u r â r i as the enemy of the demon Mura, V â s u d e v a as the son of V a s u d e v a and Lord of consciousness, Y o g i s h v â r a as the lord of Y o g a; Y a j ñ a or Y a j ñ e s' v a r a as the Lord of sacrifice and H a r i as the Supreme Personality, the Lord in person. And thus are many more names known of Him.

- K r i s h n a - c o n s c i o u s n e s s (natural consciousness) is that state of consciousness that results from the devotional service to Lord K r i s h n a.

- The name of the hero and teacher in the old vedic times before He was known as the V i s h n u - a v a t â r a (see e.g. S.B. 6.9: 44 & 45).

- The name of a King predicted to Rule in K a l i - y u g a for the K u r u-dynasty in decay then (see 12.1: 21).

Krishna-consciousness: the knowing of K r i s h n a or the condition in which one is aware of Him, knows Him, meditates on Him, works for Him, proclaims His glories etc.

- That consciousness that is brought about by following the principles of yoga (v i d h i s) and the chanting of the holy names (j a p a).

- That consciousness that is propagated and practiced by I S K C O N, the western branch of v a i s h n a v i s m as founded by S' r î l a  P r a b h u p â d a.

- Natural consciousness. The respecting of K r i s h n a as the Original Personality in His first manifestation: the complete of material nature (see p u r u s h a and o m - p û r n a m)

- Consciousness of true time as presented by the light of the moon, the sun and the celestial sky. K r i s h n a as the impersonation of Time and the order of the luminaries moving around in the sky (see also s' i s' u m â r a, k â l a and v â s u d e v a).

Krishna-Caitanya: another name for Lord C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u (see also G a u r a n g a).

Krishnadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî: writer of the C a i t a n y a - c a r i t â m r i t a about the life and teachings of Lord S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Krishnakarma: to do everything for the sake of, to dedicate all one does to K r i s h n a.

Krishna-kathâ: talks in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the subject of discussion.

Krishnaloka: K r i s h n a's abode. G o l o k a V r i n d â v a n a or c i n t â m a n i-dhâma: the planet or world wherein K r i s h n a in all eternity associates with His pure devotees; is the supreme planet, the highest goal of all - as well as of the material as of the spiritual worlds.

Krita: fulfillment of duty; s a t y a - y u g a is also called krita-yuga because the people in the beginnings of the creation are natural in their fulfillment of the duties (see also 11.17: 10, 12.3: 18).

Kripana: (miser) someone unwilling to invest in his own development, who does not arrive at b h a k t i; someone hiding his light under the bushel; someone wasting his life not striving for self realization.

Kriyâ-yoga: the practical method of cultivating the yoga; union with, or the connecting with, or the religion with the deity by due performance of the duties of every day life, active devotion (see 12: 11).

Krodha: anger from being frustrated about the temporality. Shadow-side of desire. A n a r t h a.

Kshara: transitory.

Kshattâ: name of V i d u r a referring to his being born from a maid-servant (from a s' û d r a mixing with a k s h a t r i y a).

Kshatriya: knight, warrior, politician, noble, state official. One of the v a r n a s.

- Someone who from within the system of societal classes and spiritual orders belongs to the class of the rulers and protectors (the second division) (see v a r n â s' r a m a).

Kshetra (the field): the body as the field of knowledge, as well the soul as the Supersoul are kshetra-jña, because the human soul is conscious of its own embodiment and the Supersoul is the awareness of all embodied beings. (see B h a g a v a d G î t â 13-2).

Kshîrodakas'âyî Vishnu: third p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a: the form in which G a r b h o d a k a s' â y î  V i s h n u enters the heart of each separate living being, in the individuality of each atom and even in between the atoms. He is the P a r a m â t m â, the local aspect of the omnipresent Supersoul.

- The divinity of the maintenance of the individual, localized soul.

- Lord A n i r u d d h a (see also S' v e t a d v î p a).

Kûrma: the V i s h n u - a v a t â r a in the form of a tortoise. On His back was the ocean churned with the snake V â s u k i (see 8.7 also n â g a).

Kûta-yogîs: fruitive y o g a-practicioners, y o g î s out for a certain outcome.

Kubjâ: the hunch-backed maid-servant also called Trivakrâ (three-bent) that was straightened out by K r i s h n a in M a t h u r â and initimately received by her later on (see 10.41: 1-12 and 10.48).

Kulas'ekhara: a great devotee-king and author of the Mukunda-mâlâ-stotra, prayers to Lord K r i s h n a.

Kumâras: the four ascetic sons of B r a h m â who remained their child-form. B r a h m â câ r î s leading to the four principles of knowledge: s â n k h y a (analysis), t a p a s (austerity, penance), v a i r a g h y a (detachment) and y o g a.

- Sanaka (at the head) Sanâtana, Sanandana en Sanat-kumâra (see S.B. 3.15).

Kumbhaka: that part of p r â n â y â m a in which the breath is balanced and retained. Phase between p û r a k a and r e c a k a (inhaling and exhaling). May not be practiced without â s a n a s (see also p r â n a discussed by K r i s h n a in S.B. 11.14: 32 and B.G. 4.29).

Kuntî: queen, wife of king P â n d u, A r j u n a's mother also known as aunt P r i t h â.

Kurarî: popular bird, the female osprey.

Kurta: long shirt. Standard atire of male devotees.

Kuru: the founder of the dynasty in which the P â n d a v a s, as well as their arch-rivals, the sons of D h r i t a r â s h t h r a, took birth.

Kurukshetra: a place of pilgrimage that since the earliest Vedic times is considered sacred; close to present New Delhi in India.

- Place, the battlefield where the war described in the M a h â b h â r a t a was fought and K r i s h n a spoke His G î t â.

- 'Field of Action'.

Kurus (Kauravas): sons of king D h r i t a r â s h t h r a, hundred in number of whom D u r y o d h a n a was the most prominent. Opponents in the battle of K u r u k s h e t r a to their nephews the P â n d a v a s who actually also were Kurus, descendants of K u r u. (see family tree).

Kus'a: holy grass used with vedic rituals. Long and flat is it used for mats and sittingplaces.

- Name of a son of a v a t â r a R â m a c a n d r a after whom the dynasty that followed, was named the Kus'a-v a m s' a (see 9. 12).

Kushmândas: class of demonic attendants of lord S' i v a who bring disease and disturb the meditation.

Kuvera: the treasurer of the demigods.

 

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