rule



 

Canto 3

Nârada Muni

 

 

Chapter 11: Division of Time Expanding from the Atom

(1) Maitreya said: 'One should know that the ultimate presence of that what shows itself in the manifold as being indivisible, consists of an infinitesimal particle [paramânu] the combination of which [into material forms] creates illusion in man. (2) The supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies, keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of a continual, unrivaled uniformity. (3) Time, my best one, besides being known as the supreme, non-manifest Almighty Lord who controls all physical action, can therefore also be measured by the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of particles. (4) The time of that infinitesimal particle is the time it takes to occupy [or vibrate in] a certain atomic space. The greatest of time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.

(5)
Two infinitesimal particles constitute an atom [an anu] and three atoms make a trasarenu of which one is reminded by a beam of sunlight falling through a lattice window in which one sees something [a dust-particle] going up in the sky. (6) The time taken by the combination of three trasarenus is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha. Three of them are called a single lava. (7) The duration of three lavas equals one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those make a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] and a laghu consists of fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (8) A number of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour], while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a light day or night] depending the human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (9) The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till 'prastha' [solid, till it sinks]. (10) Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (11) The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional or solar] month with two of them forming a season. There are six of them [respectively 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to the movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky. (12) This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].

(13) The infinitesimal particles and their combinations, the planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the universe, to complete their orbit in a year of the Almighty [cyclic order, the command] of eternal  time. (14) We speak about an orbit of the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon, oh Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently named] year [respectively a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic year, a lunation and a tropical year]. (15) With attention for all His five different types of years, one should be of respect for the One [Lord of Time] who, differing from all that was created, moves under the name of Eternal Time and who with His energy in different ways invigorates the seeds of creation while during the day dissipating the darkness of the living entities. By thus performing sacrifices one develops quality in one's material existence.'

(16) Vidura said: 'You pointed out the ultimate measure of time of the life periods of the ancestors, the gods and the human beings. Can you now, oh great sage, give a description of the time periods of the lives of the elevated souls that cover more than a millennium? (17) Oh mighty master, you know the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of eternal time, for you, in the control of your yogic command, have the eyes of a self-realized soul to oversee the entire universe.'
 
(18) Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali together take approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [comprising 360 vatsaras each]. (19) The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga are each respectively four, three, two and one times 1.200 demigod years long. (20) Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years. They are millennia [like the millennium we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (21) The dutifulness of mankind concerning the four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and purity] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one [first penance, then compassion, then purity]. (22) Next to the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas that, oh dear one, together constitute one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years] of the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones], there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (23) Following the end of the night when another day of Lord Brahmâ begins, the creation of the three worlds, that in its totality covers the lives of fourteen Manus, starts all over. (24) Each Manu thus enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ-]yugas.

(25) After the end of each Manu, the next one appears together with his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious souls and the king of the demigods [Indra] as also all those who follow them. (26)  This is Lord Brahmâ's day to day creation wherein the lower animals, the human beings, the forefathers and the gods wander around, appearing in the three worlds because of their karma. (27) With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations, as the Manu Himself and as others, and thus unfolding His divine potencies He maintains this universe. (28) At the end of the day [of Brahmā] the Almighty Time arrests its manifestation, whereupon, with the complete whole fallen in darkness, all living entities remain merged in silence. (29) Just as it happens during an ordinary night, all three worlds that disappeared from sight, therewith are bereft of the light of the sun and the moon. (30) When the three worlds are set ablaze by the potency of the fire emanating from the mouth of Lord Sankarshana [see 3.8: 3], sage Bhrigu and the other inhabitants who are agitated by the heat, move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of the godly people [Janaloka, the next world of celibate saints]. (31) Immediately after the beginning of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas overflow with violent winds and hurricanes that blow the waves high. (32) The Lord, who in His mystical slumber with closed eyes lies down on the bed of Ananta within the water, is glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of the God-conscious souls.

(33) By the symptoms of days and nights of the advancement of time, his [Brahmâ's] life and also our lives are limited to a duration of a hundred years, even though in his case it takes a hundred of his years [with his life consisting of two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion human years, see also 3.9: 18]. (34) The first half of his lifetime called one parârdha has passed and now in this age we have begun with the second half. (35) The superior first half started with a grand kalpa called the Brâhma-kalpa in which Lord Brahmâ manifested whom one knows as the [source of the] Vedic sounds. (36) Thereafter, at the end of that enormous span of time, the period called the Pâdma-kalpa came into being in which the lotus of the universe sprouted from the reservoir of water of the Lord's navel. (37) The present kalpa [at the beginning] of the second half, oh descendant of Bharata, is celebrated as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form of a boar [see also 1.3: 7]. (38) The time measured by the two halves of Brahmâ's life takes but a second for the beginningless, unchanging and unlimited Soul of the universe. (39) This eternal time, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the controller of those souls who are identified with their body. (40) As a combination of the basic elements and their transformations this manifest universe has expanded to a diameter of half a billion [yojanas - a dynamic cosmic measure]. (41) [The space occupied by the infinitesimal particles of the primal ether, pradhâna] expanded to the tenfold [of the dimensions of the therefrom condensating basic elements and their transformations] that, appearing like atoms, entered to cluster into many other egg shaped abodes [or galaxies]. (42) That cause of all causes [containing all the universes] is said to be the imperishable Absolute Truth, the supreme abode of the direct, personal manifestation of the Supreme Soul: Lord Vishnu.'

See also the page: "S'rîmad Bhâgavatam & Bhagavad Gîtâ Time Quotes".  

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Third revised edition, loaded December 27, 2016.

 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

Maitreya said: 'One should know that the ultimate presence of that what shows itself in the manifold as being indivisible, consists of an infinitesimal particle [paramânu] the combination of which [into material forms] creates illusion in man.
Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of what shows itself in the many as the indivisible, should always be seen as the atomic from which the oneness of men is misunderstood. (Vedabase)

  

Text 2

The supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies, keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of a continual, unrivaled uniformity.

Surely is, of the truth of physical bodies [of atoms] that keep the same form till the end of time, that which emancipates to the Supreme ever composed into unlimited forms. (Vedabase)

 

Text 3

Time, my best one, besides being known as the supreme, non-manifest Almighty Lord who controls all physical action, can therefore also be measured by the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of particles.

And thus, to the subtle as well as the gross forms, can time be measured, my best, by the motion of the combination of atoms of which the Supreme unmanifest Lord is the great force controlling all physical action. (Vedabase)

 

Text 4

The time of that infinitesimal particle is the time it takes to occupy [or vibrate in] a certain atomic space. The greatest of time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.

That eternal time of the atoms is ascertained by means of the entire aggregate of the space taken by the atoms in their non-dual existence [their expansion], which is the supreme or great of [cosmic] time. (Vedabase)


Text 5

Two infinitesimal particles constitute an atom [an anu] and three atoms make a trasarenu of which one is reminded by a beam of sunlight falling through a lattice window in which sees something [a dust-particle] going up in the sky.

Three times the double of two atoms becomes a hexatom of which one is reminded by what can be known to lighten up in the fluid of ones eye [as a dust-particle], seeing it go up when one looks in the sky. (Vedabase)

 

Text 6

The time taken by the combination of three trasarenus is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha. Three of them are called a single lava.

The time formed by the combination of three hexatoms [in their expanding to the space they take] is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha; the three of them happen to be called but a lava. (Vedabase)

  

Text 7

The duration of three lavas equals one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those make a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] and a laghu consists of fifteen of them [± 2 minutes].

The duration of three lavas is to be known as one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those should be known as a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] of which a laghu is the fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 8

A number of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour], while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a light day or night] depending the human calculation [the season, the latitude].

The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a lightday or night] depending on human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (Vedabase)
  

Text 9

The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till 'prastha' [solid, till it sinks].

The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise. (Vedabase)

 

Text 10

Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it].

Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional or solar] month with two of them forming a season.  There are six of them [respectively 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to the movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky.

The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season of which there are six [resp. 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counted from the 22 of dec.] according the movement of the sun going through the southern and the northern sky. (Vedabase)

 

Text 12

This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].

This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great many [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order']. (Vedabase)

  

Text 13

The infinitesimal particles and their combinations, the planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the universe, to complete their orbit in a year of the Almighty [cyclic order, the command] of eternal  time.

The planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars all rotate along with the atoms in the universe completing their orbits as being a year in the Almighty [or cyclic] of the eternal of time. (Vedabase)

  

Text 14

We speak about an orbit of the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon, oh Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently named] year [respectively a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic year, a lunation and a tropical year].

The orbiting around the sun of the earth and of the other planets as well, the orbiting of our stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky] and also the orbiting moon is, o Vidura, thus spoken of as being one [but differently named] year [resp. a tropical year, a galactic year and a lunation]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 15

With attention for all His five different types of years, one should be of respect for the One [Lord of Time] who, differing from all that was created, moves under the name of Eternal Time and who with His energy in different ways invigorates the seeds of creation while during the day dissipating the darkness of the living entities. By thus performing sacrifices one develops quality in one's material existence.'

The One [Lord of Time] who moves distinct from all the diversity by the name of Eternal Time [cyclic and linear time combined] and by His own energy in different ways brings to life the seeds of creation and dissipates the darkness of the living entities during the day, should be offered respect with attention for all His five different types of [dynamic] years [the solar year, the galactic year, the planetary year, the lunation or any aniversary year], so that one thus by offerings brings about quality in one's material existence. (Vedabase)

 

Text 16

Vidura said: 'You pointed out the ultimate measure of time of the life periods of the ancestors, the gods and the human beings. Can you now, oh great sage, give a description of the time periods of the lives of the elevated souls that cover more than a millennium?

Vidura said: 'Given the traditional, divine and human of the final calculation in the measurement of the timeperiods of the lives of all the supreme living entities, what would be the calculation of the periods that take more than a millennium, o greatly learned one? (Vedabase)

Text 17

Oh mighty master, you know the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of eternal time, for you, in the control of your yogic command, have the eyes of a self-realized soul to oversee the entire universe.'

O mighty one of the Spirit, by dint of the eyes of your yogic vision you are the one that in your self-realization does see of eternal time the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of the entire universe.' (Vedabase)


Text 18

Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali together take approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [comprising 360 vatsaras each].

Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali take together approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [which are assigned 360 vatsaras each]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 19

The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga are each respectively four, three, two and one times 1.200 demigod years long.

The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga each are respectively four, three, two and one time 1.200 demigod years long. (Vedabase)

 

Text 20

Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years. They are millennia [like the millennium we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place.

Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennia we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (Vedabase)

 

Text 21

The dutifulness of mankind concerning the four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and purity] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one [first penance, then compassion, then purity].

The complete sense of duty of mankind in its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and cleanliness] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but certainly in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one with irreligion proportionately being more and more admitted. (Vedabase)

 

Text 22

Next to the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas that, oh dear one, together constitute one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years] of the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones], there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep.

Apart from the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas for the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones] in the realm of the Absolute [Brahmaloka] that for sure make one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years], o dear one, there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (Vedabase)

 

Text 23

Following the end of the night when another day of Lord Brahmâ begins, the creation of the three worlds, that in its totality covers the lives of fourteen Manus, starts all over.

Following the end of the night with the beginning of another day of Lord Brahmâ the creation of the three worlds begins again in its totality covering the lives of fourteen Manus. (Vedabase)

 

Text 24

Each Manu thus enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ-]yugas.

Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ- that is a set of four] yugas. (Vedabase)

 

Text 25

After the end of each Manu, the next one appears together with his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious souls and the king of the demigods [Indra] as also all those who follow them.

With the ending of each Manu, the next one follows along with the flourishing of his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious and the demigods with all of the following after them. (Vedabase)

Text 26

This is Lord Brahmâ's day to day creation wherein the lower animals, the human beings, the forefathers and the gods wander around, appearing in the three worlds because of their karma.

All these creations of the lower animals, the human beings, the ancestors and the demigods belonging to the one creation of a day of Brahmâ, are revolving through the three worlds appearing therein in the cycles of their own fruitive activities. (Vedabase)


Text 27

With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations, as the Manu Himself and as others, and thus unfolding His divine potencies He maintains this universe.

With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations as the Manu Himself that maintains this universe for the unfolding of the divine potencies. (Vedabase)


Text 28

At the end of the day [of Brahmā] the Almighty Time arrests its manifestation, whereupon, with the complete whole fallen in darkness, all living entities remain merged in silence.

At the end of the day [of Brahmâ] is by the Almighty Time all the power of manifestation taken in and stay, with the material world contracted in the darkness, all living entities silent in being merged. (Vedabase)

Text 29

Just as it happens during an ordinary night, all three worlds that disappeared from sight, therewith are bereft of the light of the sun and the moon.

For sure are thereafter the realities of the three worlds that entered into the night of Brahmâ, just as it is with an ordinary night, without the glare of the sun and the moon. (Vedabase)


Text 30

When the three worlds are set ablaze by the potency of the fire emanating from the mouth of Lord Sankarshana [see 3.8: 3], sage Bhrigu and the other inhabitants who are agitated by the heat, move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of the godly people [Janaloka, the next world of celibate saints].

When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarshana [see 3-8: 3], then the sage Bhrigu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of men [Janaloka, the next world]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 31

Immediately after the beginning of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas overflow with violent winds and hurricanes that blow the waves high.

Immediately after the beginning of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas overflow with the agitation of violent winds and hurricanes that are blowing the waves. (Vedabase)

 

Text 32

The Lord, who in His mystical slumber with closed eyes lies down on the bed of Ananta within the water, is glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of the God-conscious souls.

In the water there is on the seat of Ananta the Lord in His mystic slumber with His eyes closed being glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of man. (Vedabase)


Text 33

By the symptoms of days and nights of the advancement of time, his [Brahmâ's] life and also our lives are limited to a duration of a hundred years, even though in his case it takes a hundred of his years [with his life consisting of two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion human years, see also 3.9: 18].

Thus in the course of time there is decline through these days and nights of ending His [Brahmâ's] life just like it is with our lives, although it takes a hundred years [to him: two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion years, see also 3.9: 18]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 34

The first half of his lifetime called one parârdha has passed and now in this age we have begun with the second half.

The first half of the duration of His life called one parârdha has now passed and surely in this age we have begun with the second half. (Vedabase)

 

Text 35

The superior first half started with a grand kalpa called the Brâhma-kalpa in which Lord Brahmâ manifested whom one knows as the [source of the] Vedic sounds.

In the beginning of the superior first half there was a millennium named the Brâhma-kalpa in which the great was manifested whereupon Lord Brahmâ and the known sounds of the Veda appeared. (Vedabase)


Text 36

Thereafter, at the end of that enormous span of time, the period called the Pâdma-kalpa came into being in which the lotus of the universe sprouted from the reservoir of water of the Lord's navel.

And thereafter at the end of the Brâhma-millennium came into being what is called the Pâdma-kalpa in which from the Lord His navel the lotus of the universe sprouted. (Vedabase)

 

Text 37

The present kalpa [at the beginning] of the second half, oh descendant of Bharata, is celebrated as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form of a boar [see also 1.3: 7].

This current millennium at the beginning of the second half is factually celebrated, o descendant of Bharata, as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form alike that of a hog [see also 1.3: 7]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 38

The time measured by the two halves of Brahmâ's life takes but a second for the beginningless, unchanging and unlimited Soul of the universe.

This eternal time of the two halves of Brahmâ's life is but a second compared to the unchanging, unlimited and surely beginningless Soul of the universe. (Vedabase)

 

Text 39

This eternal time, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the controller of those souls who are identified with their body.

This eternal time which, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is the controller of the ones of body consciousness, is for sure never capable of controlling the Supreme. (Vedabase)

 

Text 40

As a combination of the basic elements and their transformations this manifest universe has expanded to a diameter of half a billion [yojanas - a dynamic cosmic measure].

Along with the transformation of the elements the henceforth united manifestations expanded outside covering with a universe of half a billion. (Vedabase)


Text 41

[The space occupied by the infinitesimal particles of the primal ether, pradhâna] expanded to the tenfold [of the dimensions of the therefrom condensating basic elements and their transformations] that, appearing like atoms, entered to cluster into many other egg shaped abodes [or galaxies].

Enlarged up to ten times these units [or the secondary elements] that like atoms entered into it evidently came together and clustered with each other into huge universes [or galaxies]. (Vedabase)


Text 42

That cause of all causes [containing all the universes] is said to be the imperishable Absolute Truth, the supreme abode of the direct, personal manifestation of the Supreme Soul: Lord Vishnu.'

That is said to be the infallible supreme cause of all causes, the supreme abode of the Maintainer and without doubt the original incarnation of the person of the Universal Mind [Mahâ-Vishnu].' (Vedabase)


 

 

 

 

 

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