rule



 

Canto 3

Nârada Muni

 

 

Chapter 11: Division of Time Expanding from the Atom

(1) Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of that what shows itself in the manifold as being indivisible, one should know to be the infinitesimal particle [paramânu] whose combination [into material forms] creates illusion in man. (2) The supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of a continual, unrivaled uniformity. (3) And thus time, my best one, can be measured by the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of particles, of which the Supreme, unmanifest Lord is the great force that controls all physical action. (4) Atomic time is the time taken by an infinitesimal particle in occupying [or vibrating in] a certain atomic space. The greatest of time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.

(5) Two infinitesimal particles constitute an atom [an anu] and three atoms make a trasarenu of which one is reminded by a beam of sunlight falling through a lattice window in which one sees something [a dust-particle] going up in the sky. (6) The time taken by the combination of three trasarenus is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha. Three of them are called a single lava. (7) The duration of three lavas equals one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those make a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] and a laghu consists of  fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (8) The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a light day or night] depending the human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (9) The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise. (10) Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (11) The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season.  There are six of them [resp. 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to the movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky. (12) This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].

(13) The infinitesimal particles and their combinations, the planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the universe, to return in a year in the Almighty [cyclic order] of eternal of time. (14) We speak about an orbit of the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon oh Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently named] year [resp. a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic year, a lunation and a tropical year]. (15) The One [Lord of Time] who differing from all that was created moves by the name of Eternal Time, who by means of His energy in different ways brings to life the seeds of creation and who during the day dissipates the darkness of the living entities, should be offered respect with attention for all His five different types of years, so that one thus with one's offerings brings about quality in one's material existence.'

(16) Vidura said: 'You pointed out the measure of time of the life periods of the elevated living beings of the ancestors, the gods and the human beings. Can you now, oh great sage, give a description of the time periods that cover more than a millennium? (17) Oh mighty one of the Spirit, you know the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of eternal time, for you in the control of your yogic command have the eyes of a self-realized soul to see the entire universe.'

(18) Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali together take approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [comprising 360 vatsaras each]. (19) The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga are each respectively four, three, two and one times 1.200 demigod years long. (20) Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennium we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (21) The complete sense of duty of mankind concerning its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and purity] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one [first penance, then compassion, then purity] with an increasing tolerance for irreligion. (22) Next to the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas that, oh dear one, together constitute one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years] of the external reality of the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones], there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (23) Following the end of the night when another day of Lord Brahmâ begins, the creation of the three worlds that in its totality covers the lives of fourteen Manus, starts all over. (24) Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ-]yugas.

(25) After the end of each Manu, the next one appears as also simultaneously his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious ones and the king of the demigods [Indra] together with all those who follow them. (26)  This is Lord Brahmâ's day to day creation wherein the lower animals, the human beings, the forefathers and the gods wander around in the three worlds because of their karma. (27) With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations, as the Manu Himself and as others, and thus unfolding His divine potencies He maintains this universe. (28) At the end of the day [of Brahmā] the Almighty Time arrests its manifestation whereupon, with the complete whole fallen in darkness, all living entities remain merged in silence. (29) The sun, the moon and all three worlds have disappeared from sight then, just as it happens during an ordinary night. (30) When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarṣana  [see 3.8: 3], then  sage Bhrigu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of the godly men [Janaloka, the next world of the celibate saints]. (31) Immediately after the onset of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas will overflow with excessive, violent winds and hurricanes pushing up the waves. (32) Within the water the Lord, who in His mystical slumber with closed eyes lies down on the bed of Ananta, is glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of the God-conscious people.

(33) Thus there is decline in the course of time of these days and nights wherein his [Lord Brahmâ's] life comes to an end. [His life ends in a hundred years] just like it happens with our lives, even though [in his case] it are a hundred of his years [together forming two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion human years, see also 3.9: 18]. (34) The first half of his lifetime called one parârdha has passed and now in this age we have begun with the second half. (35) The superior first half started with a grand kalpa called the Brâhma-kalpa in which Lord Brahmâ manifested whom one knows as the [source of the] Vedic sounds. (36) Thereafter, at the end of the Brâhma-millennium, the period called the Pâdma-kalpa came into being in which the lotus of the universe sprouted from the Lord His navel. (37) The present kalpa at the beginning of the second half, oh descendant of Bharata, is celebrated as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form of a boar [see also 1.3: 7].(38) The time measured by the two halves of Brahmâ's life takes but a second for the beginningless, unchanging and unlimited Soul of the universe. (39) This eternal time, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the controller of the ones identified with their body. (40) As a combination of the basic elements and  their transformations this manifest universe has expanded to a diameter of half a billion [yojanas - a dynamic cosmic measure]. (41) [The space occupied by the infinitesimal particles of the primal ether, pradhâna] expanded to the tenfold [of the dimensions of the therefrom condensating basic elements and their transformations] that appearing like atoms entered to cluster into many other lower universes [or galaxies]. (42) That cause of all causes [containing all the universes] is said to be the imperishable Absolute Truth, the supreme abode of the direct, personal manifestation of the Supreme Soul: Lord Vishnu.'

See also the page: "S'rîmad Bhâgavatam & Bhagavad Gîtâ Time Quotes".  

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Third revised edition, loaded June 10, 2010.

 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of that what shows itself in the manifold as being indivisible, one should know to be the infinitesimal particle [paramânu] whose combination [into material forms] creates illusion in man.
Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of what shows itself in the many as the indivisible, should always be seen as the atomic from which the oneness of men is misunderstood. (Vedabase)

  

Text 2

The supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of a continual, unrivaled uniformity.

Surely is, of the truth of physical bodies [of atoms] that keep the same form till the end of time, that which emancipates to the Supreme ever composed into unlimited forms. (Vedabase)

 

Text 3

And thus time, my best one, can be measured by the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of particles, of which the Supreme, unmanifest Lord is the great force that controls all physical action.

And thus, to the subtle as well as the gross forms, can time be measured, my best, by the motion of the combination of atoms of which the Supreme unmanifest Lord is the great force controlling all physical action. (Vedabase)

 

Text 4

Atomic time is the time taken by an infinitesimal particle in occupying [or vibrating in] a certain atomic space. The greatest of time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.

That eternal time of the atoms is ascertained by means of the entire aggregate of the space taken by the atoms in their non-dual existence [their expansion], which is the supreme or great of [cosmic] time. (Vedabase)


Text 5

Two infinitesimal particles constitute an atom [an anu] and three atoms make a trasarenu of which one is reminded by a beam of sunlight falling through a lattice window in which sees something [a dust-particle] going up in the sky.

Three times the double of two atoms becomes a hexatom of which one is reminded by what can be known to lighten up in the fluid of one's eye [as a dust-particle], seeing it go up when one looks in the sky. (Vedabase)

 

Text 6

The time taken by the combination of three trasarenus is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha. Three of them are called a single lava.

The time formed by the combination of three hexatoms [in their expanding to the space they take] is called a truthi [calculated as 1/1687.5 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha; the three of them happen to be called but a lava. (Vedabase)

  

Text 7

The duration of three lavas equals one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those make a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] and a laghu consists of  fifteen of them [± 2 minutes].

The duration of three lava's is to be known as one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those should be known as a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] of which a laghu is the fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 8

The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a light day or night] depending the human calculation [the season, the latitude].

The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhurta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a lightday or night] depending on human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (Vedabase)
  

Text 9

The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise.

The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha[17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise. (Vedabase)

 

Text 10

Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it].

Four yâma's form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâma's each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season.  There are six of them [resp. 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to the movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky.

The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season of which there are six [resp. 'cold' or hentanta, 'dew' or shirshira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grishma, 'rainy' or varsha and 'autumn' or sarad, counted from the 22 of dec.] according the movement of the sun going through the southern and the northern sky. (Vedabase)

 

Text 12

This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].

This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great many of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order']. (Vedabase)

  

Text 13

The infinitesimal particles and their combinations, the planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the universe, to return in a year in the Almighty [cyclic order] of eternal  time.

The planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars all rotate along with the atoms in the universe completing their orbits as a conclusion of years in the Almighty [or cyclic] of the eternal of time. (Vedabase)

  

Text 14

We speak about an orbit of the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon oh Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently named] year [resp. a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic year, a lunation and a tropical year].

The orbiting around the sun of the earth and of the other planets as well, the orbiting of our stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky] and also the orbiting moon is, o Vidura, thus spoken of as being of one [and the same cakra- or scheduled calendar-]year. (Vedabase)

 

Text 15

The One [Lord of Time] who differing from all that was created moves by the name of Eternal Time, who by means of His energy in different ways brings to life the seeds of creation and who during the day dissipates the darkness of the living entities, should be offered respect with attention for all His five different types of years, so that one thus with one's offerings brings about quality in one's material existence.'

Unto the one [the sun] who in various ways gives life to the seeds of creation by His own energy and which, dissipating the darkness during the day, is moving distinct from all other material forms in the name of cyclic time - to which one's offers there is an increase of material outcome - one should by all means exercise respect once in a five years [like one does with leaping every four years]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 16

Vidura said: 'You pointed out the measure of time of the life periods of the elevated living beings of the ancestors, the gods and the human beings. Can you now, oh great sage, give a description of the time periods that cover more than a millennium?

Vidura said: 'Given the traditional, divine and human of the final calculation in the measurement of the timeperiods of the lives of all the supreme living entities, what would be the calculation of the periods that take more than a millennium, o greatly learned one? (Vedabase)

Text 17

Oh mighty one of the Spirit, you know the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of eternal time, for you in the control of your yogic command have the eyes of a self-realized soul to see the entire universe.'

O mighty one of the Spirit, by dint of the eyes of your yogîc vision you are the one that in your self-realization does see of eternal time the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of the entire universe.' (Vedabase)


Text 18

Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali together take approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [comprising 360 vatsaras each].

Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali take together approximately 12000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [which are assigned360 vatsara's each]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 19

The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga are each respectively four, three, two and one times 1.200 demigod years long.

The subsequent yugas starting with satya-yuga each are respectively four, three, two and one time 1200 demigod years long. (Vedabase)

 

Text 20

Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennium we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place.

Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennia we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (Vedabase)

 

Text 21

The complete sense of duty of mankind concerning its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and purity] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one [first penance, then compassion, then purity] with an increasing tolerance for irreligion.

The complete sense of duty of mankind in its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and cleanliness] was during Sathya-yuga properly maintained, but certainly in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one with irreligion proportionately being more and more admitted. (Vedabase)

 

Text 22

Next to the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas that, oh dear one, together constitute one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years] of the external reality of the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones], there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep.

Apart from the one thousand [maha-]yugas for the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones] in the realm of the Absolute [Brahmaloka] that for sure make one day of Brâhma [of 4.32 billion years], o dear one, there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (Vedabase)

 

Text 23

Following the end of the night when another day of Lord Brahmâ begins, the creation of the three worlds that in its totality covers the lives of fourteen Manus, starts all over.

Following the end of the night with the beginning of another day of Lord Brahmâ the creation of the three worlds begins again in its totality covering the lives of fourteen Manus. (Vedabase)

 

Text 24

Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ-]yugas.

Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [maha- that is a set of four] yugas. (Vedabase)

 

Text 25

After the end of each Manu, the next one appears as also simultaneously his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious ones and the king of the demigods [Indra] together with all those who follow them.

With the ending of each Manu, the next one follows along with the flourishing of his descendants, the seven sages, the god-conscious and the demigods with all of the following after them. (Vedabase)

Text 26

This is Lord Brahmâ's day to day creation wherein the lower animals, the human beings, the forefathers and the gods wander around in the three worlds because of their karma.

All these creations of the lower animals, the human beings, the ancestors and the demigods belonging to the one creation of a day of Brahmâ, are revolving through the three worlds appearing therein in the cycles of their own fruitive activities. (Vedabase)


Text 27

With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations, as the Manu Himself and as others, and thus unfolding His divine potencies He maintains this universe.

In the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations as the Manu Himself that maintains this universe for the unfolding of the divine potencies. (Vedabase)


Text 28

At the end of the day [of Brahmā] the Almighty Time arrests its manifestation whereupon, with the complete whole fallen in darkness, all living entities remain merged in silence.

Towards the darkness only the relatively small portion of physical interest facing the suspension of all manifestation merges by the eternal of time and of that do the innumerable living entities remain silent at the end of the day. (Vedabase)

Text 29

The sun, the moon and all three worlds have disappeared from sight then, just as it happens during an ordinary night.

For sure after that are all the realities of the three worlds that entered into the night of Brahmâ, just as it is with an ordinary night, without the glare of the sun and the moon. (Vedabase)


Text 30

When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarṣana [see 3.8: 3], then  sage Bhrigu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of the godly men [Janaloka, the next world of the celibate saints]. 

When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarshana [see 3-8:3], then the sage Bhrigu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of men [janaloka, the next world]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 31

Immediately after the onset of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas will overflow with excessive, violent winds and hurricanes pushing up the waves.

Immediately after the beginning of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas overflow with the agitation of violent winds and hurricanes that are blowing the waves. (Vedabase)

 

Text 32

Within the water the Lord, who in His mystical slumber with closed eyes lies down on the bed of Ananta, is glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of the God-conscious people.

In the water there is on the seat of Ananta the Lord in His mystic slumber with His eyes closed being glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of men. (Vedabase)


Text 33

Thus there is decline in the course of time of these days and nights wherein his [Lord Brahmâ's] life comes to an end. [His life ends in a hundred years] just like it happens with our lives, even though [in his case] it are a hundred of his years [together forming two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion human years, see also 3.9: 18].

Thus in the course of time there is decline through these days and nights of ending His [Brahmâ's] life just like it is with our lives, although it takes a hundred years [to him: two parârdha's or 2 times155.5 trillion years, see also 3-9:18]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 34

The first half of his lifetime called one parârdha has passed and now in this age we have begun with the second half.

The first half of the duration of His life called one parârdha has now passed and surely in this age we have begun with the second half. (Vedabase)

 

Text 35

The superior first half started with a grand kalpa called the Brâhma-kalpa in which Lord Brahmâ manifested whom one knows as the [source of the] Vedic sounds.

In the beginning of the superior first half there was a millennium named the Brahmâ-kalpa in which the great was manifested whereupon Lord Brahmâ and the known sounds of the Veda appeared. (Vedabase)


Text 36

Thereafter, at the end of the Brâhma-millennium, the period called the Pâdma-kalpa came into being in which the lotus of the universe sprouted from the Lord His navel.

And thereafter at the end of the Brahmâ-millennium came into being what is called the Pâdma-kalpa in which from the Lord His navel the lotus of the universe sprouted. (Vedabase)

 

Text 37

The present kalpa at the beginning of the second half, oh descendant of Bharata, is celebrated as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form of a boar [see also 1.3: 7].

This current millennium at the beginning of the second half is factually celebrated, o descendant of Bharata, as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form alike that of a hog [see also 1-3:7].(Vedabase)

 

Text 38

The time measured by the two halves of Brahmâ's life takes but a second for the beginningless, unchanging and unlimited Soul of the universe.

This eternal time of the two halves of Brahmâ's life is but a second compared to the unchanging, unlimited and surely beginningless Soul of the universe. (Vedabase)

 

Text 39

This eternal time, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the controller of the ones identified with their body.

This eternal time beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdha's, for sure is never the [real] controller; it is only capable to exercise control as Lord of the earth over those who are of body-consciousness. (Vedabase)

 

Text 40

As a combination of the basic elements and  their transformations this manifest universe has expanded to a diameter of half a billion [yojanas - a dynamic cosmic measure].

Along with the transformation of the elements the henceforth united manifestations expanded outside covering with a universe of half a billion. (Vedabase)


Text 41

[The space occupied by the infinitesimal particles of the primal ether, pradhâna] expanded to the tenfold [of the dimensions of the therefrom condensating basic elements and their transformations] that appearing like atoms entered to cluster into many other lower universes [or galaxies].

Enlarged up to ten times these units [or the secondary elements] that like atoms entered into it evidently came together and clustered with oneother into huge universes [or galaxies]. (Vedabase)


Text 42

That cause of all causes [containing all the universes] is said to be the imperishable Absolute Truth, the supreme abode of the direct, personal manifestation of the Supreme Soul: Lord Vishnu.'

That is said to be the infallible supreme cause of all causes, the supreme abode of the Maintainer and without doubt the original incarnation of the person of the Universal Mind [Mahâ-Vishnu].' (Vedabase)


 

 

 

 

 

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