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I

 

Îs'âvâsya (of îs'a: the Lord, and vâsya: rule): the principle that prescribes that everything must be engaged in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Enjoyer and Absolute Master, because everything belongs to Him.

Îs'vara: a ruler, a controller. K r i s h n a is P a r a m e s' v a r a, the supreme governor (see Y o g i s' v a r a).

- Independence, also the Lord (e.g. the Lord of Y o g a: Y o g i s' v a r a).

- He who controls himself and thereby the whole world (see also H i r a n y a k a s' i p u).

Îs'a: the name of the Almighty Lord in heaven (îs'â means pole, plank, board or particular measure and îsha is the month âs'vina and a person's name).

Îsopanishad: a certain philosophical treatise about the wholeness of God. See U p a n i s h a d s

Îs'varapranidhâna: from self-knowledge to God-consciousness. Another term for devotional service (see b h â g a v a t a d h a r m a and n i y a m a).

Ignorance: (t a m o - g u n a) slowness, darkness. One of the three modes of nature. He who finds himself under her influence falls into bewilderment and confusion, laziness and the use of sedating and intoxicating drugs. This mode is ruled by Lord S' i v a (see also a v i d y â).

Ikshvâku: a son of M a n u, who in the past received the knowledge of the B h a g a v a d - G î t â (see S.B. 9.6: 4). Also known under the name of his dynasty, in which Lord R â m a appeared.

Ilâ: ('the libation') was born as a daughter to M a n u S' r â d d h a d e v a who wanted a son. By prayers of V a s i s h t h h a there was a turn to manhood so that king S u d y u m n a was born who turned into a woman again gettying to close to Lord S' i v a (see 9.1. 16-27).

Ilâvrita-varsha: the central region, the place where Lord S' i v a meditates. Also known as mountain M e r u, the central area which as a seed or golden egg constitutes the nucleus of the galaxy or of all worlds (see also v a r s h a and d v î p a and S.B.: 5.16: 7 en 5.17:15-16).

Impersonalist: someone who knows the Absolute Truth only to its energies and because of this only realizes its impersonal aspect.

- Another name for a M â y â v â d i.

- Someone subscribing to m o n i s m.

Indra: the king of the heavenly planets; the king of heaven. He killed the demon V r i t r a.

Indraloka: the planet where Lord I n d r a has his seat.

Indraprastha: ('I n d r a's place', now Delhi) city where the P â n d a v a's resided and where K r i s h n a arrived for the great r â j a s û y a sacrifice that declared Him the Supreme Personality and from where D u r y o d h a n a left angry being laughed at for his ignorance of falling into water he took for a solid floor (see: S.B. 10.75).

- The city, built by V i s' v a k a r m a, was visited by K r i s h n a once, the center of events that lead to the burning of the Khândava forest and the resultant donation of A r j u n a's weapons, chariot and horses by A g n i (see S.B. 10.58: 24-29).

Indriya: the senses, karmendriyas en jnanendriyas: the working and knowing senses. The ten senses are the organs of the hearing, touching, seeing, tasting and smelling, (for perception) with the mouth, the hands, the legs, the genitals and the excretion organs as the tenth (for acting). Sometimes the mind is added as the eleventh sense (S.B. 3.26: 13 and see also v i s h a y a).

Intelligence or mindfulness:

- Physical or material intelligence: the power to assess data received in the mind and so be able to analyze as well the greater of nature as the functioning of the material energy.

- Spiritual intelligence (b u d d h i): the original intelligence of the living being, of which it is capable to comprehend how everything (including the involved living being itself) relates to God, the Supreme Person. By this intelligence we rid us of our materialistic philosophies of life.

Irâvatî

- Wife of Lord S' i v a.

- Wife of P a r î k c h i t, daughter of King Uttara, who begot four sons with him, with Janamejaya as the first (1.16: 2).

ISKCON: international Society for K r i s h n a-consciousness: name of the in1966 by Swamî Prabhupâda founded international society for K r i s h n a -consciousness, also called the Hare K r i s h n a-movement (see also m a t h).

Itihâsas: histories e.g. dealing with the rise and fall of dynasties and their missions with God and such, like the M a h â b h â r a t a and R a m â y a n a.

 

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J

 

Jada Bharata: Bharata Mahârâja in his last life (see S.B. 5:9-13).

Jagâi and Mâdhâi: two big womanizers and drunkards who by Lord N i t y â n a n d a were converted to v a i s h n a v i s m (story from the C a i t a n y a - c a r i t â m r i t a).

Jagat: u n i v e r s e also meaning the living being. The Lord is often described as jagatpati, jagadîs'vara or J a g a n n â t h a, the Lord of the Living Being that is the Universe (see also p u r u s h a, and v i r â t h  r û p a).

Jagganâtha: K r i s h n a as the Lord of the Universe, His m û r t i is worshiped together with the one of His sister S u b h a d r â (married with A r j u n a) and His brother B a l a r â m a and in procession taken around the city with r a t h a-y â t r â.

Jalpa: (chatter): the ten different types of strange talk or citra-jalpa that the g o p î s in divine madness (divyonmâda) have missing the outer form of K r i s h n a: prajalpa (denigrating), parijalpa (exposing), vijalpa (sarcasm), ujjalpa (spite), sañjalpa (decrying), avajalpa (belittleling), abhijalpa (plaintive remorse), âjalpa (disgust), pratijalpa (self-depreciating hope) and sujalpa (concern) (see S.B. 10.47: 12-21). With this they modelled meritoriously the emotional, irrational tie a devotee can have being separated from K r i s h n a (see also r a s a).

Jamadagni: one of the seven sages of this m a n v a n t a r a (see r i s h i and S.B. 8.13: 5).

- The sage who led the recitations of the Y a y u r - v e d a mantras at the sacrifice of Haris'candra, who for the sake of begetting a son had to sacrifice his son Rohita to V a r u n a (see S.B. 9.7: 9).

- The son of Satyavatî, the daughter of Gâdhi from the line of P û r u r â v a in the K u s' a-dynasty, who by sage Ricîka was cursed to be a harsh personality but was excused so that his son would be so and thus was from him married to Renukâ, the a v a t â r a P a r a s' u r â m a born (S.B. 9.15: 5-13).

- He was killed by the sons of Kârtavîryârjuna (see S.B. 9:15: 17) grieving over the losses caused by P a r a s' u r â m a and was resuscitated by Him, and thus became he, because of the worship of Him, with his body restored with all the symptoms of life, knowledge and remembrance, the seventh star in the constellation of seven, one of the great seers (S.B. 9.16: 24).

Jâmbavân: 'he from the Jambu-trees', the monkey chief, also called the chief or king of the bears. He contested with K r i s h n a for the s y a m a n t a k a jewel, was defeated and handed his daughter Jâmbavatî over for K r i s h n a to marry (see S.B. 10.56). A known character also mentioned in connection to R â m a in S.B. 8.21: 8 and in S.B. 9.10: 42-43.

Janaka: ruler of the kingdom of Mithila, a great selfrealized sovereign; the father in law of Lord R â m a c a n d r a. Father of J a n a k î or S î t â (a character from the R a m â y a n a).

Janaloka: 'the world of men'; the 5th L o k a or next above M a h a r - l o k a, residence of the sons of B r a h m â and other godly men (M.W.).

Janamejaya: the son of emperor P a r î k c h i t who offered all snakes in the fire reacting on T a k s h a k a who had killed his father (S.B. 12.6: 16).

Janârdana: 'he who incites, drives, stirs to action'. V i s h n u or K r i s h n a as the maintainer of all living beings and the three worlds. He as the well-wisher.

Janmâshthamî: K r i s h n a's birth of 3182 years B.C. according many authorities is called Janmâshthamî and occurred on the eight day of the dark half of the month of Bhâdra or S'râvana, August-September, see also S.B. 10.3).

Japa: m a n t r a-meditation; praying the v e d i c way: repeating the holy name with the m â h â m a n t r a and the P a ñ c a - t a t t v a - m a n t r a with the help of a j a p a - m âl â (vedic rosary, also see page and the g â y a t r î).

Japa-mâlâ: string of prayer beads 108 in number plus one, on which every day 16x108 times the m â h â m a n t r a is chanted (monotonous singing) by the devotees of ISKCON. Material: T u l s i and Nim.

Jarâ: 'old age': name of the hunter who pierced K r i s h n a 's foot at P r a b h â s a (see S.B. 11.30). Also mentioned in S.B. 4: 27: 19 and as the mother of J a r â s a n d h a in S.B. 9.22: 8.

Jarâsandha: the son of J a r â, uncle of K r i s h n a and brother of K a m s a who with twenty-three armies was defeated seventeen times by K r i s h n a who used him to assemble His enemies to defeat them before He withdrew in D v â r a k â (see S.B. 10: 50). R u k m î and S' i s' u p â l a were his allies.

Jatâyu: eagle with the sharpest eyes who reported to Lord R â m a c a n d r a the kidnapping of mother S î t â and was killed by R â v a n a as he tried to stop him in his scheme.

Jaya: all honor to, exclamation of joy and consent (pronounced: dzjéjà).

Jaya and Vijaya: the two gatekeepers of V a i k u n t h h a who were cursed because of having committed an offense towards the four K u m â r a  R i s h i s, and therefore were condemned to be reborn three times in the material world as the great demons H i r a n y a k a s' i p u and H i r a n y â k s h a, R â v a n a and Kumbhakarna and S' i s' u p â l a and D a n t a v a k r a (see S.B. 7.1: 36-47).

Jayadeva Gosvâmî: a great V a i s h n a v a poet and author of the Gîtâ-govinda.

Jîva Gosvâmî: one of the six great wise or G o s v â m î s of V r i n d â v a n a that succeeded S' r î  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u and systematically described His teachings.

Jîva or jiv-âtmâ: the individual soul (see also a n u - â t m â and s a n k a r s h a n).

Jîva-s'akti: the intermediate - e n e r g y of the Lord: the complete of the living beings (see also y o g a - m â y â, m â y â and s' a k t i).

Jîva-tattva: the category of living beings (see â t m â) who are the utterly small but complete parts of the Supreme Personality. As opposed to vishnu-tattva.

Jivâtmâ: the individual atomic soul, as opposed to p a r a m â t m a, the Supersoul (see â t m â).

Jñâna (literally: knowledge): religious, spiritual knowledge or knowledge of which one is capable to discriminate between the physical encasement and the spiritual soul.

- Search of truth at a philosophical level.

- As a negative term: only theoretical knowledge.

- The epistemology, the description of the grounds, the method, the theory of spiritual knowledge is, as described in S.B. 11.28: 18, refering to the timefactor, the ultimate cause (see also k â l a and b r a h m a n).

- Spiritual knowledge is based on four principles: s a n k h y a (analysis), t a p a s (austerity, penance), v a i r a g h y a (detachment) and y o g a (see also v i d y â and K u m â r a s).

Jñâna-kânda: department of the V e d a s that deals with the philosophical investigation of truth.

Jñâna-yoga: y o g a of the knowledge, yoga-philosophy. To unite oneself in consciousness with the knowledge of self-realization.

- The way of knowledge. Who follows this path (the j ñ â n î) tries to attain spiritual perfection by developing knowledge specializing in the study of the scriptures and philosophic reflection. One can thus realize the impersonal B r a h m a n.

Jñânendriyas: the senses of perception: the touch, the sight, the taste, the hearing and the smell (see i n d r i y a s).

Jñânî (jñâna-yogî): someone after the development of knowledge (especially by means of speculative thinking). Arriving at perfection, he is of surrender to K r i s h n a. Non-preaching, 'value-free'.

- Someone who has spiritual knowledge (see j ñ â n a).

- Spiritualist of the third plan (see y o g î), expert in j ñ â n a - yo g a.

- As a negative qualification: someone developing knowledge through speculation.

 

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Sanskrit Dictionary

 

S'rîmad Bhâgavatam | Bhagavad Gîtâ | Nederlandse versie

 

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