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"The Story of the Fortunate One"

Third revised version 2012



CANTO 1: Creation


Chapter 1 Questions by the Sages

Chapter 2 Divinity and Divine Service

Chapter 3 Krishna is the Source of all Incarnations.

Chapter 4 The Appearance of S'rî Nârada.

Chapter 5 Nârada's Instructions on S'rîmad Bhâgavatam for Vyâsadeva

Chapter 6 The Conversation between Nârada and Vyâsadeva

Chapter 7 The Son of Drona Punished

Chapter 8 Parîkchit Saved and Prayers by Queen Kuntî

Chapter 9 The Passing Away of Bhîshmadeva in the Presence of Krishna

Chapter 10 The Departure of Krishna for Dvârakâ

Chapter 11 S'rî Krishna's Entrance into Dvârakâ

Chapter 12 The Birth of Emperor Parîkchit

Chapter 13 Dhritarâshthra Quits Home

Chapter 14 The Disappearance of Krishna

Chapter 15 The Pândavas Retire

Chapter 16 How Parîkchit Received the Age of Kali

Chapter 17 Punishment and Reward of Kali

Chapter 18 Mahârâja Parîkchit Cursed by a Brahmin Boy

Chapter 19 The Appearance of S'ukadeva Gosvâmî


CANTO 2: The Cosmic Manifestation


Chapter 1 The First Step in God Realization.

Chapter 2 The Lord in the Heart.

Chapter 3 Pure Devotional Service - The Change in Heart.

Chapter 4 The Process of Creation

Chapter 5 The Cause of All Causes

Chapter 6 The Hymn of the Original Person Confirmed

Chapter 7 Brief Description of the Past and Coming Avatâras

Chapter 8 Questions by King Parîkchit

Chapter 9 Answering by Citing the Lords Version

Chapter 10 The Bhâgavatam is the Answer to All Questions

CANTO 3: The Status Quo


Chapter 1 Questions by Vidura

Chapter 2 Remembrance of Lord Krishna.

Chapter 3 The Lord's Pastimes Outside of Vrindâvana

Chapter 4 Vidura Approaches Maitreya

Chapter 5 Vidura Talks with Maitreya

Chapter 6 Manifestation of the Universal Form

Chapter 7 Further Inquiries by Vidura.

Chapter 8 Manifestation of Brahmâ from Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu.

Chapter 9 Brahmâ's Prayers for Creative Energy.

Chapter 10 Divisions of the Creation.

Chapter 11 Division of time expanding from the atom.

Chapter 12 Creation of the Kumâras and Others

Chapter 13 The Appearance of Lord Varâha

Chapter 14 The Impregnation of Diti in the Evening

Chapter 15 Description of the Kingdom of God

Chapter 16 The Two Doorkeepers of Vaikunthha, Cursed by the Sages

Chapter 17 Victory of Hiranyâksha over All the Directions of the Universe

Chapter 18 The Battle Between Lord Boar and the Demon Hiranyâksha 

Chapter 19 The Killing of the Demon Hiranyâksha

Chapter 20 The Beings Created by Brahmâ

Chapter 21 The Conversation Between Manu and Kardama

Chapter 22 The Marriage of Kardama Muni and Devahûti

Chapter 23 Devahûti's Lamentation

Chapter 24 The Renunciation of Kardama Muni

Chapter 25 The Glories of Devotional Service

Chapter 26 Fundamental Principles of Material Nature

Chapter 27 Understanding Material Nature

Chapter 28 Kapila's Instructions on the Execution of Devotional Service

Chapter 29 Explanation of Devotional Service by Lord Kapila

Chapter 30 Lord Kapila Describes the Adverse Consequences of Fruitive Activities

Chapter 31 Lord Kapila's Instructions on the Wanderings of the Living Entities

Chapter 32 The Entanglement in Fruitive Activities

Chapter 33 The Renunciation of Devahûti

CANTO 4: The Creation of the Fourth Order, the Lord's Protection


Chapter 1 Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu

Chapter 2 Daksha Curses Lord S'iva

Chapter 3 Talks Between Lord S'iva and Satî

Chapter 4 Satî Quits Her Body

Chapter 5 Frustration of the Sacrifice of Daksha

Chapter 6 Brahmâ Satîsfies Lord S'iva

Chapter 7 The Sacrifice Performed by Daksha

Chapter 8 Dhruva Leaves Home for the Forest

Chapter 9 Dhruva Returns Home from the Forest

Chapter 10 Dhruva Mahârâja's Fight with the Yakshas

Chapter 11 Svâyambhuva Manu Advises Dhruva Mahârâja to Stop Fighting

Chapter 12 Dhruva Mahârâja Goes Back to Godhead

Chapter 13 Description of the Descendants of Dhruva Mahârâja

Chapter 14 The Story of King Vena

Chapter 15 King Prithu's Appearance and Coronation

Chapter 16  King Prithu extolled

Chapter 17  Prithu Mahârâja Gets Angry with the Earth

Chapter 18  Prithu Mahârâja Milks the Earth

Chapter 19 King Prithu's One Hundred Horse Sacrifices

Chapter 20 Lord Vishnu's Appearance in the Sacrificial Arena of Mahârâja Prithu

Chapter 21 Instructions by Mahârâja Prithu

Chapter 22 Prithu Mahârâja's Meeting with the Four Kumâras

Chapter 23  Prithu Mahârâja Returns Back Home

Chapter 24 The Song Sung by Lord S'iva

Chapter 25 About the Character of King Purañjana

Chapter 26 King Purañjana Goes Hunting and Finds His Morose Wife.

Chapter 27 Attack by Candavega on the City of King Purañjana; the Character of Kâlakanyâ.

Chapter 28 Purañjana Becomes a Woman in his Next Life.

Chapter 29 The Conversation of Nârada and King Prâcînabarhi

Chapter 30 The Activities of the Pracetâs

Chapter 31 Nârada Instructs the Pracetâs


CANTO 5: The Creative Impetus


Chapter 1 The Activities of Mahârâja Priyavrata  

Chapter 2 The Activities of Mahârâja Âgnîdhra

Chapter 3 Rishabhadeva's Appearance in the Womb of Merudevî, the Wife of King Nâbhi.

Chapter 4 The Characteristics of Rishabhadeva

Chapter 5 Lord Rishabhadeva's Teachings to His Sons

Chapter 6 Lord Rishabhadeva's Activities

Chapter 7 The Activities of King Bharata

Chapter 8 The Rebirth of Bharata Mahârâja

Chapter 9 The Supreme Character of Jada Bharata

Chapter 10 Jada Bharata Meets Mahârâja Rahûgana

Chapter 11 Jada Bharata Instructs King Rahûgana

Chapter 12 The Conversation between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

Chapter 13 Further talks between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

Chapter 14 The Material World as the Great Forest of Enjoyment

Chapter 15 The Glories of the Descendants of King Priyavrata

Chapter 16 How the Lord can be Comprehended as a Matter of Fact.

Chapter 17: The Descent of the River Ganges

Chapter 18 Prayers to the Different Avatâras

Chapter 19 The Prayers of Hanumân and Nârada and the Glories of Bhârata-varsha

Chapter 20 The Structure of the Different Dvîpas and the Prayers by their Different People

Chapter 21 The Reality of the Sungod Sûrya

Chapter 22 The Movement of the Planets and their Considered Effects

Chapter 23 Description of the Stars of S'is'umâra, our Coiling Galaxy

Chapter 24 The Nether Worlds

Chapter 25 The Glories of Lord Ananta

Chapter 26 The Hellish Worlds or the Karmic Rebound


CANTO 6: Prescribed Duties for Mankind


Chapter 1 Dharma and Adharma: the Life of Ajâmila

Chapter 2 Ajâmila Delivered by the Vishnudûtas: the motivation for the Holy Name

Chapter 3 Yamarâja Instructs His Messengers

Chapter 4 The Hamsa-guhya Prayers Offered to the Lord by Prajâpati Daksha

Chapter 5 Nârada Muni Cursed by Prajâpati Daksha

Chapter 6 The Progeny of the Daughters of Daksha

Chapter 7 Indra Offends His Spiritual Master, Brihaspati

Chapter 8 The Armor of Mantras that Protected Indra

Chapter 9 Appearance of the Demon Vritrâsura

Chapter 10 The Battle Between the Demigods and Vritrâsura

Chapter 11 The Transcendental Qualities of Vritrâsura

Chapter 12 Vritrâsura's Glorious Death

Chapter 13 King Indra Afflicted by Sinful Reaction

Chapter 14 King Citraketu's Lamentation

Chapter 15 The Sages Nârada and Angirâ Instruct King Citraketu

Chapter 16 King Citraketu Meets the Supreme Lord

Chapter 17 Mother Pârvatî Curses Citraketu

Chapter 18 Diti Vows to Kill King Indra

Chapter 19 Performing the Pumsavana Ritualistic Ceremony 


CANTO 7: The Science of God


Chapter 1 The Supreme Lord Is Equal unto Everyone

Chapter 2 Hiranyakas'ipu, the King of the Demons, on Bereavement

Chapter 3 Hiranyakas'ipu's Plan to Become Immortal

Chapter 4 Hiranyakas'ipu Terrorizes the Universe

Chapter 5 Prahlâda Mahârâja, the Saintly Son of Hiranyakas'ipu

Chapter 6 Prahlâda Instructs His Asura Schoolmates

Chapter 7 What Prahlâda Learned in the Womb

Chapter 8 Lord Nrisimhadeva Slays the King of the Demons

Chapter 9 Prahlâda Propitiates Lord Nrisimhadeva with Prayer

Chapter 10 About Prahlâda, the Best Among the Exalted Devotees and the fall of Tripura.

Chapter 11 The Perfect Society: About the Four Social Classes and the Woman

Chapter 12 The Four Âs'ramas and How to Leave the Body

Chapter 13 The Behavior of a Saintly Person

Chapter 14 The Supreme of the Householder's Life

Chapter 15 Nârada's Instructions on Vegetarian Sharing, Irreligion, Healing, Yoga and Advaita  


CANTO 8: Withdrawal of the Cosmic Creations


Chapter 1 The Manus, Administrators of the Universe

Chapter 2 The Crisis of the Elephant Gajendra

Chapter 3 Gajendra's Prayers of Surrender

Chapter 4 Gajendra Returns to the Spiritual World

Chapter 5 The Fifth and Sixth Manu and the Prayers of Brahmâ with the Suras.

Chapter 6 The Suras and Asuras Declare a Truce

Chapter 7 Lord S'iva Drinks the Poison Churned with the Mountain Mandara

Chapter 8 More Appears from the Churning: Mother Lakshmî and Dhanvantari

Chapter 9 The Lord Appears as a Beautiful Woman to Distribute the Nectar

Chapter 10 The Battle Between the Demigods and the Demons

Chapter 11 The Dânavas Annihilated and Revived

Chapter 12 Lord S'iva prays to see Mohinî Mûrti, gets bewildered and restores.

Chapter 13 Description of Future Manus

Chapter 14 The System of Universal Management

Chapter 15 Bali Mahârâja Conquers the Heavenly Places

Chapter 16 Aditi Initiated into the Payo-vrata Ceremony, the Best of All Sacrifices

Chapter 17: The Supreme Lord Agrees to Become Aditi's Son

Chapter 18 Lord Vâmanadeva, the Dwarf Incarnation

Chapter 19 Lord Vâmanadeva Begs Charity from Bali Mahârâja

Chapter 20 Lord Vâmanadeva Covers all Worlds

Chapter 21 Bali Mahârâja Arrested by the Lord

Chapter 22 Bali Mahârâja Surrenders His Life

Chapter 23 The Demigods Regain the Heavenly Places

Chapter 24 Matsya, the Lord's Fish Incarnation


CANTO 9: Liberation


Chapter 1 King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman

Chapter 2 The Dynasties of Six of the Sons of Manu

Chapter 3 The Marriage of S'ukanyâ and Cyavana Muni

Chapter 4 Ambarîsha Mahârâja Offended by Durvâsâ Muni

Chapter 5 Durvâsâ Saved: the Cakra-prayers of Ambarîsha

Chapter 6 The Downfall of Saubhari Muni

Chapter 7 The Descendants of King Mândhâtâ

Chapter 8 The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva

Chapter 9 The Dynasty of Ams'umân

Chapter 10 The Pastimes of Lord Râmacandra

Chapter 11 Lord Râmacandra Rules the World

Chapter 12 The Dynasty of Kus'a, the Son of Lord Râmacandra

Chapter 13 The Story of Nimi and the Dynasty of his Son Mithila.

Chapter 14 King Purûravâ Enchanted by Urvas'î

Chapter 15 Paras'urâma, the Lord's Warrior Incarnation

Chapter 16 How Lord Paras'urâma Came to Destroy the Ruling Class Twenty-one Times

Chapter 17: The Dynasties of the Sons of Purûravâ

Chapter 18 King Yayâti Regains his Youth

Chapter 19 King Yayâti Achieves Liberation: the Goats of Lust

Chapter 20 The Dynasty of Pûru up to Bharata

Chapter 21 The Dynasty of Bharata: the Story of Rantideva

Chapter 22 The Descendants of Ajamîdha: the Pândavas and Kauravas

Chapter 23 The Dynasties of the Sons of Yayâti: the Appearance of Lord Krishna

Chapter 24 The Yadu and Vrishni Dynasties, Prithâ and the Glory of Lord Krishna


CANTO 10: Summum Bonum


Chapter 1 The Advent of Lord Krishna: Introduction

Chapter 2 Prayers by the Demigods for Lord Krishna in the Womb

Chapter 3 The Birth of Lord Krishna

Chapter 4 The Atrocities of King Kamsa

Chapter 5 Krishna's Birth Ceremony and the Meeting of Nanda Mahârâja and Vasudeva

Chapter 6 The Killing of the Demoness Pûtanâ

Chapter 7 Krishna Kicks the Cart, Defeats Trinâvarta and Shows Yas'odâ the Universe

Chapter 8 The Name Ceremony, His Pranks and Again the Universe Within His Mouth

Chapter 9 Mother Yas'odâ Binds Lord Krishna

Chapter 10 The Deliverance of the Sons of Kuvera

Chapter 11 A New Residence, the Fruit Vendor and Vatsâsura and Bakâsura Defeated

Chapter 12 The Killing of the Demon Aghâsura

Chapter 13 Lord Brahmâ Steals the Boys and Calves

Chapter 14 Brahmâ's Prayers to Lord Krishna

Chapter 15 The Killing of Dhenuka, the Ass Demon and Poison in the River

Chapter 16 Krishna Chastises the Serpent Kâliya

Chapter 17: The History of Kâliya and Krishna Swallows a Forest Fire.

Chapter 18 Lord Balarâma Slays the Demon Pralamba

Chapter 19 Krishna Swallows Again a Forest Fire

Chapter 20 The Rainy Season and Autumn in Vrindâvana

Chapter 21 The Gopîs Glorify the Song of Krishna's Flute

Chapter 22 Krishna Steals the Garments of the Unmarried Gopîs

Chapter 23 The Brahmin Wives Blessed

Chapter 24 Krishna Defies Indra in Favor of the Brahmins, the Cows and Govardhana Hill

Chapter 25 Lord Krishna Lifts Govardhana Hill

Chapter 26 Lord Indra and Mother Surabhi Offer Prayers

Chapter 27 Nanda Recapitulates the words of Garga before the Puzzled Gopas

Chapter 28 Krishna Rescues Nanda Mahârâja from the Abode of Varuna

Chapter 29 The Râsa Play: Krishna Meets and Escapes the Gopîs at Night

Chapter 30 The Gopîs Search for Krishna Who Disappeared with Râdhâ

Chapter 31 The Songs of the Gopîs in Separation

Chapter 32 Krishna Returns to the Gopîs

Chapter 33 The Râsa Dance

Chapter 34 Sudars'ana Delivered and S'ankhacûda Killed

Chapter 35 The Gopîs Sing about Krishna as He Wanders in the Forest

Chapter 36 The Bull Arishthâsura Defeated and Akrûra Sent by Kamsa

Chapter 37 Kes'î and Vyoma Killed and Nârada Eulogizes Krishna's Future

Chapter 38 Akrûra's Musing and Reception in Gokula

Chapter 39 Krishna and Balarâma Leave for Mathurâ

Chapter 40 Akrûra's Prayers

Chapter 41 The Lords' Arrival in Mathurâ

Chapter 42 The Breaking of the Sacrificial Bow

Chapter 43 Krishna Kills the Elephant Kuvalayâpîda

Chapter 44 The Wrestling Match and the Killing of Kamsa

Chapter 45 Krishna Rescues His Teacher's Son

Chapter 46 Uddhava Spends the Night in Gokula Talking with Nanda

Chapter 47: The Gopî Reveals Her Emotions: The Song of the Bee

Chapter 48 Krishna Pleases His Devotees

Chapter 49 Akrûra's Mission in Hastinâpura

Chapter 50 Krishna Uses Jarâsandha and Establishes the City of Dvârakâ

Chapter 51 The Deliverance of Mucukunda

Chapter 52 The Lords Leap from a Mountain and Rukminî's Message to Lord Krishna

Chapter 53 Krishna Kidnaps Rukminî

Chapter 54 Rukmî's Defeat and Krishna Married

Chapter 55 The History of Pradyumna

Chapter 56 How the Syamantaka jewel Brought Krishna Jâmbavatî and Satyabhâmâ

Chapter 57 Satrâjit Murdered, the Jewel Stolen and Returned Again

Chapter 58 Krishna also Weds Kâlindî, Mitravindâ, Satyâ, Lakshmanâ and Bhadrâ

Chapter 59 Mura and Bhauma Killed and the Prayers of Bhûmi

Chapter 60 Lord Krishna Teases Queen Rukminî

Chapter 61 Lord Balarâma Slays Rukmî at Aniruddha's Wedding

Chapter 62 Ûshâ in Love and Aniruddha Apprehended

Chapter 63 The Fever in Conflict and Bâna Defeated

Chapter 64 On Stealing from a Brahmin: King Nriga a Chameleon

Chapter 65 Lord Balarâma in Vrindâvana and the Stream Divided

Chapter 66 The False Vâsudeva Paundraka and His Son Consumed by Their Own Fire

Chapter 67 Balarâma Slays the Ape Dvivida

Chapter 68 The Marriage of Sâmba and the Kuru City Dragged Trembling of His Anger

Chapter 69 Nârada Muni's Vision of Krishna in His Household Affairs

Chapter 70 Krishna's Routines, Troubles and Nârada Pays Another Visit

Chapter 71 The Lord Travels to Indraprastha on Advice of Uddhava

Chapter 72 Jarâsandha Killed by Bhîma and the Kings Freed

Chapter 73 Lord Krishna Blesses the Liberated Kings

Chapter 74 The Râjasûya: Krishna Number One and S'is'upâla Killed

Chapter 75 Concluding the Râjasûya and Duryodhana Laughed at

Chapter 76 The Battle Between S'âlva and the Vrishnis

Chapter 77 S'âlva and the Saubha fortress Finished

Chapter 78 Dantavakra Killed and Romaharshana Slain with a Blade of Grass

Chapter 79 Lord Balarâma Slays Balvala and Visits the Holy Places

Chapter 80 An Old Brahmin Friend Visits Krishna

Chapter 81 The Brahmin Honored: Lord Krishna the Godhead of the Brahmins

Chapter 82 All Kings and the Inhabitants of Vrindâvana on Pilgrimage Reunite with Krishna

Chapter 83 Draupadî Meets the Queens of Krishna

Chapter 84 Vasudeva of Sacrifice to the Sages at Kurukshetra Explaining the Path of Success

Chapter 85 Lord Krishna Instructs Vasudeva and Retrieves Devakî's Sons

Chapter 86 Arjuna Kidnaps Subhadrâ, and Krishna Instructs Bahulas'va and S'rutadeva

Chapter 87: The Underlying Mystery: Prayers of the Personified Vedas

Chapter 88 Lord S'iva Saved from Vrikâsura

Chapter 89 Vishnu the Best of the Gods and the Krishnas Retrieve a brahmin's Sons

Chapter 90 The Queens Play and Speak and Lord Krishna's Glories Summarized


CANTO 11: Krishna's Final Instructions


Chapter 1 The Curse Upon the Yadu Dynasty

Chapter 2 Mahârâja Nimi Meets the Nine Yogendras

Chapter 3 Liberation from Mâyâ and Karma Knowing and Worshiping the Lord

Chapter 4 The Activities of Nara-Nârâyana and the other Avatâras described

Chapter 5 Nârada Concludes His Teachings to Vasudeva

Chapter 6 Retirement on the Advise of Brahmâ and Uddhava Addressed in Private

Chapter 7 Krishna Speaks about the Masters of the Avadhûta and the Pigeon of Attachment

Chapter 8 What One Learns from Nature and the Story of Pingalâ

Chapter 9 Detachment from All that is Material

Chapter 10 The Soul Free, the Soul Bound

Chapter 11 Bondage and Liberation Explained and the Devotional Service of the Saintly Person

Chapter 12 The Confidential Secret Beyond Renunciation and Knowledge

Chapter 13 The Hams'a-avatâra Answers the Questions of the Sons of Brahmâ

Chapter 14 The Devotional Coherence of the Methods and the Meditation on Vishnu

Chapter 15 Mystical Perfection: the Siddhis

Chapter 16 The Lord's Opulence

Chapter 17: The Varnâs'rama System and the Boat of Bhakti: the Students and the Householders

Chapter 18 The Varnâs'rama System: the Withdrawn and the Renounced

Chapter 19 The Perfection of Spiritual Knowledge

Chapter 20 Trikânda Yoga: Bhakti Surpasses Knowledge and Detachment

Chapter 21 On Distinguishing between Good and Bad

Chapter 22 Prakriti and Purusha: Nature and the Enjoyer

Chapter 23 Forbearance: the Song of the Avantî Brâhmana

Chapter 24 Analytic Knowledge, Sânkhya, Summarized

Chapter 25 The Three modes of nature and Beyond

Chapter 26 The Song of Purûravâ

Chapter 27 On Respecting the Form of the Lord

Chapter 28 Jñâna Yoga or the Denomination and the Real

Chapter 29 Bhakti Yoga: the Most Auspicious way to Conquer Death

Chapter 30 The Disappearance of the Yadu dynasty

Chapter 31 The Ascension of Lord Krishna


CANTO 12: The Age of Deterioration


Chapter 1 The Degraded Dynasties and Corrupt Nature of the Rulers of Kali-yuga

Chapter 2 Despair and Hope in the Age of Quarrel

Chapter 3 The Song of Mother Earth and Kali-yuga its Remedy

Chapter 4 Pralaya: The Four Types of Annihilation

Chapter 5 Final Instructions to Mahârâja Parîkchit

Chapter 6 Mahârâja Parîkchit Liberated and the Veda Handed Down in Four

Chapter 7 The Devotion in Samhitâ Branches and the Ten Topics of the Purânas

Chapter 8 Mârkandeya Resists All Temptation and Prays to Nara-Nârâyana Rishi

Chapter 9 Mârkandeya is Shown the Lord's Bewildering Potency

Chapter 10 S'iva, Lord and Helper Glorifies Mârkandeya Rishi

Chapter 11 Vishnu's Attributes and the Order of the Month of Him as the Sun god

Chapter 12 The Topics of S'rîmad Bhâgavatam Summarized

Chapter 13 The Glories of S'rîmad Bhâgavatam




This book tells the story of the Lord and His incarnations since the earliest records of Vedic history. It is verily the Krishna 'bible' [in Sanskrit called a samhitâ] of the Hindu universe. The Bhagavad Gîtâ relates to this book like the sermon on the mountain by Lord Jesus relates to the full Bible. It has about 18.000 verses contained in 335 chapters and consists of 12 subdivisons of books that are called Cantos. These books together tell the complete history of the Vedic culture and cover the essence of the classical collections of stories called the Purânas. This specific collection of Vedic stories is considered the most important one of all the great eigtheen classical Purânas of India. It includes the cream of the Vedic knowledge compiled from all the Vedic literatures as also the story of the life of Lord Krishna in full (Canto 10). It depicts His birth, His youth, all His wonderful proofs of His divine nature and His superhuman feats of defeating all kinds of demons up to the great Mahâbhârat war at Kurukshetra. This leading Purâna also called the 'perfect Purâna', is a brilliant story that has been brought to the West by S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda, a Caitanya Vaishnava, a bhakti (devotional) monk of Lord Vishnu [the name for the transcendental form of Lord Krishna]. He undertook the daring task of enlightening the materialist westerners, the advanced philosophers and theologians, in order to help them to overcome the perils and loneliness of impersonalism and the philosophy of emptiness.

For the translation the author of this internet version has consulted the translations of C.L Goswami. M.A., Sâstrî (from the Gîtâ Press, Gorakhpur), the paramparâ [disciplic succession] version of S'rîla Vishvanâtha Cakravarti Thhâkura and the later version of this book by S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. The latter translators as âcâryas [guru teaching by example] of the age-old Indian Vaishnava tradition are representatives of a culture of reformation of the devotion for God or bhakti, the way it has been practiced in India since the 16th century. This reformation contends that the false authority of the caste system and single dry book knowledge is to be rejected. S'rî Krishna Caitanya also called Caitanya Mahâprabhu, the avatâra [an incarnation of the Lord] who heralded this reform, restored the original purpose of developing devotion to God and endeavored especially for dissemination of the two main sacred scriptures expounding on that devotion in relation to Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These scriptures are the Bhagavad Gîtâ and this Bhâgavata Purâna, that is also called the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, from which all the Vaishnava âcâryas derived their wisdom for the purpose of instruction and the shaping of their devotion. The word for word translations as also the full text and commentaries of this book were studied within and without the Hare Krishna temples where the teaching of this culture takes place in India, Europe and America. The purpose of the translation is first of all to make this glorious text available to a wider audience over the Internet. Since the Bible, the Koran and numerous other holy texts are readily available, the author meant that this book could not stay behind on the shelf of his own bookcase as a token of material possessiveness. When we started with this endeavor in the year 2000 there was no proper web presentation of this book. Knowledge not shared is knowledge lost, and certainly this type of knowledge which stresses the yoga of non-possessiveness and devotion as one of its main values could not be left out. The version of Swami Prabhupâda is very extensive covering some 2400 pages of plain fine printed text including his commentaries. And that were only the first ten Cantos. The remaining two Cantos were posthumously published by his pupils in the full of his spirit. I thus was faced with two daring challenges: one was to concatenate the text or make a readable running narrative of the book that had been dissected to the single word and the second challenge was to put it into a language that would befit the 21st century with all its modern and postmodern experience and digital progress of the present cultural order of the world, without losing anything of its original verses. Thus another verse to verse as-it-is translation came about in which Vishvanâtha's, Prabhupâda's and Sâstrî's words were pruned, retranslated and set to the understanding and realization of today. This realization in my case originated directly from the disciplic line of succession of the Vaishnava line of âcâryas (teachers) as also from a realization of the total field of indian philosophy of enlightenment and yoga discipline as was brought to the West by also non-Vaishnava gurus and maintained by their pupils. Therefore the author has to express his gratitude to all these great heroes who dared to face the adamantine of western philosophy with all its doubts, concreticism and skepticism. Especially the pupils of Prabhupâda, members of the renounced order (sannyâsîs) who instructed the author in the independence and maturity of the philosophy of the bhakti-yogis of Lord Caitanya need to be mentioned. I was already initiated in India by a non-Vaishnava guru and have been given the name of Swami Anand Aadhar ('teacher of the foundation of happiness'). That name the Krishna community converted into Anand Aadhar Prabhu ('master of the foundation of happiness') without further ceremonies of Vaishnava initiation (apart from a basic training). With the name Anand Aadhar I am a withdrawn devotee, a so-called vânaprashta, who does his devotional service independently in the silence and modesty of his local adaptations of the philosophy.

In most cases the word for word translations and grammatical directions of S'rîla A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda/ISKCON, Vishvanâtha Cakravarti Thhâkura and C.L. Goswami. M.A., Sâstrî have been followed as they were used in their translations and I have checked them with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary [see the file of the terms used]. In footnotes and between square brackets [ ] sometimes a little comment and extra info is given to accommodate the reader when the original text is drawing from a more experienced approach. On the internetsite of this book, my version refers to the version of Prabhupâda that is linked up at each verse together with my own previous version so that it is possible to retrace at any moment what I have done with the text. This is in accordance with the scientific tradition of the Vaishnava community.

For the copyright on this translation the so-called Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License has been chosen. This means that one is free to copy, distribute and alter the text on the condition of attribution (refer to the name of Anand Aadhar and to my website address, that the resulting work can only be distributed under the same or similar license to this one and that one cannot use the text for commercial purposes. For all other usage one will have to contact the author.

With love and devotion, Anand Aadhar Prabhu, Enschede, The Netherlands, April 17, 2012.

CANTO 1: Creation


Chapter 1: Questions by the Sages

(1) Let there be the salutation of the original appearance of Him, Vâsudeva, the Fortunate One, from whom, being present here and in the beyond, for the purpose of recollection and full independence, the Vedic knowledge was imparted in the heart of the first created being [Lord Brahmâ]. About Him the enlightened [as surely also the ordinary] souls are, like with a mirage of water to the [fire of the] sun, in a state of illusion wherein, through the action and reaction of the modes of material nature, there is the [apparent] certainty of the factual. I meditate upon Him who is always self-sufficient and the transcendental [supreme and absolute] truth free from illusion.

(2) In this book deceitful religiosity [of ulterior motives] is rejected. One finds in it the highest that can be comprehended by selfless, truth-loving people. Herein that is offered what factually implies the well-being that uproots the threefold miseries [as caused by oneself, others and by nature]. What would be the need of other stories when one finds in this book the beautiful story of the Fortunate One that was compiled by the great sage [Vyâsadeva] which, with the help of the pious ones who are diligently of service, forthwith establishes the Controller in the heart. (3) It is the ripened fruit from the desire tree of the Vedic literatures that flowing from the lips of S'ukadeva manifested as sweet nectar perfect in every way. Oh you expert and thoughtful ones delighting in devotion, ever relish the home of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam!

(4) In the forest of Naimishâranya, a spot favored by Vishnu, sages headed by the sage S'aunaka performed a thousand-year sacrifice for the Lord of heaven and the devotees on earth. (5) One morning, burning the sacrificial fire, the sages asked with due respect S'rîla Sûta Gosvâmî, who was offered a seat of honor, the following: (6) "You, free from all vice as you are and familiar with the stories and historical records, are said to be well versed in the religious scriptures that you explained as well. (7) As the eldest of the scholars of the Vedas you know Vyâsadeva, the Lord among them - and Sûta, you know also the other ones well versed in physical and metaphysical knowledge. (8) Pure and simple natured, you because of their grace are well-informed concerning all the matters in question; spiritual masters [after all] will confide to a submissive disciple all the secrets they know. (9) Being blessed therefore with a long life, please tell us in simple terms from your heart of goodness what you could ascertain to be the absolute and ultimate good that all people deserve. (10) In general, oh honorable one, the people in this age of Kali are lazy, misguided, unlucky and above all disturbed. (11) There are many scriptures with as many prescribed duties that each separately demand attention. Therefore oh sage, tell us for the good of all living beings what, to the best of your knowledge, would be the essence that satisfies the soul. (12) You are blessed Sûta because you know the purpose for which the Supreme One, the protector of the devotees, appeared in the womb of Devakî as the son of Vasudeva. (13) Please Sûta you should, according to the tradition, tell us who are aching for it about His incarnation for the good and upliftment of all living beings. (14) Entangled in the complications of birth and death we will find liberation even if we are not fully aware engaged in respecting the name of the Lord who is feared by fear itself. (15) Oh Sûta, those who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of the great sages who are absorbed in devotion immediately find purification by simply associating with them, whereas such purification with the water of the Ganges is only achieved when one cultivates it. (16) Is there anyone eager for liberation who would not rather want to hear about the Lord's worshipable, virtuous deeds and glories as the sanctifier for the Age of Quarrel [Kali]? (17) He is hailed by the great souls for His transcendental glories. Please tell us, eager believers, about the pastimes of His descent in time. (18) Describe for that reason to us, oh sagacious one, the auspicious adventures and pastimes of the multiple incarnations of the Supreme Controller's personal energies. (19) We who know to appreciate the taste are never tired of continually praying and hearing about the adventures of the One Glorified that delight us time and again. (20) In the guise of a human being He with Balarâma [His elder brother] was of a superhuman performance. (21) Knowing of the onset of the Age of Kali, we for a longer period have assembled to sacrifice here at this place reserved for the devotees and take time to listen to the stories about the Lord. (22) We by providence have met your goodness who can help us, as a captain on a ship, through this insurmountable age of Kali that constitutes such a threat to one's good qualities. (23) Please tell us to whom we should turn to take shelter now the Lord of Yoga, S'rî Krishna, who is the Absolute Truth and the protector of the religion, has left for His abode."


Chapter 2: Divinity and Divine Service

(1) Delighted with the correct questions of the sages there, the son of Romaharshana [Sûta] began with his reply after thanking them for their words. (2) Sûta said: "He [S'ukadeva] who went away to live with the renounced order without the prescribed ceremony of reform of the sacred thread, made Vyâsadeva, being afraid of the separation exclaim: 'Oh my son!', and all the trees and all living beings responded sympathizing in the heart of the sage. (3) Let me offer my obeisances to him [the son of Vyâsa] who, as the only transcendental torchlight in desiring to overcome the darkness of material existence of materialistic men, assimilated the cream of the Vedas and out of his causeless mercy, as the master of the sages, conveyed this very confidential supplement to the Vedas, this Purâna. (4) After first offering one's obeisances to Nara-Nârâyana, the [Lord as the] super most human being, the goddess of learning [Sarasvatî] and Vyâsadeva, let then everything [contained in this book] be announced that is needed for conquering [mâyâ, the power of illusion].

(5) Oh sages, your questions for me about Krishna are of relevance for the welfare of the world because they satisfy the true self. (6) That duty no doubt is for mankind the highest, of which there is the causeless, uninterrupted devotional service unto Krishna as the One in the Beyond [Vishnu] that leads to the full satisfaction of the soul. (7) The practice of connecting oneself in devotion unto Vâsudeva, the Personality of Godhead, very soon leads to the detachment and spiritual knowledge that relies on its own power. (8) What people do according to their societal positions, is useless labor leading nowhere, if it does not lead to the message of Vishvaksena [Krishna as the highest authority]. (9) One's occupational activities are certainly meant for ultimate liberation and not for the end of material gain, neither is, according to the sages, the material progress of the dutiful ones in devotional service meant for the attainment of sense-gratification. (10) One should not long so much for sense-gratification, profit and livelihood, one's activities are there for no other purpose than inquiring after the Absolute Truth. (11) The learned souls say that the reality of nondual knowledge is known as Brahman, Paramâtmâ and Bhagavân [the impersonal, localized and personal aspect]. (12) Sages [and devotees] well equipped with knowledge and detachment who are full of belief, will perceive within their heart and soul [that reality] according to their understanding of what they heard [or read about] in  their devotion. (13) This is how the human being, oh best of the twice-born souls, by pleasing the Lord achieves the highest perfection with his own dutifulness according to the divisions of status and vocation [varnâs'rama]. (14) One should therefore with a one-pointed mind constantly hear about, glorify, remember and worship the Supreme Lord, the protector of the devotees. (15) Who would not attend to this message of intelligently remembering the Lord that offers one the sword for cutting through the bonds of materially motivated labor [karma]? (16) One who attentively listens in rendering service to pure devotees dear scholars, will be purified from all vice and develop taste for the message of Vâsudeva. (17) Those who developed this hearing of Krishna's words will find virtue listening and singing and will certainly in their hearts see their desire to enjoy purified by the benefactor of the truthful souls. (18) By regularly being of service to the bhâgavata [the pure devotee] and the Bhâgavatam, as good as all that is inauspicious will be destroyed and thus serving the Supreme Lord with transcendental prayers, irrevocably loving service will come about. (19) Not being affected by the effects of passion and ignorance such as lust, greed and all of that, one's consciousness will be fixed in goodness and at that moment find happiness. (20) In touch with the devotional service of the Lord thus being cleared, the mind, liberated because of the association, then becomes effective in the knowledge of wisdom regarding the Fortunate One. (21) Seeing the [true] self that way as being the master, the knot in the heart is cut to pieces, all doubts end and the chain of materially motivated actions [karma] is terminated. (22) Therefore all transcendentalists have always delighted in the service of Krishna - it enlivens the soul. (23) The ultimate benefit of the Transcendental Personality, who is associated with the qualities of material nature of goodness, passion and ignorance and with the maintainer Vishnu, the creator Brahmâ and the destroyer S'iva, the human being of course finds in the form of goodness [Vishnu]. (24) The way we have the firewood of sacrifices stemming from the earth producing smoke once being set afire, so we also have passion stemming from ignorance leading to the goodness from which the essential nature is realized.

(25) W
hoever follows the sages who in the past thus rendered service to the transcendental Lord above the three modes of nature, deserves the same benefit. (26) It is the reason why those who desire liberation reject the less attractive forms of the demigods and without any envy worship the many forms of the all-blissful S'rî Vishnu [Nârâyana]. (27) Those who are ignorant and of passion, desire glory, power and progeny and are of worship for forefathers and other beings of cosmic control in the same category of their preference. (28-29) But Vâsudeva is the object of Vedic knowledge, the purpose of the sacrifices and the path of yoga, Vâsudeva is the controller of all material activity, the highest knowledge, the strictest austerity, the best quality, the supreme dharma and the ultimate goal of life. (30) From the beginning of the manifestation He, by His internal potency, has been the cause and effect of all forms and the transcendental Absolute of the modes of nature. (31) Although He, manifesting by the modes, having entered them, appears to be affected by the modes, He is the full manifestation of all wisdom. (32) He, as the Supersoul, pervades all living beings as the source of creation like fire does in wood and shines forth as different living entities, at the same time being the Absolute Person. (33) That Supersoul created the subtle senses influenced by the modes of nature by entering the living beings in His own creation, causing them to enjoy those modes. (34) Thus He maintains all of them in the mode of goodness, being incarnated Himself in the performance of His pastimes as the master of all the worlds of the divine, human and animalistic beings."

Chapter 3: Krishna is the Source of All Incarnations

(1) Sûta said: "In the beginning the Supreme Lord assumed, for the creation of the worlds, the form of the Original Person[: the integrity of the material realm] composed of the sixteen elements [of the ten knowing and working senses, the mind and the five elements] and the cosmic intelligence and such. (2) Resting in His meditative slumber in that water, out of the lotus that spread from the lake of His navel, Brahmâ was manifested, the master of the progenitors in the universe. (3) One supposes the different worlds [as expansions] to be part of the form of the Fortunate One that constitutes the excellence of the purest existence. (4) In a perfect [spiritual] vision His form is seen as having numerous legs, thighs, arms and faces, with wonderful heads, ears, eyes and noses, all glowing with countless garlands, earrings and dresses. (5) This source of the multifarious incarnations is the imperishable seed from which the plenary portions originate as also the portions thereof, such as the gods, the human beings and the animals."

(6) "
The first position the godhead [Nârâyaa] created was that 0f the sons of Brahmâ [the Kumâras] who performed the most difficult discipline of continuous celibacy. (7) The Supreme Enjoyer secondly assumed the form of a boar for the welfare of the earth that had sunken to the lowest regions and lifted her up [from the ocean]. (8) Thirdly He accepted His presence among the seers [in the form of Nârada Muni] for the sake of evolving the Vedic knowledge concerning the performance of devotional service free from material motives. (9) Fourth born as the twin sons of [Mûrti] the wife of king Dharma He in the form of Nara-Nârâyaṇa subjected Himself to severe penances to attain control over the senses. (10) Fifth He, carrying the name of Kapila, gave an exposition to the brahmin Âsuri on the nature of metaphysics and the elements of creation, because in the course of time that knowledge had been lost. (11) Sixth as the son of Atri [named Dattâtreya] being born from Anasûyâ who prayed for Him, He lectured to Alarka, Prahlâda and others about transcendence. (12) Seventh being born from Âkûti as Yajña, the son of Prajâpati Ruci, He together with His son Yama and other demigods, ruled during the period of Svâyambhuva Manu [and became the Indra]. (13) Eighth, from the wife of King Nâbhi, Merudevî, the Almighty Lord took birth as King Rishabha and showed the path of perfection respected by people of all stages of life. (14) His ninth incarnation He accepted in response to the prayers of the sages, whereupon He [as Prithu] ruled the earth for the sake of collecting ['milking'] her produces, which made her most attractive. (15) Assuming the form of a fish [Mâtsya], He after the period of Câkshusha Manu protected Vaivasvata Manu, keeping him in a boat afloat the waters when the world was deeply inundated. (16) Eleventh the mighty Lord in the form of a tortoise [Kurma]  sustained the Mandarâcala Hill of the theists and atheists that served as a pivot in the ocean. (17) Twelfth He appeared as Dhanvantari [Lord of medicine] and thirteenth He appeared before the atheists as an alluring beautiful woman and gave nectar to the demigods. (18) In His fourteenth incarnation He, half as a lion, appeared as Nrisimha, who with His nails on His lap tore apart the king of the atheists like a carpenter splitting cane. (19) Fifteenth He assumed the form of Vâmana [the dwarf brâhmana] who went to the arena of sacrifice of Mahârâja Bali to beg for only three steps of land, concealing His wish to regain the three worlds. (20) In His sixteenth incarnation He [as Bhrigupati or Paras'urâma] saw that the ruling class was hostile towards the brahmins and acted twenty-one times against them. (21) Seeing that the common people were less intelligent He, seventeenth, incarnated as Vyâsadeva taking birth from Satyavatî with Parâs'ara Muni as His father, for the purpose of dividing the desire tree of the Veda into several branches. (22) Next He performed in a superhuman way having assumed the form of a divine human being [Râma], by controlling the Indian Ocean and such, so that He could act for the sake of the godly souls. (23) Nineteenth as also twentieth Bhagavân took birth in the Vrishni family as Balarâma and Krishna and thus removed the burden from the world. (24) Thereafter at the beginning of the Age of Kali He shall appear in Gayâ [Bihar] as the son of [mother] Añjanâ with the name Buddha for the purpose of deluding the ones envious of the theists [*]. (25) Next, at the conjunction of two yugas [this one and the next], when there is hardly a ruler to be found who is not a plunderer, the Lord of the Creation carrying the name of Kalki will take birth as the son of Vishnu Yas'â." [**]

"Dear brahmins, the incarnations of the Lord who appeared from the ocean of goodness are as innumerable as the thousands of streams we have from inexhaustible sources of water. (27) All the powerful sages, the godly souls, the Manus and their progeny as also the Prajâpatis [the founding fathers] are aspects of the Lord. (28) They are all part of  - or plenary portions of - Krishna, the Supreme Lord [Bhagavân] in person who offers protection during all ages and in all worlds against disturbances because of the enemies of the king of heaven [Indra]. (29) Anyone who in the morning and the evening carefully recites these mysterious births of the Lord, will find relief from all miseries of life. (30) All these forms of the Lord that by the qualities of the material energy were created with the ingredients of the cosmic intelligence and other elements, originated from His Self-awareness that is without a form. (31) They are there for the less intelligent observer to be perceived the way one sees clouds in the sky or dust in the air. (32) This unmanifested Self in the beyond that cannot be seen or heard and has no form that is affected by the modes of nature, constitutes the reality of the subtle self [of the individual soul] who takes birth repeatedly. (33) As soon as one by self-knowledge arrives at the rejection of all these gross and subtle forms that impose themselves on the soul because of ignorance, one arrives at the realization of the Absolute Truth. (34) With the illusory energy subsided one is endowed with the full knowledge of enlightenment so that one thus being mindful will be situated in one's own glory. (35) This is how the scholars arrived at the description of the birth and activities of the actually unborn and non-engaged Lord of the Heart; it is the hidden meaning of the Vedas. (36) Residing within every living being He is the omnipotent master and witness of the six qualities [the six objects of the senses and the mind] and opulences [bhaga], whose play is spotless, who is independent and not affected by creation, destruction and maintenance. (37) Because of His expert manipulations His activities, names and forms cannot be understood by the speculations and speeches of those with a poor fund of knowledge, just like fools cannot understand an actor's performance. (38) Only he who renders unconditional, uninterrupted, favorable service to His fragrant lotus feet may know the transcendental glories of the all-powerful Creator with the wheel of the chariot in His hand. (39) When one in this world succeeds in thus being cognizant with the Personality of Godhead who embraces all His universes as their Lord and who inspires for the complete of the spirit of ecstasy, one will never again have to experience there the dreadful repetition [of births]."

(40)  "
This book called the Bhâgavatam about the activities of the One Hailed in the Verses [the Fortunate One, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krishna and His devotees] that as a supplement to the Vedas [a Purâna] was compiled by the seer of God [Vyâsadeva], is there for the ultimate good of bringing success, happiness and perfection to all people. (41) This story, that as the cream from all the Vedic literatures and histories was extracted by S'rîla Vyâsadeva, he delivered to his son who is the most respectable one among the self-realized souls. (42) He [S'uka] in his turn told it to emperor Parîkchit who, surrounded by the greatest sages, sat down at the Ganges to fast until his death. (43) Now that Krishna has left for His abode and with Him also proper conduct and spiritual insight have vanished, this Purâna bright as the sun has appeared at the horizon for the sake of everyone who in the Age of Quarrel [Kali-yuga] has lost his vision. (44) Oh brahmins, when the story was recited there by that powerful great sage, I, being perfectly attentive by his mercy, also managed to understand it, so that I will now relate it to you also, exactly as I learned it free from deviations by my own mind."

*: The paramparâ adds here that even though Lord Buddha rejected Vedic knowledge and the Supreme Lord, that was just an act of camouflage He engaged in because of those who were envious of the devotees. "Both Lord Buddha and Âcârya S'ankara paved the path of theism, and Vaishnava âcâryas, specifically Lord S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, led the people on the path towards a realization of going back to Godhead."

**: In canto 2 chapter 7 there is also a discussion of the avatâras of the Supreme Personality. In this abbreviated list in this chapter Vyâsadeva is mentioned as the seventeenth incarnation before the one of Râma, while he is mentioned in 2.7 after the appearance of Krishna. The chronological order of the position of Vyâsa seems to be odd here, for, as a contemporary of Krishna, his incarnation would have taken place after the one of Râma. But sometimes great incarnations are presented as eternal personalities appearing in different times and ages with the same name.


Chapter 4: The Appearance of S'rî Nârada

(1) The elderly and learned S'aunaka, the head of the long-standing ceremony the sages were gathered for, congratulated Sûta Gosvâmî and said the following to him: (2) "Oh most fortunate one of those who are respected to speak, please tell us about the message of the Bhâgavatam the way it was discussed by S'ukadeva Gosvâmî. (3) When, where, on what ground and wherefrom inspired could this literature be compiled by sage Vyâsadeva? (4) His son, who, being equipoised and unwavering, always had his mind fixed on the One, was a great devotee and an awakened soul, but unexposed he appeared to be ignorant. (5) Naked bathing beauties covered their bodies out of shyness when they once saw sage Vyâsa in clothes following his son, whereas they astonishingly, by him being asked about his son, replied that [they did not feel ashamed before him because] he looked at them purely without any sexual discrimination. (6) How was he [S'uka], appearing like a retarded dumb madman as he wandered through the Kuru-jângala provinces, recognized by the inhabitants of Hastinâpura [now: Delhi] the moment he reached the city? (7) How could the discussion covering this Vedic truth [about Krishna], oh dear soul, take place between the saint and the descendant of Pându, the wise king? (8) He, as a pilgrim sanctifying the places he visits, stayed at the door of the householders only for the time it takes to milk a cow. (9) Please tell us about Parîkchit, the son of Abhimanyu, who is said to be a first-class devotee whose birth and activities are all wonderful. (10) For what reason did the emperor, who was an honor to the name of Pându, neglect the opulences of his kingdom and sat down at the Ganges to do penance until his death? (11) Oh why did he, at whose feet all enemies surrendered their wealth for their own sake, in the prime of his life give up his so difficult to relinquish life of royal riches? (12) Men devoted to the One Hailed in the Verses, live for the welfare, the affluence and prosperity of all living beings and not for any selfish purpose; for what reason relinquished he, freed from all attachment, his mortal body that was the shelter for others? (13) Explain to us clearly all that we asked you about this subject, for we consider you fully acquainted with all the meanings of the words in the scriptures, except for those of the Vedic hymns."

(14) Sûta Gosvâmî said: "When Dvâpara-yuga had entered its third [last] phase [*] and the age expired, the sage [Vyâsa], a partial expansion of the Lord, was begotten by Parâs'ara in the womb of the daughter of Vasu [Satyavatî]. (15) One morning when the sun globe rose above the horizon he, after being cleansed by the water of his morning duties, sat down at the bank of the river Sarasvatî to focus his mind. (16) The rishi knowing the past and the future, saw that gradually irregularities were developing in the dharma of his time. It was something that can be observed more often in the different eras on earth as a consequence of unseen, irresistible forces. (17-18) The sage with his infallible eye of knowledge noticed that the common man was unlucky and short-lived and that, with the dullness and impatience of faithless people lacking in goodness, the natural capacity - the talent - of all types of men as also of other creatures was declining. Therefore the muni with his transcendental vision contemplated on what would benefit the welfare of all vocations and stages in life. (19) According to the insight that there were four sacrificial fires for purifying the work effort of the people, he divided the one original Veda into four divisions for the sake of the continuation of the sacrificial activities. (20) Rig, Yajuh, Sâma and Atharva were the names of the four separate Vedas while the Itihâsas [the single histories] and the Purânas [the collections of histories] were called the fifth Veda. (21) The Rig Veda thereupon was propagated by the rishi Paila, the Sâma Veda by the learned Jaimini, while Vais'ampâyana was the only one versed enough to qualify for the defense of the Yajur Veda. (22) Angirâ - also called Sumantu Muni -  in his formidable devotion took care of the Atharva Veda while the Itihâsas and the Purânas were defended by my father Romaharshana. (23) All these scholars in their turn distributed the knowledge entrusted to them to their disciples who did the same with their following who also did that with their pupils, and thus the different branches of followers of the Vedas came about. (24) In order to assure that the Veda would be assimilated as much by the less intellectual people, the great sage Vyâsa, the Lord in these matters, took care to edit it for the ignorant ones. (25) For the sake of the women [see 6.9: 6 & 9], the working class and the friends of the twice-born for whom, [in case] of a lesser intelligence, this knowledge is not accessible, the sage was as merciful to write down the story of the Mahâbhârata so that they also could succeed in the performance of their duties.

(26) Dear brahmins, thus always being engaged in working for the welfare of all living beings, he in his heart nevertheless at that time by no means could be satisfied.  (27) In seclusion being purified, residing at the bank of the Sarasvatî, he thought about it and, knowing the dharma, therefore from the dissatisfaction of his heart said to himself: (28-29) "Strictly adhering to my vows, I sincerely was of proper worship and also respected the spiritual masters in my performance of the sacrifices according to the traditional Vedic instructions. Even for women, the working class and others I, by compiling the Mahâbhârata, have properly explained what according to the disciplic succession should be stated about the path of religion. (30) Despite, so it seems, having been complete in relation to the glory of the Absolute Truth in my discussion of the Supreme Soul as being situated in the body, and even having discussed my own self, I feel something is missing. (31) I might not have given sufficient directions about the devotional service so dear to the perfect souls and the Infallible One.'

(32) While Krishna Dvaipâyana Vyâsa thus regretfully thought about his shortcomings, Nârada, as I stated before, reached his cottage. (33) Seeing the great fortune of it, he quickly got up to honor him with the same respect the godly souls offer to Brahmājī, the creator."

*:  S'rîla Vis'vanâtha Cakravartî Thhakur remarks in his Sârârtha-dars'inî commentary here: "All yugas are divided into three parts: the beginning portion (sandhyâ-rûpa), the middle portion (yuga-rûpa) and the end portion (sandhyâms'a-rûpa)."

Chapter 5: Nârada's Instructions on S'rîmad Bhâgavatam for Vyâsadeva 

(1) Sûta said: "Then comfortably seated next to him, the rishi of God of great renown who has a vînâ in his hands, with a faint smile addressed the learned wise. (2) He said: 'Oh greatly fortunate son of Parâs'ara, is it so that you find the satisfaction of your soul by identifying yourself with your body and mind? (3) You have done your full enquiries and being well versed, you have prepared the great and wonderful Mahâbhârata to which you have added your extensive explanations. (4) Despite your investigations and the knowledge you acquired about the Absolute and Eternal, you, dear master, lament not having done enough for the purpose of the soul.'

(5) V
yâsa said: 'All you have said is certainly true, my heart is still not satisfied with it. What is the root I have missed, I ask you who originated from the self-born one [Brahmâ] as a man of unlimited knowledge. (6) As a devotee of the Oldest Person, the Lord of the material and spiritual world, who from His mind only, elevated above the qualities of material nature, creates and destroys the universe,
you have all-inclusive, confidential knowledge. (7) Just as the sun you travel the three worlds and thereby penetrate everyone's heart as the self-realized witness, like being the all-pervading ether. Can you please search out what the deficiency is in my, with discipline and vow being absorbed in the Absolute concerning matters of cause and effect, spirit and matter?'

  narada talks to Vyasa (8) S'
rî Nârada said: 'You hardly praised the glories of the Fortunate One who is spotless and who, I gather, is not really pleased by that lesser vision. (9) Although you, great sage, repeatedly have written for the sake of the four virtues of religion [dharma, artha, kâma, moksha or righteousness, economy, sense gratification and liberation], you have not been doing so for the sake of Vâsudeva. (10)
Hardly using the flowery language that describes the glories of the Lord who sanctifies the universe, is something the saintly souls think of as an engagement for crows, not as something desirable appreciated by swans [those perfect in transcendence]. (11) That creation of words revolutionizing the sins of the people in which, although imperfectly composed, each verse depicts the names and glories of the unlimited Lord, is heard, sung and accepted by those who are purified and honest. (12) Despite self-realization free from material motives, transcendental knowledge of sufficient purity does not look good without any love for the Infallible One. What good will it bring to work time and again troublesome for a result when one fails to serve the Lord with it? That is inauspicious and leads nowhere! (13) You therefore as a highly fortunate, spotless and famous, perfect seer dedicated to the truth and fixed in vows, should, from your transcendental position, for the sake of liberation from universal bondage think about and describe Him whose actions are supernatural.

(14) Whatever perspective one describes separate from [Him], misses its purpose and will only lead to names and forms that agitate the mind, like a boat that is taken by the wind from its place. (15) Instructions for the sake of religion are disliked, they are most unreasonable in relation to the natural inclinations. By what you instructed about the dharma one became fixed on other matters, not giving thought to that what you like to prevent. (16) They who, having retired from material happiness, behave wisely with Him, deserve [though] to understand the unlimited transcendental, all-powerful Lord. Therefore please, your goodness, show to those who, being caught in the clutches of the natural qualities are estranged from the true self, the activities of the Almighty One.

(17) S
omeone who has forsaken his occupational duties in order to serve the Lord's lotus feet may fall down in that position because of a lack of experience. But what inauspiciousness would happen to someone who as a non-devotee is engaged in his occupational service and obtains nothing of his [real] interest? (18) The philosophically inclined should for that reason endeavor only for this [spiritual fulfillment] that is not so much found by searching from high to low, for material fulfillment - countered by miseries - is in the course of the time that operates so subtly, found anyhow as a result of one's actions. (19) Sooner or later inevitably failing someway, the devotee has a different experience than others: once he in his material life acquired the taste he, remembering the feet of the Lord of Liberation that he embraced, will never want to give it up. (20) From the goodness of your self you know that all of this cosmos is the Lord Himself, even though He differs from it. He constitutes the beginning, the existence and the end of creation; I am only summarizing it for you. (21) Please give a true-to-life description of the pastimes of Him who is the Greatest Mercy. From the perfect vision of your own soul, you are capable of searching out the Transcendent Personality of the Supersoul from whom you are a plenary portion and for whom you - of an unborn nature - have taken birth, for the sake of the well-being of the entire world. (22) The acknowledged scholars all agree that the unmistakable purpose of everyone's austerities, study, sacrifice, spiritual education, advancement of intelligence and charity is found in following the descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord Praised in the Verses.

(23) O
h sage, in the previous millennium I took birth from a maidservant of certain adherents of the Veda. I, only a boy, was engaged in the service of these yoga practitioners when I lived together with them during the months of the rainy season. (24) Despite their impartiality towards believers, these followers of wisdom were merciful unto me, an obedient, well-mannered, self-controlled and silent boy without much interest in games and sport. (25) When the twice-born souls once allowed me to enjoy the remnants of their food, I thereby was liberated from all my sins and manifested itself in my purified consciousness the attraction to that dharma. (26) Thereafter I heard every day the life of Krishna being described. Because of their support and respect for me, dear Vyâsa, I managed to pay close attention and step by step develop my taste. (27) Oh great sage, as I acquired the taste, my mind found continuity with the Lord and acquired the insight that the complete of the gross and subtle bewilderment that is mine, finds its order, its regulation, in the transcendentality of the Absolute. (28) Thus for the time of two seasons, autumn and the rainy season, constantly hearing nothing but the glories that were chanted by the sages, my devotional service sprouted because of those great souls, while the [influence of the] qualities of passion and ignorance receded. (29) As an obedient boy free from sins I, because of those believers being attached  to Him, strictly following thus managed to subjugate [my senses]. (30) When these devotees so full of care for the distressed souls left, they were as merciful to instruct me in this most confidential knowledge directly propounded by the Lord Himself. (31) Thus I could easily grasp what the influence is of the deluding material energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vâsudeva, the supreme creator, and how one can reach His refuge.

(32) O
h learned one, it is said that to dedicate one's actions to the Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, is the remedy for the threefold misery [the kles'as] of life. (33)
Oh good soul, is it not so that the cure for whatever diseases the living being may have is found in the medical treatment of that what caused the disease? (34) The same way all actions of man that are directed at a material[-istic] existence, will put an end to those same actions when one manages to dedicate them to the Transcendence. (35) Whatever one does in this world to please the Lord, including the spiritual knowledge associated with it, is considered bhakti yoga [the yoga of devotion]. (36) When one continuously performs one's duties according to the instructions of the Fortunate One, one praises His qualities and constantly remembers the names of S'rî Krishna. (37) 'All glories to You, oh Supreme Lord, to You Vâsudeva upon whom we meditate, and our obeisances unto [Your plenary portions] Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Sankarshana.' (38) That person is of a perfect vision who thus with the sound form of this mantra worships the Lord Without a Material Form, [Vishnu] the Original Person of Sacrifice. (39) Oh brahmin, knowing this I, being engaged in this manner with His words, was endowed with spiritual knowledge, with His opulence and with an intimate personal love for Kes'ava. (40) You then also, with your vast Vedic knowledge, describe the Almighty One in whom the sages always found satisfaction with their desire to know. Do this to mitigate the suffering of the masses of common people for whom there is no other relief.' "

Chapter 6: The Conversation Between Nârada and Vyâsadeva

(1) Sûta said: "After thus hearing from the great sage among the gods about his birth and exploits, sage Vyâsadeva, the son of Satyavatî, asked him another question. (2) Vyâsa said: 'What did you do after the mendicants had departed who instructed you in wisdom before your present life began? (3) Oh son of Brahmâ, what were the conditions you spent your life in after this initiation and how have you, after in the course of time having abandoned your body, achieved this body? (4) How could you, oh great sage, remember all of this from a previous period in any detail, is it not so that time in the long run puts an end to all of this?'

(5) S'rî Nârada said: 'The great sages in my previous life gave me the transcendental knowledge I have at present and after they had departed I did the following. (6) I was the only son of my mother who was a simple woman who worked as a maidservant. She had no one else, so that I as her offspring, was completely determined by the emotional bond I had with her. (7) Although she wanted to take care of me properly, she could not do so because she, like everybody, was as dependent as a puppet on a string. (8) Being only five years old, I attended the school of the brahmins and lived, depending on her, without having a clue about time, place and direction. (9) When she once went out at night to milk a cow, she was bitten in the leg by a snake on the path and thus my poor mother fell victim of the supreme time. (10) I took it as a benediction of the Lord who always wishes the best for His devotees, and with that in mind I headed for the north. (11) There I found many flourishing big and small towns and villages with farms, mineral and agricultural fields in valleys with flower and vegetable gardens and forests. (12) I saw hills and mountains full of gold, silver and copper and elephants pulling branches from the trees nearby delightful lakes and ponds full of the lotus flowers aspired by the denizens of heaven - and my heart was pleased with the birds and the number of bees hovering about. (13) All alone, I passed through impenetrable thickets of bamboo, reed, sharp grass and weeds, and reached deep and dangerous forests that were the playground of snakes, owls and jackals. (14) Physically and mentally exhausted, I, hungry and thirsty, took a bath and drank from the water of a lake from a river so that I found relief from my fatigue. (15) In that uninhabited forest I sought my refuge under a banyan tree and emptied my mind, by focussing upon the Supersoul present within myself, as I had learned from the liberated souls. (16) Thus meditating on the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality, all of my thinking, feeling and willing transformed into transcendental love. In my eagerness tears rolled down my cheeks as I slowly saw the Lord appearing in my heart. (17) Fully overwhelmed by an excess of love and transfixed in feelings of happiness all over my body, I oh sage, being absorbed in an ocean of ecstasy, did not see Him or myself any longer. (18) No longer seeing the form of the Lord who removes all disparity from the mind, I all of a sudden perturbed got up like someone having lost something desirable. (19) Desirous to experience that again, I focussed all of my mind on the heart but saw Him not reappear despite my patient waiting and thus frustrated got very distraught. (20) Trying and trying in that lonely place, I heard from the beyond pleasing words of gravity being spoken to me that mitigated my grief. (21) 'Listen, for as long as you live you will not get to see Me here, because for someone not completely united it is, with all impurities, difficult to acquire My vision. (22) That form was only shown once to awaken your desire oh virtuous one, for with the devotee's growing desire for Me, all lust will be driven from the heart. (23) By just a few days having been of service to the Absolute you have attained a steady intelligence unto Me. In your [thus] forsaking this imperfect material world you [from now on will] head for - and are part of - My associates. (24) The intelligence focussed on Me will not fail, whether the living being evolves or fades away, by My mercy there will be remembrance.'

(25) Thus having spoken, that astounding and wonderful sound of the Unseen Lord in the sky stopped. Grateful for His grace, I then bowed my head in obeisance to Him, so great and glorious. (26) Free from perplexity exercising the holy name of the Unlimited One and constantly remembering His mysterious and beneficial activities, I traveled the earth liberated from desire with a happy mind and awaited my time without any pride and envy. (27) Free from being attached thus being absorbed in Krishna [*] oh Vyâsadeva, in due course of time death came for me as natural as lightning being accompanied by a flash. (28) Having been awarded with a transcendental body befitting an associate of the Lord, I upon seeing that my acquired karma had ended, quitted the body that is composed of the five material elements. (29) At the end of the worldly period [kalpa] having laid Himself down in the waters of devastation, the Lord took me, with the creator and all, in with His breath. (30) A thousand ages later, when the creator was expired again, I reappeared together with rishis like Marîci. (31) Faithful to the vow [of yoga] traveling both within the three worlds and in the beyond, I, because of the mercy of Mahâ-Vishnu, am free to roam, wherever and whenever I want. (32) I move around, constantly singing the message of the Lord, while I vibrate this transcendentally charged vînâ the Godhead has given me. (33) Singing thus soon, as if called for, the sight appears within my mind, of the Lord of the lotus feet whose actions one gladly hears about. (34) I arrived at the insight that for those who are full of worries in their continuous desire for the objects of the senses, there is a boat to cross over the ocean of material nescience: the repeated singing of the glories of the Lord. (35) Time and again with the discipline of yoga in self-restraint curbing lust and desire, will certainly not be as satisfying for the soul as the devotional service to the Personality of Godhead. (36) Upon your request, I described to you who are free from sin, everything about the mysteries of my birth and activities, so as to serve the satisfaction of both your soul and mine.' "

(37) Sûta said: "After thus having addressed the powerful sage, Nârada Muni took leave of the son of Satyavatî and, vibrating his enchanting vînâ, left for wherever he wanted. (38) All glory and success to the sage of the gods who takes pleasure in singing the glories of Him with the S'ârnga [His bow] in His hands, and thus, with the help of his instrument, enlivens the distressed universe."

*: One may wonder how Krishna can be mentioned here as the one Nârada Muni learned to worship in his youth. Nârada Muni uses the name of Krishna here to address the manifestation of Vishnu not just for accommodating Vyâsa reflecting upon His life and times, but also because of the omnipresence of Krishna as the Supreme Lord of Creation in all times and eras, also the kalpa when Nârada was instructed by the brahmin seers. Arjuna asked a question like this in the Bhagavad Gîtâ 4: 4 whereupon He answered "There were many births of my character before, just as there are of you, dear Arjuna, I know and identify myself with all of them, but you apparently do not, oh victor of the battle!"

Chapter 7: The Son of Drona Punished

(1) S'rî S'aunaka said: "After the departure of Nârada Muni, what did the great lordship Vyâsadeva do, having heard from the great sage what he wanted to know?"

Sûta replied: "On the western bank of the Sarasvatî where sages meditate, there is at S'amyâprâsa an âs'rama for the promotion of transcendental activities. (3) There Vyâsadeva sat down, in his hermitage surrounded by berry trees, to focus his mind after he had performed his water sacrifice. (4) With his mind connected in the devotion of yoga, he saw, free from material concerns perfectly being fixed, the complete of both the Original Person [the Purusha] and the external energy that depends on Him. (5) The living entities bewildered because of the conditioning of their bodies by the qualities of nature take, despite their transcendental position, things not wanted for granted and undergo the reactions thereof. (6) For the common man, who does not know that in the yoga of devotion unto Him in the Beyond all that is unwanted finds its end, the sage [in this book] compiled the different stories relating to the Absolute Truth. (7) Simply listening to this literature about the Supreme Personality of Krishna, will give rise to one's personal devotion that takes away lamentation, illusion and fear. (8) After having arranged that collection of stories about the Supreme Lord, the sage taught it to his son S'uka, engaged on the path of self-realization."

S'aunaka asked: "Why would he, always on the path of self-realization being contented within and indifferent [about other matters], engage in such a vast study?"

Sûta said: "Such are His wonderful qualities that even sages, freed from all bondage and taking pleasure in the soul, are of pure devotional service unto Vishnu, Urukrama [the Lord of the Great Steps]. (11) The powerful son of Vyâsa is beloved by the devotees because he, in having taken up the regular study of this great narration, was always absorbed in the transcendental quality of the Supreme Lord. (12) I shall now tell you the story about the birth, activities and deliverance of King Parîkchit, the sage among the kings, as also the story about how the sons of Pându came to renounce the world. These stories lead to the stories about Krishna.

When on the battlefield of Kurukshetra the warriors of the Pândavas and the Kauravas had found their heroic fate and the son of King Dhritarâshthra [Duryodhana] was lamenting his broken thigh bones due to being beaten by the club of Bhîma, the son of Dronâcârya [As'vatthâmâ] thought that he could please his master Duryodhana by delivering the heads of the sleeping sons of Draupadî as a trophy. But the master disapproved his heinous act. (15) The mother of the children [of the Pândavas], cried aggrieved bitter tears when she heard about the massacre. Arjuna [who headed the Pândavas], tried to pacify her and said: (16) 'I can only wipe the tears from your eyes, my dearest, when the head of that degraded brahmin aggressor is severed by the arrows of my bow Gândîva. I will present it to you so that you can place your foot on it, taking a bath after the cremation of your sons.' (17) Satisfying her with this choice of words Arjuna, with the Infallible One as his driver and friend, fully armed and equipped ascended his chariot to persecute As'vatthâmâ, the son of his martial teacher. (18) When he from a distance saw him in hot pursuit, the child murderer fearing for his life fled with his chariot in great speed, just like Brahmâ [and also Sûrya] did when he fled from S'iva [*]. (19) Finding himself unprotected the moment his horses got tired, [As'vatthâmâ] the brahmin son for his defense resorted to the ultimate weapon [the brahmâstra]. (20) With his life in danger, he touched water and concentrated to recite the mantras, even though he did not know how to stop the process. (21) Arjuna saw a life threatening, fiercely glaring light spreading in all directions, whereupon he turned to the Lord [who drove his chariot] and said: (22) 'Krishna, oh Krishna, You are the Almighty One who takes away the fears of the devotees, You alone are the path of liberation for those who suffer in their material existence. (23) You are the transcendental, original enjoyer and direct controller of the material energy. You are the one who, from within the bliss and knowledge of Your Self, by means of Your internal potency, puts an end to the material illusion. (24) From that position You, in the heart of the conditioned souls, exercise the blessing of Your influence that is characterized by [the regulation of] dharma and the other civil virtues. (25) Thus You incarnate in order to take away the burden from the earth and to satisfy Your friends and pure devotees as the constant object of their meditation. (26) Oh Lord of All Lords, I do not know where this highly dangerous, dazzling light spreading in all directions comes from.'

The Supreme Lord said: 'Know that this is caused by the son of Drona who, faced with his pending death, launched the brahmâstra without knowing how to retract it. (28) Nothing else can counter this weapon but another one; you will have to fight the immense glare of this weapon with your martial art, by engaging the power of your own weapon.' "
Sûta said: "After hearing what the Supreme Lord said, the killer of the other warrior, Arjuna, sipped water himself while circumambulating the Lord, and launched his brahmâstra. (30) The combined glare of the two colliding weapons thereupon covered heaven, earth and the space in between, with an expanding ball of fire as bright as the sun. (31) When the inhabitants of the three worlds saw how the heat of the two weapons scorched them severely, it reminded them of the fire of annihilation at the end of time [sâmvartaka]. (32) Realizing the disturbance it all created for the common people and their worlds, Arjuna then retracted, to the wish of Vâsudeva, both the weapons. (33) Arjuna thereupon, angered with eyes red as copper, arrested the dangerous son of Gautamî, binding him skillfully with ropes like he was an animal. (34) After he with force had bound the enemy and was about to take him to the military camp, the Supreme Lord, who saw it with His lotus eyes, said to the angered Arjuna: (35) 'Never let this relative of the scholars go, punish him immediately, for he has killed innocent boys in their sleep. (36) Someone who knows the principles of religion does not kill an enemy who is careless, intoxicated, insane, asleep, of tender age, a woman, foolish, a surrendered soul, afraid or who has lost his chariot. (37) But someone who shameless and cruel thinks he can maintain himself at the cost of others' lives, deserves it to be stopped in his tracks for his own good, to prevent the person from landing in hell because of that fault. (38) Also I personally heard you make the promise to the daughter of the King of Pâñcâla: 'I will bring you the head of the one you consider the murderer of your sons.' (39) He, not being more than the burned ashes of his family, an offending sinner who is responsible for the assassination of your sons and is someone who displeased his own master, must therefore be sentenced.' "

Sûta said: "Although Arjuna, by Krishna being put to a test concerning the matter of his duty, was encouraged to do so, he did not aspire to kill the son of his teacher, despite the fact that he was the heinous murderer of his sons. (41) After they thereupon had reached his camp, his dear friend and charioteer Govinda entrusted the assassin to his dear wife who was lamenting over her murdered sons. (42) Upon seeing the criminal, who, silent from his heinous act, tied up in ropes was brought in, Draupadî, from the beauty of her nature, out of compassion showed the son of the teacher the necessary respect [one owes a brahmin]. (43) She in her piety, could not bear the sight of him brought in ropes and said: 'Release him, for he as a brahmin is a teacher of us. (44) It is by his [Drona's] mercy that you yourself have received the confidential knowledge of archery and of the release and control of all kinds of weapons. (45) The lordship of Drona for certain still exists in the form of his son, because his other half Kripî [his wife], with a son present, did not follow her husband into death [by means of satî]. (46) Therefore, oh most fortunate one in knowing the dharma, by the goodness that is in you, cause no grief to this ever respectable and honorable family. (47) Do not make his mother, Drona's devoted wife, cry the way I do, in my constantly shedding tears in distress over a lost child. (48) If the noble administration is of no restraint in relating to the brahminical order and enrages them, that rule will burn up in no time and land in grief together with its family members.' "

Sûta said: "Dear brahmins, the king [of the Pândavas, Yudhishthhira] supported the statements of the queen, for they were in accord with the dharma, just and merciful, glorious without duplicity and partiality. (50) And so did Nakula and Sahadeva [the younger brothers of the king] and also Sâtyaki, Arjuna, the Supreme Lord the son of Devakî, including the ladies and others. (51) Thereupon Bhîma said indignantly: 'It is well known that he who without a good reason, neither for himself nor for his master, has killed sleeping children, deserves death.'

(52) The four-armed one [Krishna] had heard the words spoken by Bhîma and Draupadî and looking at the face of His friend [Arjuna] then said with a faint smile: (53-54) 'One should not kill the relative of a brahmin, even though one kills an aggressor - as far as I am concerned both is prescribed to be carried out when we want to follow the rules. You have to keep to the truth of the promise you made when you pacified your wife and must also act to the satisfaction of Bhîma and of Me.' "

Sûta said: 'At once understanding what the Lord meant, he separated with his sword the crown jewel from the head of the brahmin along with his hair. (56) He [As'vatthâmâ] who, next to the loss of his bodily luster because of the infanticide also had lost strength by the loss of his jewel, was next released from the ropes and driven out of the camp. (57) Cutting off the hair, confiscating the wealth and banishment are the forms of punishment reserved for brahmin relatives, not any other method of physical approach. (58) The sons of Pându together with Draupadî, then, overtaken by grief, performed the necessary duties in respect of the deceased family members."

*: Brahmā once was attracted to his daughter. S'iva then attacked him furiously with his trident, whereupon Brahmâ fled for his life. In another story is written how the sun-god once chased the demon Vidyunmâlî, whereupon S'iva furiously attacked him with his trident. The sun-god fleeing toppled at Kâs'î, where he became known as Lolârka.     



Chapter 9: The Passing Away of Bhîshmadeva in the Presence of Krishna

(1) Sûta said: "Yudhishthhira, in fear because he had killed, in order to understand all duties, thereafter went to the battlefield where the dying Bhîshmadeva was lying down. (2) Drawn by the best horses decorated with golden ornaments, all the brothers followed him hither, accompanied by Vyâsa, Dhaumya [the priest of the Pândavas] and other rishis. (3) Also the Supreme Lord came along with Arjuna on the chariot, oh sages among the scholars. Thus the King appeared very aristocratic, like Kuvera [the treasurer of the demigods] together with his companions. (4) Seeing Bhîshma lying on the ground like a demigod fallen from heaven, he together with his Pândava brothers and the One Carrying the Disc [Krishna], bowed down before him. (5) All the sages among the brahmins, the God-conscious souls and the royalty were there, just to see the leader of the descendants of King Bharata [the common ancestor]. (6-7) Parvata Muni, Nârada, Dhaumya, Vyâsadeva, Brihadas'va, Bharadvâja and Paras'urâma were present there with their disciples and also Vasishthha, Indrapramada, Trita, Gritsamada, Asita, Kakshîvân, Gautama, Atri, Kaus'ika and Sudars'ana had come. (8) Oh brahmins, also many other sages like S'ukadeva, the instrument of God, and other pure souls like Kas'yapa and Ângirasa arrived there accompanied by their disciples.

(9) Bhîshmadeva, the best among the Vasus, knowing well how to adapt the dharma according to time and circumstances, welcomed all the great and powerful souls who had assembled there. (10) Knowing His glories he honored Krishna, the Lord of the Universe situated in the heart who manifests His form through His internal potency. (11) Overtaken by feelings of love about the gathering he, with tears in his eyes in ecstasy, congratulated the sons of Pându sitting silently at his side. (12) He said: 'Oh how painful and unjust it has been for you good souls, sons of righteousness, to have had such a life of suffering you never really deserved under the protection of the brahmins, the religion and the Infallible One. (13) After the death of the great general Pându, when you, the children of Kuntî, his wife, were still tender of age, she had to suffer a great deal on your account, and that continued even after you boys had grown up. (14) All the unpleasant that transpired, I think, is the inescapable effect of Time; you, just like the rest of the world with its ruling demigods, fall under that control the way clouds are carried by the wind. (15) Why else would there be such misfortune with Yudhishthhira, the son of the ruler of religion, being present, as also Bhîma with his mighty club, Arjuna carrying his Gândîva and our well-wisher Krishna? (16) No one may fathom His plan, oh King, it bewilders even the great philosophers who are engaged in exhaustive inquiries. (17) Therefore, I assure you, [Yudhishthhira,] oh best soul of Bharata, that this was only due to His providence, His desire. Oh ruler, just take care of the helpless subjects, 0h master. (18) He [Krishna] who inconceivably moves among the Vrishni family, is no one else but the Supreme Lord, the original, primordial, supreme enjoyer Nârâyana who bewilders the world with His energies. (19) Oh King, Lord S'iva, Nârada the divine sage and the great Lord Kapila have direct knowledge of His most confidential glories [but do not know his intentions]. (20) He is the very same person you consider your maternal cousin, dearest friend, ardent well-wisher, counselor, messenger, benefactor and charioteer. (21) He who is present in everyone's heart, who is equal to all and who, being from the Absolute, never falsely identifies Himself, makes, in His consciousness, never at any time a difference, free as He is from any bias. (22) Yet, despite His impartiality with the devotees, see, oh King, how Krishna at the end of my life, cared to be visibly present at my side. (23) Those yoga adepts who with Him in mind devoutly meditate on His holy name and with their mouth sing His glories, will, upon abandoning the material conception of life [their body], be freed from their desire for materially motivated actions. (24) May He, the path of my meditations, the four-handed God of the Gods, the Supreme Lord, with His cheerful smile, His eyes red like the morning sun and His decorated lotus face, await me when I leave this material body.' "

(25) Sûta said: "Yudhishthhira, who heard this from him who was lying on a bed of arrows, asked him, with the rishis listening, about the different religious duties. (26) Bhîshma described to him the various stages of life and the vocations as determined by a person's character, as also the way one should systematically deal with both the symptoms of attachment and detachment. (27) He gave an outline of the duties of charity, rulership and liberation, including a more detailed description, and also discussed  the duties of women and those of devotional service. (28) Knowing the truth he, oh sages, described the [civil virtues of regulating the] religion, economy, desires and liberation, thereby giving examples of known histories. (29) The time Bhîshma described the duties, the sun ran over the northern hemisphere, which is precisely the period preferred by mystics for leaving this world [see B.G. 8: 24]. (30) Bhîshmadeva, the protector of thousands of sciences and arts, then fell silent. With a mind freed from all bondage he thereupon fixed his eyes, wide open, on Krishna, the Fourhanded Original Person, who was standing before him clad in yellow. (31) Simply looking at Him, the Annihilator of the Inauspicious, his meditation purified and his pain from the arrows disappeared instantly. And as he was praying before the material tabernacle, all the activities of his senses ceased when he departed for the Controller of All Living Beings. (32) S'rî Bhîshmadeva said: 'Freed from desires, my mind is now ready for the Supreme Lord, the Leader of the Devotees, the Great Self-contented One who in the realization of His transcendental joy at times [as an avâtara] takes pleasure in accepting this material world that changes constantly. (33) He is the most desirable person of the higher, lower and middle worlds. Bluish like a tamâla tree, He wears His dress that shines like the golden rays of the sun. He has a body decorated with sandalwood pulp and a face like a lotus. May my love, free from material motives, repose in the friend of Arjuna. (34) Let the mind be directed towards S'rî Krishna who, with His scattered hair that on the battlefield turned ashen from the dust of the hoofs, with His face decorated with perspiration and His skin pierced by my sharp arrows, took pleasure in wearing His protective armor. (35) After hearing the command of His friend, He drove the chariot between the opposing forces, where positioned He diminished the lifespan of the enemy by simply looking at them. Let there be my love for that friend of Arjuna. (36) Seeing the faces of the troops standing at a distance, He with His transcendental knowledge eradicated the ignorance of him who, because of a polluted intelligence, was reluctant to kill his kinsmen. Let there be the transcendence of my attraction to His feet.

Giving up His own promise not to fight and fulfilling my vow to make Him do so, He got down from His chariot, took up its wheel and - while dropping His outer garment - paced towards me like a lion about to kill an elephant. (38) Wounded by the sharp arrows of the aggressor that I was and with His armor broken He, smeared with blood, in an angry mood moved towards me in order to kill me. May the Supreme Lord who awards salvation become my destination. (39) Let me in my dying hour, be of love for the Personality of Godhead who, controlling the horses with a whip in His right hand and the reins in His left, so elegant to behold, by all means protected the chariot of Arjuna. It was by looking at Him that those who died at this place realized their original form [of service]. (40) Watching the attractive movements of His supremely spirited, fascinating acts and sweet loving smiles, the gopîs of Vrajadhâma [the village of Krishna's youth] imitating Him madly in ecstasy, experienced His nature. (41) When King Yudhishthhira performed the [Râjasûya] royal sacrifice where the great sages and kings were assembled, He received the respectful worship of all the members of the elite. I present there recognized Him at the time [and still remember Him now] als the [Supreme] Soul, as the object of worship. (42) Having experienced the absorption of being freed from the misconceptions of duality, I know [ever since] that He, now present before me, is the One Unborn in the heart of the conditioned soul. It is He who, situated as the Supersoul in the heart of all beings created by Him, is looked upon differently from every angle, just like the one sun.' "

(43) Sûta said: "With his mind, speech, sight and actions thus being fixed on Krishna alone, he fell silent and stopped breathing after having merged in the living being of the Supersoul. (44) Understanding that Bhîshmadeva had merged into the Absolute and Unlimited Supreme, everyone fell silent like birds at the end of the day. (45) Thereafter from everywhere drums sounded being beaten by gods and men, accompanied by heartfelt praise from the pious royal order and showers of flowers falling from the sky. (46) Oh descendant of Bhrigu [S'aunaka], after having performed the funeral rites for the dead body, Yudhishthhira was afflicted for a moment. (47) The sages who were satisfied and happy about the [revelation of the] confidential secret of Krishna's glories, then turned back to their hermitages with Him installed in their hearts. (48) Yudhishthhira went together with Krishna to Hastinâpura and consoled his uncle [Dhritarâshthra] and ascetic aunt Ghândhârî. (49) With the approval of his uncle and consent of Vâsudeva he thereafter ruled the kingdom, conform the dharma and greatness of his father [Pându] and forefathers."


Chapter 10: The Departure of Krishna for Dvârakâ

(1) S'aunaka Muni asked: "What did Yudhishthhira, the greatest protector of the dharma, together with his younger brothers do, after having killed the aggressors who wanted to usurp the legal inheritance; how did he engage [ruling] in restricting the joys of life?"

Sûta said: "After the exhausting bamboo fire of the Kuru dynasty, the Lord, the maintainer of the creation, was pleased to see how the seedling of Yudhishthhira's kingdom had been restored. (3) Yudhishthhira, who had heard what Bhîshma and the Infallible One had said, was, being enlightened by perfect knowledge, freed from his bewilderment and then ruled, followed by his brothers and protected by the invincible Lord, over the earth and the seas like he was the king of heaven [Indra]. (4) All the rain that was needed showered, the earth yielded everything desired and the cows out of sheer joy moistened the pastures with their filled udders. (5) The rivers, oceans and hills assured him in every season of all necessary vegetables, greenery and medicinal herbs. (6) Never was, because of themselves, because of nature or because of others, any living being troubled by anxieties, diseases or extreme temperatures, as is always the case with a king who has no enemies.

In order to appease His family and please His sister [Subhadrâ, who was married to Arjuna], the Lord stayed for a few months in the city of Hastinâpura. (8) After with due permission having announced His departure, He, having embraced the king and having bowing down to him, ascended His chariot. Thereupon He on his turn was respected and embraced by the others. (9-10) His sister [Subhadrâ], [the wife of the Pândavas] Draupadî, [their mother] Kuntî, [Parîkchit's mother] Uttarâ and also [the blind grandfather] Dhritarâshthra and [his wife] Gândhârî, [their son] Yuyutsu, [the Kuru priest] Kripâcârya, [the twin brothers] Nakula and Sahadeva together with Bhîma, and [the Pândava priest] Dhaumya, the [other] ladies from the palace and [Vyâsa's mother] Satyavatî, had great difficulty with the departure of the One with the bow S'ârnga in His hands, and almost fainted. (11-12) An intelligent person, in good company being liberated from materialistic association, will never think of forsaking the glorification of His fame, even when he but once heard that pleasant sound. How could the Pândavas who fixed their minds on Him, then tolerate it to be separated from Him, having seen Him face to face and touching, sleeping, sitting and eating together with Him? (13) All of them, looking at Him with wide open eyes, melted for Him and moved restlessly, being bound by pure affection. (14) The ladies of the family who came from the palace, had difficulty checking their tears from overflowing, as they were afraid that because of it inauspicious things might happen to the son of Devakî. (15) At that time mridangas [drums used in devotional service], conch shells, horns, strings, flutes and more drums, kettledrums, bells and other rhythm instruments were sounded. (16) To have a good view the ladies of the Kuru dynasty climbed on the roof of the palace, from where they showered flowers upon Krishna with love and shy smiles. (17) For the Most Beloved of the Beloved, the conqueror of sleep [Arjuna] took up an embroidered sunshade decorated with pearls and lace that had a handle inlaid with jewels. (18)  Sitting on scattered flowers the master of Madhu, commanding them on the road, was fanned by His cousin brother Uddhava and His driver Sâtyaki holding resplendent fans.

From all sides the truthful respects and sayings of the brahmins could be heard that to the occasion were neither befitting or unbefitting, considering the fact that the Absolute Truth was present there in a form subjected to the modes of nature. (20) The ladies of the capital of the king of the Kurus, were with their hearts absorbed in together talking about Him hailed in the scriptures, in such a manner that it sounded more attractive than the hymns of the Vedas themselves: (21) 'We will definitely remember Him as the Personality of Godhead, as the Original Person who, materially not manifested, existed in His own Self before the creation of the modes of nature. He is the Lord, the Soul of the Universe, in whom the living beings merge with their energies suspended like going asleep at night. (22) He who puts the revealed scriptures into practice wishes thereby, in manifesting His personal potency when He [in the form of an avatâra] engages the illusion of material nature, to assign to His - in fact unnamable -  individual nature, time and again names and forms. (23) He here happens to be the same refuge as the one of the great devotees who managed to get their senses and life under control and who, by the grace of their devotion, could witness the development of a pure mind. It is by their devotion only, that they deserve a purified existence. (24) Oh friends, it is He who for His excellent pastimes, that are confidentially described in the Vedas as also are discussed by the intimate devotees, is respected as the one and only Supreme Controller and Supersoul of the complete creation, He who by the manifestation of His pastimes, creates, maintains and destroys without ever becoming attached to it. (25) Whenever there are rulers who ignorantly like animals wage against the divine principles, He at that moment manifests, for certain out of goodness, His supreme power and positive truth, mercy and wonderful activities in various forms for the sake of maintaining [the dharma] in different periods and ages [see also B.G 4: 7]. (26) Oh, how most praiseworthy is the dynasty of King Yadu, how most deserving the land of Mathurâ, for He who has appeared and roamed here is the supreme leader of all living beings as also the husband of the goddess of fortune. (27) How wonderful Dvârakâ is [the island where Krishna resides], the place that, adding to the virtue and fame of the earth, defeats the glory of the heavenly worlds, the place the inhabitants of which are used to constantly see the soul of the living being [Krishna] who bestows His grace with the benediction of His smiling glance. (28) In order to relish His lips again and again, the wives He married no doubt, by vow, bath, fire sacrifice and such, must have been of perfect worship for the Lord, oh friends. Often the damsels of Vraja fainted with that in their minds! (29) Of the lady of Dvârakâ [Rukminî, Krishna's first wife], who with great valor was taken away by Him from the open selection of the bridegroom as the price that had to be paid by the harassing powerful kings headed by S'is'upâla, and of the other ladies that similarly were brought home after the killing of Bhaumâsura and thousands of his men, there are children like Pradyumna, Sâmba and Amba. (30) All these so very fine women who alas were bereft of their individuality, purity and virtue, were touched to be drawn into the heart of their lotus-eyed husband who never left them alone in their homes.'

With the ladies of the capital expressing themselves this way, He granted them the grace of His glance. The Lord then greeted them with a smile and departed. (32) Yudhishthhira, the man without enemies, in his affectionate concern about adversaries, engaged four divisions of soldiers [on horseback, elephant, chariot and foot] for the protection of the enemy of Madhu. (33) After thus having accompanied Him over a great distance,  S'auri [Krishna as the grandson of S'ûra] politely and full of affection persuaded the determined Pândavas to return. They were overtaken by the thought of their future separation. Thereafter He together with His dear companions proceeded towards Dvârakâ. (34-35) Traveling through Kurujângala [the province of Delhi], Pâñcâlâ [part of Punjab], S'ûrasenâ, Brahmâvarta [Uttar Pradesh its north] and the districts along the Yamunâ river, He passed Kurukshetra where the battle was fought and traversed the province of Matsyâ, Sârasvatân [another part of Punjab] and so on. Then crossing the land of deserts [Rajasthan], the land where there is hardly any water [Madhya Pradesh] and after passing through the provinces of Sauvîra [Saurastra] and Âbhîra [part of Gujarat], He, oh S'aunaka, finally in the western direction reached the province of Dvârakâ, with His horses slightly overtaken by fatigue from the long journey. (36) In several places it happened that the Lord was welcomed and served in different ways upon His arrival in the evening after the sun had passed the eastern sky to disappear where the ocean is."


Chapter 11: S'rî Krishna's Entrance Into Dvârakâ

(1) Sûta said: "Reaching the border of the prosperous region of Ânarta [the territory of Dvârakâ, His capital], He sounded His conch shell [the Pâñcajanya], which, evidently, ended the dejection of the inhabitants. (2) Despite being reddened by the lips of the Great Adventurer, the brilliant white of the round form of the conch shell as it was loudly sounded in His hands, looked like a swan ducking at the stems of lotus flowers. (3) Having heard the sound, that frightens the fear of material existence itself, all the citizens rapidly proceeded in the direction of the presence of their protector they had awaited so long. (4-5) They thereupon offered their presentations of welcome to the fully satisfied Self-contented One who by dint of His potency was their unrelenting provider. It was like offering a lamp to the sun. With cheerful, affectionate faces they ecstatically gave gladdened speeches before the Father, like friends and wards do for their guardian.

(6) They said: 'We have always bowed down to Your lotus feet, oh Lord, like one does in the worship of Brahmâ and his sons and the king of heaven. You after all are for the ones who desire the supreme welfare in this life, the Master of Transcendence upon whom the inevitable time has no grip. (7) For the sake of our welfare be the Creator of our world and also be our mother, well-wisher, husband, father, Lord and spiritual master. Following in the footsteps of You as our worshipable deity and supreme lordship, we have succeeded in our lives. (8) Oh how lucky we are to see again Your all-auspicious form and enjoy the protection of Your good Self, for the sight of Your affectionate, loving, smiling face is even by the demigods rarely seen. (9) Whenever, oh lotus-eyed One, You leave from here to meet Your friends and relatives among the Kurus [in Hastinâpura] and the people of Mathurâ, oh Infallible One, each moment seems to take a million years and our eyes are as useless as they would be without the sun. (10) How can we, with You being elsewhere, live without the satisfaction of Your glance that vanquishes the miseries of the world; how can we live without seeing Your beautiful smiling and decorated, attractive face?'

ith the sound in His ears of these words of the citizens, the caretaker of the devotees, He who teaches humaneness to humanity by the distribution of His glances, entered the city of Dvârakâ. (11) The way the city of Bhogavatî was protected by the Nâgas, Dvârakâ was protected by the strength of the descendants of Vrishni [Krishna's family], Bhoja, Madhu, Das'ârha, Arha, Kukura, Andhaka etc. [together called the Yadus], who were all as good as Krishna Himself. (12) During all seasons there was the wealth of orchards and flower gardens that with their trees, plants and the hermitages also found there, formed beautiful parks around ponds filled with lotuses increasing the beauty of the city. (13) The gateway of the city as also the different roads, were for the occasion painted with foremost signs and decorated with arches and flags casting their shadows in the sunshine. (14) The avenues, streets, the marketplace and public meeting places were thoroughly cleansed, sprinkled with scented water and strewn with fruits, flowers and unbroken seeds. (15) At the door of each residential house there was a display of curd, unbroken fruits, sugar cane, decorations, pots of water and articles for worship like incense and lamps. (16-17) Hearing that their dearest friend was coming home, His magnanimous father Vasudeva, Akrûra, Ugrasena, the superhumanly powerful Balarâma, Pradyumna, Cârudeshna and Sâmba, the son of Jâmbavatî, all extremely happy were alerted from their resting, sitting and dining. (18) Headed by elephants, carrying auspicious articles and with the sound of conch shells and the glorifying chanting of hymns, they, together with the brahmins excited in cheerful expectancy, hurried towards Him on their chariots. (19) Hundreds of courtesans with dazzling earrings that enhanced the beauty of their cheeks, followed in their vehicles most anxious to meet Him. (20) There were entertainers, dancers, singers, historians, genealogists and learned speakers who sang and glorified all the superhuman activities of the Lord. (21) The Supreme Lord approached each of the friends and citizens who came to receive and welcome Him, the way it should with due honor and respect. (22) He, the Almighty One, with the encouragement of His glancing smile, bowed His head, greeted them with words, embraced them and shook hands with them, down to the lowest as desired awarding His benedictions. (23) Then, accompanied by the elderly relatives and the brahmins and their wives, He entered the city where He was welcomed also with blessings and praises from other admirers.

While Krishna passed through the public roads of Dvârakâ, the ladies of standing climbed on the roofs of their houses, dear scholars, to feast their eyes on the sight of Him. (25) Even though it was their habit to look at Him this way, the inhabitants of Dvârakâ could never get enough of the compelling sight of the reservoir of all beauty who was the embodiment of the Infallible One. (26) In His chest the Goddess of Fortune resides, from the cup of His face the eyes are drinking, by His arms the ruling demigods abide, and His lotus feet are the shelter for the singing and talking devotees. (27)
Being served with a white parasol, fans and a road covered by a shower of flowers, the Lord with His yellow garments and His flower garlands, resembled a cloud surrounded by the sun, the moon, lightening and a rainbow combined.

(28) After next entering His parental home, He was embraced by His seven mothers [His own mother, the wife of the priest, of the guru and of the king, the cow, the nurse and mother earth] who were gladly headed by Devakî to whom He bowed His head in obeisance. (29) When they thereupon all had put Him on their laps, their breasts got wet of their affection and delight as also because of the water of the tears that overwhelmed them. (30) Thereafter He entered His personal unsurpassable quarters that, inhabited by His wives who numbered over sixteen thousand, offered all that one could wish for. (31) From a distance seeing their husband now returned home, the ladies, utterly happy within their minds, with a coyly looking face immediately rose up from their seats and meditations. (32) With Him before their eyes, the shy ones [first] sent Him their divine love [their 'sons' or Cupid] by embracing Him in their hearts in an insuperable ecstasy but, oh leader of the Bhrigus, they nevertheless choked up with tears that inadvertently fell like water from their eyes. (33) Although He was always present at their side, even when they were alone, His feet every time appeared completely new to them - after all, who could let go of the feet of the Eternal One that are never abandoned by the Goddess of Fortune? (34) He, without being part of it Himself, created the enmity between the rulers who from the day they were born had become a burden to the earth with their military control over their surroundings. He brought relief by killing them just like the wind does with bamboos by creating fire by means of friction. (35) The Supreme Lord, from His causeless mercy, appeared out of His own among all those who are part of this human world, to enjoy a life, with the worthiest of women, as if it concerned an ordinary worldly affair. (36) Even though they were spotless and exciting with their charming smiles, the way they with their grave expression looking from the corners of their eyes even perplexed Cupid to give up his bow, they, as maddening, first-class women, were never able to perturb His senses with their magic. (37) Ordinary people who see how He, in spite of His detachment, is actively engaged, consider in their ignorance Him for that reason a human being full of attachment, as someone who is just as affected as they are. (38) Such is the divinity of the Personality of Godhead that He, despite being in touch with material nature, is never affected by its qualities; and the same is true for the intelligence of the ones always situated in the eternal truth of the Lord who is their refuge. (39) The women in their simplicity and weakness took it for granted that He would be some kind of follower who is dominated and isolated by his wife. They were as unaware of the glories of their husband, as one is by imagining oneself to be the supreme controller."

Chapter 12: The Birth of Emperor Parîkchit

(1) S'aunaka said: "The [embryo in the] womb of Uttarâ, that was tormented by the enormous heat of the invincible weapon released by As'vatthâmâ, was by the Lord again awarded a life. (2) How did the birth take place of him [Emperor Parîkchit] who was so highly intelligent and what where the activities of this great soul? How exactly did his demise take place and what destination did he achieve? (3) If you think you can tell us this that we, so very faithful, all want to hear, please speak to us then about the transcendental knowledge that was delivered by S'uka."

Sûta said: "King Yudhishthhira brought wealth, the way his father did, by pleasing his subjects in continuous service of Krishna's feet without any ulterior motive for material gain or sensual pleasure. (5) The fame of his wealth, sacrifices, what he stood for, his queens, his brothers and his sovereignty over the planet earth where we are living, even spread to the heavenly worlds. (6) But, just as only food may satisfy a hungry man and nothing else, he, in his hunger as someone aware of the Redeemer, Mukunda, oh brahmins, was not moved by all those earthly desirables that are aspired by even the God-fearing souls.

(7) At the time Parîkchit the great fighter, as a child in his mother's womb, was suffering from the heat of the brahmâstra weapon, oh son of Bhrigu, he could observe the Purusha [the original person] in a shining appearance. (8) In the blaze he saw at the size of not more than a thumb the transcendental, infallible Lord beautiful with a dark skin, a golden helmet and lightening clothes. (9) 
With the riches of His four arms, earrings of the purest gold, bloodshot eyes and a club in His hands, He was moving about, constantly whirling the club around like it was a torch. (10) As He was vanquishing the radiation of the brahmâstra like the sun evaporating dew drops, He was observed by the child who wondered who He was. (11) He saw how the all-pervading Supersoul, the Supreme Lord and protector of righteousness, took away the glare. Next the Lord who stretches in all directions all of a sudden disappeared from his sight. (12) Thereupon, when the good signs of a favorable position of the stars gradually evolved, he who would prove himself to be of a prowess equal to that of Pându, took birth as the heir apparent of Pându. (13) King Yudhishthhira being fully satisfied had priests like Dhaumya and Kripa perform the birth ritual with the recitation of auspicious hymns. (14) Knowing where, when and how, he in charity rewarded to the occasion of that birth the brahmins with good food and gifts of gold, cows, land, housing, elephants and horses.  (15) The brahmins happily addressed the king, the chief of the Pûrus, communicating that they felt most obliged to the line of the descendants of [their ancestor King] Pûru. (16) They said: 'This son has been given to you by the all-pervasive and all-powerful Lord to show you His mercy in countering his destruction by the irresistible, supernatural weapon. (17) Therefore he shall be known all over the world as Vishnu-râta, 'Given by Vishnu'. He will no doubt be a most fortunate, supreme devotee endowed with all good qualities.'

(18) The good king said: 'Oh best of the truthful, will he follow in the footsteps of all the great souls of this family of saintly kings? Will he be just as meritorious and glorious in his achievements?'

(19) The brahmins answered: 'Oh son of Prithâ [Kuntî], he will be the maintainer of all living entities, exactly like King Ikshvâku, the son of Manu, and he will be faithful to his promises and be of respect for the brahmins, just like Râma, the son of Das'aratha. (20) He will be as charitable as King S'ibi of Us'înara and protect the ones of surrender, and will, just like Bharata, the son of Dushyanta who performed many sacrifices, spread the name and fame of his family. (21) Among the archers he will be as good as the two Arjunas [his grandfather and the king of Haihaya, see 9:15: 17-19], he will be as irresistible as fire and as unsurpassable as the ocean. (22) As powerful as a lion and as worthy for taking shelter as the Himalayas, he will be as forbearing as the earth and as tolerant as his parents. (23) With a spirit as good as that of the original father Brahmâ, he will be as generous and equanimous as Lord S'iva and be the refuge of all living beings as good as the Supreme Lord who is the refuge of the goddess of fortune. (24) Following in the footsteps of Krishna he will be the majesty of all divine virtues, he will have the greatness of King Rantideva and be as pious as Yayâti. (25) Being as patient as Bali Mahârâja this child will be as devoted as Prahlâda was unto Krishna, he will perform many As'vamedha [horse] sacrifices and be faithful to the elderly and experienced souls. (26) He will father a line of saintly kings, will chastise the upstarts and, as a source of righteousness in the world, crush the quarrelsome. (27) After being informed about his personal death, as caused by a snakebird that was sent by the son of a brahmin, he will free himself from his attachments and take to the shelter of the Lord. (28) From the son of sage Vyâsa having inquired about the proper self-knowledge, oh King, he will abandon his material life on the bank of the river Ganges and attain the state of fearlessness.'

The brahmins learned in matters of astrology and birth ceremonies, thus having informed the king, were generously rewarded and then all returned to their homes. (30) He, oh master [S'aunaka], acquired fame in this world as Parîkchit, the examiner, because he, constantly keeping Him in mind whom he had seen before his birth, would examine all men. (31) Just like the waxing moon day by day soon becomes full, the royal prince under the care of his protective parents day by day grew to become soon the one he would be.

(32) King Yudhishthhira, desiring to perform a horse sacrifice to be freed from the burden of having fought his kinsmen, thought about acquiring funds because all he received stemmed from collecting taxes and fines. (33) In respect of his mindful wishes, his brothers on the advise of the Infallible One went north to collect sufficient riches. (34) With the result of those collected riches Yudhishthhira, the anxious, pious king, managed to conduct three horse sacrifices, by means of which he worshiped Lord Hari perfectly. (35) The Supreme Lord being invited by the king, had the brahmins perform the sacrifices for him and then stayed a few months longer to satisfy the desires of His friends. (36) Then, dear brahmins, He, with the permission of the king, Draupadî and His relatives, went back to Dvârakâ, accompanied by Arjuna and other members of the Yadu dynasty."

Chapter 13: Dhritarâshthra Quits Home

(1) Sûta said: "Vidura [*] traveling to the different places of pilgrimage, had received knowledge about the destination of the self from the great sage Maitreya. By that knowledge sufficiently being acquainted with everything to be known, he returned to the city of Hastinâpura. (2) After all the questions Vidura had asked Maitreya in his presence, an undivided devotion unto Govinda had grown in him so that he refrained from further questioning. (3-4) Seeing him arrive in Hastinâpura, oh brahmins, Yudhishthhira and his younger brothers, Dhritarâshthra, Sâtyaki and Sañjaya, Kripâcârya, Kuntî, Gândhârî, Draupadî, Subhadrâ, Uttarâ, Kripî, other wives of the family members of the Pândavas and other ladies with their sons, all welcomed him. (5) Like awakened from death they approached him in great delight to receive him with all respect with embraces and obeisances. (6) In their love for him they emotionally shed tears because of the experienced anxiety and grief about the separation. King Yudhishthhira offered him a seat and arranged a reception.

(7) After he had eaten, had rested and was seated comfortably, the king humbly bowed down to address him in front of everybody. (8) Yudhishthhira said: 'Do you remember how we, brought up under the wings of your care, together with our mother were delivered from various calamities like poisoning and arson? (9) By which means did you maintain your livelihood as you traveled the surface of the earth and in which holy places of pilgrimage have you been of service here on this planet? (10) Devotees like your goodness are converted into holy places themselves, oh powerful one, and within your heart the One who Carries the Club, you turn all places into places of pilgrimage. (11) Dear uncle, can you tell us what you saw or heard about our friends and well-wishers? Are the descendants of Yadu, so rapt in their service unto Krishna, all happy where they are living?'

(12) Thus being questioned by the king he, discussing one subject after the other, properly described all he had experienced, but he did not mention the destruction of the dynasty. (13) Because he did not want to upset them he was as graceful not to speak about this in fact so unpalatable and unbearable aspect of mankind's behavior. (14) The sage, who was treated like a god, thereupon resided for a few days with them so that he could mean something to his eldest brother and everybody would be happy. (15) Because of a curse of Mandûka Muni [who under Yama's responsibility was treated unjustly], Vidura [who was an incarnation of Yama] for the time of a hundred years had to play the part of a s'ûdra [a working class man]. During that time it was Aryamâ who [in his place] administered punishment as was suitable for the sinful ones [**].

(16) Yudhishthhira had seen that there was a grandson in the dynasty fit for ruling the kingdom he had retrieved, and enjoyed together with his politically gifted brothers a life of great wealth. (17) But the insurmountable and imperceptible Time surpasses inimitably those who are inattentive and engrossed in the mind of attachment to family affairs. (18) Vidura, well aware of this, said to Dhritarâshthra: 'Oh King, [dear brother], please withdraw yourself without delay, just see how fear is ruling your life. (19) In this material world oh master, there is no help from anyone or anything to escape this fear, because that fear concerns the Supreme Lord who approaches us all in the form of eternal Time. (20) Inevitably overtaken by the pull of time a person must, just like that, give up this life, as dear as it is to everyone, not to mention the wealth and such he has acquired. (21) With your father, brother, well-wishers and sons all dead, with your life expended and your body decrepit, you live in another man's home. (22) You have been blind since you were born, your hearing is not so good anymore, your memory fails and recently your teeth loosened, your liver gives you trouble and you are loudly coughing up mucus. (23) Alas, how powerful the living being's attachment to life is! It is that strong that it makes you, just like a household dog, eat the remnants of the food left over by Bhîma [your Pândava nephew]. (24) How can you subsist on the grace of those whom you tried to burn and poison and whose wife you have insulted while usurping their kingdom? (25) Whether you like it or not, you will, however much you value your life, have to face the fact that this miserly body will dwindle and deteriorate like an old garment. (26) Someone is courageous and wise when he, no longer being able to use his body properly, unconcerned and free from all obligations leaves for an unknown destination. (27) Anyone who, by his own understanding or having learned it from others, arrives at consciousness in resignation of the world and leaves his home with the Lord installed in his heart, is certainly a first-class human being. (28) Therefore, please leave for the north without letting your relatives know, for hereafter soon the time will arrive that diminishes many of the qualities of men [Kali-yuga].' (29) Having heard this the old king of the Ajamîdha family, in respect of the wisdom of his younger brother Vidura, determined broke with the strong family ties and left in the direction that was set for the path of liberation. (30) As he left, the chaste and worthy daughter of King Subala [Gândhârî] followed her husband to the Himalayas - the place that is the delight of those who took up the staff of renunciation like they were fighters accepting a justified beating.

(31) Returning to the palace, he who considered no one his enemy [Yudhishthhira] wanted to pay his respects to the elderly after he had worshiped the demigods with oblations, and offered obeisances and gifts of grains, land, cows and gold to the brahmins, but he could not find his two uncles or aunt Gândhârî. (32) Anxiously, he turned to Sañjaya the son of Gavalgana [the assistant who gave the blind Dhritarâshthra the account of the battle], and said to him: 'Where is our old, blind uncle? (33) Where is my well-wisher Vidura and mother Gândhârî who was grieving over losing her offspring? Has the old king, having lost his sons, distressed with a mind full of doubt about my ingratitude and offenses, drowned himself together with his wife in the Ganges? (34) After the downfall of my father King Pându they were the well-wishers who protected all of us still being small children. Where have my uncles gone from here?' "

(35) Sûta said: "Sañjaya, who, being worried out of love for his master, could not find him, was upset about the separation and could, being too aggrieved, not speak a word in reply. (36) Thinking about the feet of his master he with his hands wiped the tears from his face. He restrained himself and replied King Yudhishthhira. (37) Sañjaya said: 'I do not know what your uncles or Gândhârî had in mind, oh descendant of the Kuru dynasty - oh great King, these great souls have fooled me.' (38) That very moment the supreme personality Nârada arrived there with his musical instrument. Yudhishthhira and his younger brothers got up from their seats to welcome him properly by offering him their obeisances. The king thereupon said: (39) 'Oh supreme one, I do not know in which direction my uncles and ascetic aunt, who is most aggrieved about the loss of her sons, have left. (40) Like a captain on a ship in the great ocean, you are the Lord to guide us to the other side.'

Thus being addressed the divine personality Nârada, the greatest among the sages, said: (41) 'Oh King, never lament, for whatever reason, for the universe is controlled by the Supreme Lord. All living beings and their leaders perform their ceremonies in order to be protected. He is the one who brings everybody together and also disperses them again. (42) The way a cow is tied by a rope through the nose, one the same way is tied by the hymns and precepts of the Veda to follow the demands of the Supreme One. (43) The way in this world playthings at will are brought together and separated again, it also happens to the people who subjected to the game of the Lord are brought together and separated again. (44) Whether one considers persons eternal [souls] or temporal [bodies] or else as both [embodied souls] or as neither of both [because of the Absolute Truth which is transcendental to all attributes], they never under any circumstance should constitute a reason for lamentation. One is only that way because one got emotionally involved or has lost one's mind. (45) Therefore, oh King, give up the anxiety you feel from lacking in self knowledge. Do not longer think how these helpless poor creatures would be able to survive without you. (46) How is this body, which is made out of the five elements [fire, water, air, earth and ether] and is controlled by time, by materially motivated action and by the modes of nature [kâla, karma and the gunas], capable of protecting others when it is just as well bitten by that snake? (47) One living being is the livelihood of another; those who have no hands [the animals] are at the mercy of the ones who do have hands [the human beings], living beings without limbs [like grasses] are at the mercy of the four-legged ones [like the cows]. The weaker ones are at the mercy of the stronger ones. (48) Look therefore only for Him, this Supreme Personality, who by the power of illusion appears as a diversity. He, oh King, is the One Soul of the self-realization of all souls, who manifests Himself both inside of them and outside of them. (49) He, the Father of all creation, the Supreme Lord, has now, oh great King, descended in this world in the form of [death, the all-devouring] Time, in order to eliminate everyone inimical to the enlightened souls. (50) The Lord on their behalf did what had to be done and is now awaiting the rest. You Pândavas the same way must wait and see, for as long as He is present in this world.

(51) Dhritarâshthra, his brother Vidura and his wife Gândhârî have departed for the southern side of the Himalayas where the sages have their refuge. (52) The place is known as Saptasrota ['seven sources'] because the river of heaven [the Svardhunî, the Ganges] sprouts there and, to the satisfaction of the seven different sages, divides herself into the seven currents we know as her branches. (53) By bathing regularly there, sacrificing in the fire according to the regulative principles and fasting on drinking water only, Dhritarâshthra has completely subdued his mind and senses and is thus freed from begging for food [in his family dependence]. (54) With the help of sitting postures, breath control and turning one's mind inward away from the six senses, one can, absorbed in the Lord, conquer the contaminations of passion, goodness and ignorance. (55) By allowing his self to merge with the wisdom and the wisdom to merge with the pure witnessing, he has united himself with the Absolute [brahman], the foundation of pure existence, the same way the air within a pot merges with the space outside of it. (56) When he, no longer hindered in renouncing all his duties, sits down concentrated without moving a limb, his senses and mind because of his breaking with the effects of the operating modes of nature, will no longer be fed and come to a full stop. (57) I expect that he will quit his body five days from now, oh King, and it will turn into ashes. (58) While she outside observes the body of her husband [mystically] catching fire along with his cottage, his chaste wife in full awareness will follow him in the blaze. (59) Vidura, witnessing that wonderful incident, oh son of the Kuru dynasty, will, with mixed feelings of delight and grief, then leave that place for the sake of visiting holy places.' (60) After Nârada thus had addressed the king he, together with his stringed instrument, rose up into heaven. Yudhishthhira, taking his instructions to heart, thereupon gave up all his lamentation."

*: Vidura is a younger brother of Dhritarâshthra. He was born as a s'ûdra, a laborer, because of being conceived by Vyâsa from a maidservant of the mother of Pându.

**: Aryamâ was a son of Aditi and Kas'yapa officiating for Yamarâja the Lord of punishment. Vidura is considered the s'ûdra incarnation of Yamarâja.

Chapter 14: The Disappearance of Krishna

(1) Sûta said: "Arjuna went to the city of Dvârakâ to see his friends and Krishna, the One Glorified in the Vedic Hymns, in order to know what His further plans were. (2) After a few months had passed and Arjuna had not returned from there, Yudhishthhira observed various fearful signs. (3) The time had taken an inauspicious turn: he observed seasonal irregularities and saw that human beings sinfully turned to anger, greed and falsehood in heartening their civil means of livelihood. (4) There was cheating in ordinary transactions, dishonesty mixed itself in the regard of well-wishers, fathers, mothers and brothers and also between man and wife there was quarrel. (5) The people gradually were acquiring godless habits like wantonness and such. The king facing these serious matters and bad omens, spoke with his younger brother about it.

(6) Yudhishthhira said [to Bhîma]: 'Arjuna went to Dvârakâ to see his friends and to learn about Krishna's plans. (7) It is now seven months ago that your younger brother left, oh Bhîmasena, and I do not know exactly why he does not return. (8) Might it be so that, as Nârada told us, the Supreme Personality has decided it is time to leave this physical manifestation of Himself? (9) We owe our wealth, kingdom and wives to Him. By His grace the existence of the dynasty and the life of our subjects has become possible and because of His mercy we could defeat our enemies and [live for a better] world. (10) Just look, oh man with the strength of a tiger, at the position of the planets, how things are faring on earth and what is happening to the body and the mind. All these dreadful signs deluding our intelligence indicate a great danger in the near future. (11) Again and again my thighs, eyes, arms and the left side of my body are quivering and I have heart palpitations due to fear. This is all indicative of undesirable happenings. (12) See, oh Bhîma, how the jackal frantically cries at sunrise and how the dog barks at me without any fear. (13) Oh tiger among man, the cows leave me [left] aside and the other animals are turning around me while my horses seem to weep. (14) The pigeon [appears like] a messenger of death and the shrieks of the owls and their rivals the crows make my heart tremble as if they wish the void of the cosmos. (15) Oh Bhîma, see how smoke circles in the sky and how the earth is throbbing along with the hills and mountains with loud thunderbolts out of the blue of a cloudless sky. (16) The wind blows sharply creating darkness with the dust and rain pours like blood from the clouds as an omnipresent disaster. (17) The sun is shining less - see how the stars in the sky seem to clash into one another and how the living beings are confounded and agitated as if they are crying. (18) Rivers and their tributaries, the lakes and the mind are all perturbed while fire does not ignite with the help of butter. What is this extraordinary time? What is going to happen? (19) The calves do not suck the teats and the cows do not want to be milked, looking afraid as if they are weeping, while the bulls do not take pleasure in the pasture ground. (20) The deities seem to be crying and perspiring as if they want to leave the temple and also the cities, villages, towns, gardens, mines and hermitages have lost their beauty being bereft of all happiness. What sort of calamities will befall us? (21) I think that all these great upsurges manifest out of the need for the marks of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality - the earth bereft of the extraordinary signs of the Supreme Person misses that fortune.'

(22) Oh brahmin, while the king [Yudhishthhira] thus was thinking to himself observing the bad omens, Arjuna returned from the kingdom of the Yadus. (23) Bowing down at the feet of the king, his dejection was unprecedented with the tears that fell from the lotus eyes of his downward looking face. (24) Seeing Arjuna pale with a heart full of anxiety, the king, who remembered what Nārada had said, questioned him in the midst of the friends. (25) Yudhishthhira said: 'Are our Yadu relatives of Madhu, Bhoja, Das'ârha, Ârha, Sâtvata and Andhaka all happy passing their days in Dvârakâ? (26) Is also my respectable [maternal] grandfather S'ûrasena in good health passing his last days and are my [maternal] uncle Vasudeva and his younger brothers all well? (27) Are my aunts - his wives - all the seven sisters headed by Devakî herself, all happy with their sons and daughters-in-law? (28-29) Is King Ugrasena, whose son was so wicked [Kamsa] still alive? Are his younger brother, Hridîka and his son Kritavarmâ and Akrûra, Jayanta, Gada, Sârana as also S'atrujit and the rest all happy? Is also Balarâma, the Supreme Personality, the protector of the devotees, doing well? (30) Are the great warrior Pradyumna [a son of Krishna] and all others of the Vrishni family happy? And is the in every respect powerful, plenary expansion of Krishna Aniruddha [a grandson of Krishna] faring well? (31) And how are Sushena, Cârudeshna and Sâmba, the son of Jâmbavatî, doing, as also the other eminent sons of Krishna and their sons like Rishabha?  (32-33) Are likewise the constant companions of Krishna such as S'rutadeva, Uddhava and others, as also Sunanda, Nanda and the other leaders and liberated souls of excellence doing well? And are all those who are bound in friendship under the protection of Balarâma and Krishna, also thinking of our well-being? (34) Is the Supreme Lord, who is the pleasure of the cows and the senses and always cares for the devotees and the brahmins, enjoying His assembly hall surrounded by His friends in the city [Dvârakâ]? (35-36) In order to protect and elevate all the worlds, the Original, Supreme Enjoyer resides together with Ananta [Balarâma] in the company of the ocean of members of the Yadu dynasty. In His city the members of the Yadu family enjoy the deserved protection of His arms and relish the same transcendental pleasure as the residents of heaven. (37) By giving priority to managing the comforts at His feet, the sixteen thousand wives headed by Sathyabhâmâ made the Lord subdue the denizens of heaven, so that they could enjoy matters [like the Pârijâta tree] that are normally the privilege of the wives of [Indra,] the controller of the thunderbolt. (38) The Yadus, enjoying the protection of His arms, always fearlessly enter the Sudharmâ assembly hall which, procured by force [from Indra], was worthy of the best of gods.

(39) My dear brother, are you all healthy? You appear to have lost your luster. Is it because of missing the respect in being neglected, my brother, for having been away too long? (40) Has someone addressed you unfriendly with harsh words, or could you not be charitable to someone asking or keep a promise? (41) Oh you who are approached for the protection of the brahmins, the children, the cows, the elderly, the diseased and the women, were you unable to offer shelter to any of them approaching you and deserving your care? (42) Have you contacted a questionable woman, have you treated an acceptable woman improperly maybe or has your good self been defeated on the road by a superior power or by equals? (43) Have you disregarded old men or boys who deserved to dine together with you or have you done something abominable that is hard to forgive? (44) Or is it so that you in your relation to the one most dear, my brother Arjuna, your heart's friend [Krishna], you feel a void missing Him all the time? I can think of no other reason why you should suffer such a mental distress.' "

Chapter 15: The Pândavas Retire

(1) Sûta said: "Arjuna, the friend of Krishna, who was emaciated because of his separation from Krishna, thus was subjected to the various forms of doubt and speculation of his elder brother the king. (2) Because of his grief his mouth and lotus heart had dried up and his bodily luster had vanished. Preoccupied with thoughts about the Lord he was incapable of replying properly. (3) The more he wiped the tears from his eyes and with great difficulty checked the force of his sadness not seeing Him anymore, the more he eagerly thought about Him in his affection and the more distressed he became. (4) Remembering Him as a well-wisher, benefactor, friend and charioteer, Arjuna, overwhelmed and heavily breathing, addressed his eldest brother the king.  (5) He said: 'Oh great King, Lord Hari in the form of my friend, has left me. Now I am bereft of the amazing power that even astonished the gods. (6) I lost Him from whom being separated but for a moment all universes would appear unfavorable and void of all life, like they are all dead. (7) By the strength of His mercy I could vanquish the power of all the lusty princes during the selection of the bridegroom at King Drupada's palace where I gained Draupadî's hand by piercing the fish-target with my bow. (8) With Him at my side I was able to defeat Indra and his godly associates and could thus enable the god of fire to set ablaze his forest. With His support we could realize our wonderfully built assembly house that was designed by Maya [out of gratitude for saving him from that fire in the forest named Khândava] where all the princes assembled to your honor bringing presents collected from all directions. (9) Under His influence our younger brother [Bhîma], who has the strength of a thousand elephants, managed to kill him [Jarâsandha] whose feet were worshiped by the heads of many kings he wanted to sacrifice. It was He who saved the kings who by Jarâsandha had been brought [to his capital] to be sacrificed to the lord of the ghosts [Mahâbhairava, S'iva]. They all paid you tribute afterwards. (10) He [leading to the great war] took the life of the husbands of the wives [of the Kurus] whose hair was condemned to be loosened [*] because the cluster of your wife's [Draupadî's] hair had been loosened, that was beautifully dressed and blessed for the great ceremony. Being caught by the miscreants [the Kurus headed by Duhs'âsana] she in tears fell down at the Feet. (11) He protected us when we ran into trouble, being endangered in the forest by the intrigue of our enemies associated with Durvâsâ Muni. The moment the sage arrived there to eat with his ten thousand disciples, He by simply accepting the remnants of the food before they did, satisfied the three worlds as also the munis. He did that at the time they were bathing, by giving them the thought that they had been fed already. (12) Under His influence I once could astonish the Lord with the Trident [S'iva] and his wife, the daughter of the Himalaya, because of which he and other gods awarded me their weapons. That is how I, in this body, managed to obtain a half-elevated seat in the House of Indra. (13) As a guest of that heaven I could with both my arms, with the help of my bow Gândîva, offer protection to Indra and all the gods, by killing the demon Nivâtakavaca. I after all, oh descendant of King Ajamîdha, was empowered by Him, the Supreme Personality whom I at present am bereft of. (14) Because of His friendship alone I, seated on the chariot, could cross the insurmountable ocean of the military strength of the Kauravas. Thanks to His friendship only, I could return with the enormous wealth of the enemy, the brilliance of all the jewels I by force took from their heads. (15) It was He who by the power of His glance put an end to my mental agitation concerning the duration of life of all the fighters who with the wealth of their chariots were positioned on the battlefield, oh great King. With the immensity of great royal personalities like Bhîshma, Karna, Drona and S'alya, He was the one driving me forward from their ranks. (16) Under His protection the very powerful invincible weapons wielded by Drona, Bhîshma, Karna, Bhûris'ravâ, King Sus'armâ, S'alya, King Jayadratha, Bâhlika [a brother of Bhîshma] etc., could not touch me, just like it was when Prahlâda [the famous devotee of Nrisimhadeva, the lion-incarnation] was compromised by the demons. (17) Thinking wrongly about my Lord as being my chariot driver, about Him whose feet are served by the intelligent souls for the sake of salvation, the hostile charioteers by His mercy did not take notice and did not attack me when I alighted for my thirsty horses. (18) Oh King, remembering how He with a smiling face made jokes, was frank with me and addressed me with 'son of Prithâ', 'Arjuna My friend' and 'son of the Kuru dynasty' and such, my soul is overwhelmed by these heartfelt words of Mâdhava [Krishna]. (19) When we were sleeping, sitting, walking and dining together and truthfully confronted each other and so on, I took Him erroneously for a friend equal to me. Despite regarding Him lower in my misconduct, He tolerated me, glorious in His greatness, the way a friend accepts a friend or a father accepts his child. (20) Oh Emperor, without the Supreme Personality, my dear most friend and well-wisher, my heart and soul are vacant. Recently I, just like a weak woman, was defeated by infidel cowherds while I was protecting Krishna's wives. (21) Having the same bow, arrows, chariot and horses, I am the same Arjuna and chariot fighter to whom all the kings offered their respects. But with Him absent, all of this in a single moment has become as useless as butter offered to ashes, as money obtained by magic or as seeds sown on barren land.

(22-23) Oh King, in reply to your question about our friends and relatives in Dvârakâ I can tell you that they lost their minds being cursed by the brahmins. Being drunk with rice wine, they killed one another with sticks, not even recognizing each other in that intoxicated state. Only four or five of them remained. (24) In general it is the program of the Supreme Personality, our Lord, that sometimes the living beings kill one another and at other times protect each other. (25-26) Like in the ocean where the bigger creatures eat the smaller ones and the stronger devour the weaker, oh King, the Omnipotent One in one stroke removed the burden of all the Yadus from the earth by having the stronger Yadu in a fight kill the weaker one and the bigger Yadu kill the smaller one. (27) Bearing in mind the words spoken by Govinda, I remember how attractive they are, and how they, imbued with importance and appropriate to time and circumstance, put an end to the pain in the heart.' "

(28) Sûta said: "Thus thinking of the lotus feet of the Lord and what He had instructed in the intimacy of their deep friendship, Arjuna, with his mind freed from all material concerns, found his calm. (29) Constantly remembering the feet of Vâsudeva, Arjuna's devotion increased rapidly so that the endless ruminations ended. (30) He again thought of the spiritual instructions the Supreme Lord gave in the midst of the battlefield. By thinking of His time and actions he dispelled the darkness of his ignorance and became the master of his senses. (31) Free from lamentation, by his spiritual capacity managing to cut with the doubts that were raised by the duality of being identified with the material world, he, due to the transcendence of being without a material form, was freed from the entanglement of birth and death. (32) Yudhishthhira, listening to the deliberations about the end of the Yadu dynasty and the disappearance of the Supreme Lord to His abode, undisturbed within made up his mind [to leave] in favor of the way to heaven. (33) Also Queen Kuntî, who had overheard what Arjuna told about the end of the Yadus and the disappearance of the Lord, found, absorbed in the soul, release from her material existence in pure devotion unto the Lord who was now [fully] situated beyond the senses. (34) By taking away from the world the burden constituted by the body [of the Yadu dynasty], the Unborn Lord equal in His control rejected both the thorn [of the opposing military forces] that was removed and the thorn [of his own family] He used for its removal. (35) Just like with His Matsya incarnation and other incarnations, like a magician giving up one body in order to accept another, He relinquished the body by which He relieved the burden of the world. (36) When Mukunda [the Lord of Liberation], the Fortunate One so worthwhile to hear about, left this earth, from that day on Kali[-yuga] manifested itself in full, the age so inauspicious to all who in ignorance are not in control of their minds [who have not awakened].
(37) When Yudhishthhira grasped what was going on in his capital, state and home as also in the self, observing how everything became worse in a vicious circle of avarice, falsehood, dishonesty, irreligion, violence and so on, he understood that it was time to leave and dressed himself accordingly. (38) His grandson [Parîkchit], who was properly trained and in every respect was as qualified as he was, was by the emperor for the occasion enthroned in the capital of Hastinâpura as the master of all land bordered by the seas. (39) At Mathurâ he made Vajra [the son of Aniruddha] king of S'ûrasena, after which he had a prâjâpatya sacrifice performed in order to find the fire for attaining his goal in himself. (40) Renouncing his belt, ornaments and all of that, he became uninterested, being detached in having broken with the endless bondage. (41) He withdrew his speech into his mind, his mind and his other senses into his breath, his breath he withdrew in death and in full resignation then united that with the body composed of the five elements. (42) Having offered those five elements to the three qualities of nature, he united them in one combination and that he offered in the thoughtful self. Next he fixed that sum total in the soul and that soul in the inexhaustible Absolute Self, Brahman. (43) Accepting torn clothes and refusing solid food, he stopped with talking. He untied his hair and not listening to anyone anymore as if he had become deaf, he thus began to look like a dumb madman and an irresponsible urchin. (44) He headed for the north, just like all others following the path of his mindful forefathers, constantly in his heart thinking about the Supreme One in the Beyond, without turning back from wherever he went.

(45) Like their friend seeing that the age of Kali and its irreligion had overtaken the citizens on earth, all his brothers took the decision to follow him and left home. (46) They had performed everything worthy of a saint and kept themselves, with the ultimate goal of the Supreme Soul in mind, steadfast to the lotus feet of the Lord of Vaikunthha. (47-48) That is the destination of those who, purified by meditation, in their devotion found liberation in fixing their mind on the transcendental feet of the One Nârâyana. With their material contaminations washed away, they attained, in the same bodies they were born with, the abode so difficult to attain for materialists who are absorbed in material concerns. (49) Vidura also returned to his abode [Yama's realm]. With his consciousness absorbed in Krishna, he accompanied by his forefathers quitted his physical self at Prabhâsa. (50) And so did Draupadî who realized that her husbands did not care about her anymore. She focussed her mind on Vâsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and reached Him thus. (51) Anyone who with devotion hears about this departure for the ultimate goal of the sons of Pându who are so dear to the Supreme Lord, will find nothing but good fortune and purity, will gain in perfection and attain the devotional service of the Lord."

*: Hindu widows keep their hair loosened as a sign of lifelong mourning in respect of their deceased husbands.

Chapter 16: How Parîkchit Received the Age of Kali

(1) Sûta said: "Oh scholars, Parîkchit, the great devotee, thereafter, being instructed by the best brahmins, ruled over the earth with all the qualities that the astrologers, who predicted the future at the time of his birth, thought he would have. (2) He married with Irâvatî, the daughter of King Uttara, and begot four sons in her of whom Janamejaya was the first. (3) At the Ganges he performed three horse sacrifices wherein the demigods showed themselves. Kripâcârya, whom he had selected as his spiritual master, was therefore awarded appropriately. (4) Once on a military campaign he, the valiant hero, by dint of his prowess managed to overpower the master of Kali-yuga who had disguised himself as a king but who, lower than a s'ûdra [a laborer], was hurting the legs of a cow and a bull."

(5) S'aunaka inquired: "Why did he during his campaign subdue the master of Kali who dressed up as a king like a low s'ûdra was striking the legs of a cow? Please oh fortunate one, describe that to us, if that would relate to the topics of Krishna. (6) What is the use of other subjects that being illusory do not relate to His lotus feet the nectar of which is licked by the truth-loving souls? That would be a waste of one's life! (7) Oh Sûta, those among the mortal human beings who are sure to meet death here but who desire righteousness [truth and eternal life], call for the great lord of death [Yamarâja] to perform the preparatory rites. (8) The great sages invite him because no one will die as long as he, the great lord who causes the end of life, is present here. Ah! May everyone in the world drink from the nectar of the narrations about the divine pastimes of the Supreme Lord. (9) Those after all, who are lazy, have a dull mind and are short-lived, pass their days and nights with aimless activities and sleeping."

(10) Sûta said: "When Parîkchit, residing in the Kuru capital, learned that the signs of Kali-yuga had entered the domain of his jurisdiction, he considered the news not very palatable and took up his bow and arrows to meet the conflict with military means. (11) Well decorated under the protection of the lion in his flag and with black horses pulling his chariot, he left the capital accompanied by charioteers, cavalry, elephants and infantry troops to assure himself of a victory. (12) Bhadrâs'va, Ketumâla, Bhârata, the northern countries of Kuru and Kimpurusha behind the Himalayas were the lands on earth he conquered, maintaining his authority by exacting tribute. (13-15) Everywhere he went he continuously heard what great souls his forefathers were and found also indications of the glorious acts of Lord Krishna among the people he met. He heard about his own deliverance from the powerful rays of the weapon of As'vatthâmâ and about the love and devotion for Lord Kes'ava [Krishna as the killer of the demon Kes'î, the mad horse] among the descendants of Vrishni and Parthâ. Extremely pleased therewith he gratefully, with eyes wide open of joy, rewarded the people magnanimously with clothes, necklaces and other riches. (16) He [Krishna] who is [a manifestation] of Lord Vishnu and Himself was obeyed by everyone, by serving as a chariot driver, presiding in assemblies and acting as a servant, by being a friend and a messenger and keeping watch at night, acted with prayers and obeisances to the liking of the God-fearing sons of Pāndu. This filled the king with devotion for His lotus feet.

(17) Thus day after day absorbed in thoughts about the good qualities of his forefathers, not far away from where he was, a most peculiar incident took place. Let me tell you about it. (18) Dharma [the personality of religion, a bull] who wandered around on [but] one leg [firmly], met a cow [mother earth] with tears in her eyes, like she was a mother who has lost her child. He questioned her. (19) Dharma said: 'Madam, are you in good health? Looking so sad with a gloomy face, oh mother, you seem to be afflicted by a disease or to be preoccupied with some relative far away. (20) Do you lament my three weakened legs with me standing [firmly] on one leg only, or is it because you are exploited by meat eaters? Is it because the leading demigods are deprived of their sacrificial share or because the living beings increasingly suffer from scarcity, famine and drought? (21) Are you grieving about the unhappy women and children on earth who [because of failing marriages] have to miss the protection of their husbands and fathers or are you sorry about the way one in the families of the learned souls acts against the goddess of learning [by not being directed at the Person anymore]? Or do you lament the fact that most of them act non-brahminical in service of the ruling class [or even serve in business]? (22) Is it because the descendants of the noble class under the influence of Kali-yuga appear to have lost their minds and left and right have messed up the affairs of the state? Or is it because of the habits developed in society to take one's food and drink and how one dresses, bathes and has intercourse? (23) Or could it be, oh mother, because of your heavy burden now Hari, the Lord who diminished your burden has disappeared from sight, with you thinking of everything He did and the salvation He entails? (24) Please inform me, oh reservoir of all riches, about the reason of your sadness that reduced you to such a weak state. Or has, oh mother, powerful Time that even subdues the most powerful soul, stolen away your good fortune extolled by the demigods?'

(25) Mother Earth replied: 'Oh Dharma, I will do my best to answer all the questions you asked me, for you are with your four legs [the vidhi] present in all the worlds to bring happiness. (26-30) Truthfulness, cleanliness, compassion, self-control, magnanimity, contentment, straightforwardness, concentration, sense control, responsibility, equality, tolerance, equanimity and loyalty. And certainly also knowledge, detachment, leadership, chivalry, influence, power, dutifulness, independence, dexterity, beauty, serenity and kindheartedness, as also ingenuity, gentility, mannerliness, determination, knowledgeability, propriety, pleasantness, joyfulness, immovability, faithfulness, fame and dignity - all these and many others are the most important everlasting qualities of the Supreme Lord, the never ever diminishing higher nature desired by those wishing for His greatness. I am thanks to Him, the reservoir of all qualities and the home of the goddess of fortune, myself such an abode, but I lament now that in His absence, Kali, the source of all sins, is seen all over the world.  (31) I am lamenting both for me and for you, for the best of the enlightened souls, the gods and the ancestors in heaven, the sages and the devotees, as also for all people in their status orientations in society. (32-33) Lakshmî [the Goddess of Fortune] whose grace was sought by Brahmâ and others who for many days executed penances for her in surrender to the Lord, has without hesitation forsaken her abode in the forest of lotus flowers out of attachment to serve His all-auspicious feet. With my body decorated with the impressions of the footprints with [the marks of] the lotus flower, thunderbolt, flag and driving rod of the Supreme Lord, the proprietor of all opulence, I superseded beautifully the three worlds. But, after my places [my worlds] had obtained His splendor, He in the end has abandoned me who was so happy with it. (34) He who relieved me of the burden of the hundreds of military divisions of atheist kings, incarnated [just as well] for you in an attractive form in the Yadu family, because you, lacking in inner strength, had difficulty to keep standing. (35) Who, I ask you, can tolerate it to be separated from the Supreme Original Person who with His loving glances, smiles and hearty appeals defeated the strong attachment of His sweet and proud women and made my hair [my grasses] stand on end out of pleasure for being imprinted by His feet?'

(36) While the [cow of mother] earth and [the bull of] dharma were thus conversing, Parîkchit, who was renown for being the saint among the kings, arrived at the Sarasvatî river that was flowing to the east."

Chapter 17: Punishment and Reward of Kali

(1) Sûta said: "There [at the Sarasvatî river] the king observed how a lowly, wicked fellow, dressed like a prince, with a club was beating a cow and a bull who had no one to protect them. (2) The bull, that was as white as a lotus, being beaten by the s'ûdra, trembled out of fear and urinated standing on one leg only. (3) The cow also, on itself a religious example but now rendered poor and distressed because the s'ûdra beat her legs, was without a calf and had tears in her eyes while she in her weakness hankered for some grass to eat. (4) Parîkchit, well equipped with bow and arrows, asked from his with gold embossed chariot with a thundering voice: (5) 'Who do you think you are to kill here violently the helpless ones under my protection! As an actor dressed up like a God-conscious man, you appear to be powerful but you behave like someone who never saw the light of civilization [of being twice-born]. (6) Do you think that, now Lord Krishna and the carrier of the bow the Gândîva [Arjuna] have disappeared from sight, you can secretly beat an innocent cow? Being a culprit you thus deserve it to be killed!'

(7) 'And you', [he said turning to the bull,] 'are you just a bull that, as white as a lotus, moves on one leg, having lost three legs, or are you some demigod making us sad in the form of a bull? (8) Except for you there has till now never been a living being on earth that under the protection [of the arms] of any of the kings of the Kuru dynasty, had such grievance shedding tears. (9)  Oh son of Surabhi [the celestial cow], let me tell you, in my kingdom there will be no lamentation. Therefore do not fear the wicked fellow. And dear mother cow, do not cry, as long as I am alive as the ruler and subduer of the envious ones, you will thrive! (10-11) Oh chaste one, he in whose state all kinds of living beings are terrified because of miscreants, will because of his inattentiveness lose his fame, longevity, fortune and good birth. It is the supreme duty of the rulers to subdue for the purpose of putting an end to the misery of the ones suffering. Therefore I shall kill this most wretched man who is so violent with other living beings. (12) Who has cut your three legs, oh four-legged son of Surabhi? What happened to you has never happened before in this royal state of kings who live in obedience to Krishna. (13) Oh bull, I wish you all the best, you are honest and without offenses, tell me who has mutilated you and tarnished the reputation of the sons of Prithâ. (14) Those who make the sinless suffer will have to fear me wherever they go, for I will curb the actions of the miscreants and restore the welfare of the virtuous souls. (15) The upstart of evil acts towards innocent living beings I shall forthwith defeat, whether he is a demigod from heaven with armor and decorations or not. (16) It is the holy duty of the head of state always to protect the ones who faithfully perform their duty and, according to the scriptures, chastise those who in this world for other reasons than misfortune strayed from the path.'

(17) The personality of religion said: 'That what you said to become free from the fear for distress is befitting for someone of the Pândava dynasty, the descendants of Pându to whose qualities attracted Krishna, the Supreme Lord, performed the duty of being a servant and such. (18) Oh greatest among the human beings, being bewildered as a consequence of all the differences of [philosophical and political] opinion, we cannot tell which person [or whatever] would be the cause of our [human] suffering. (19) Some [philosophers], in defiance of all duality, declare that one suffers because of oneself, others speak of fate as the cause, some say that it is all due to karma, while many other authorities say that material nature is responsible. (20) Some also conclude that it is a question that defies explanation and comprehension. Who of them would be right in this matter, oh sage among the kings, is left to your own power of judgement.' "

(21) Sûta said: "Parîkchit, who attentively had followed what the personality of religion had to say, oh best among the brahmins, replied mindfully. (22) The king said: 'Oh knower of the duties, oh dharma in the form of a bull, you say this because the status of a wrong doer will also become the position of the one who points out the wrong done [like the guru who takes up the karma of his follower]. (23) In other words, the Lord's ways within the material world can neither be put in words nor be conceived by living beings. (24) Penance, cleanliness, compassion and truthfulness [tapas, s'auca, dayâ, satya] are your legs that thus established the age of truth [Satya-yuga], but because of irreligiosity three of them have broken in conceit, [clinging to] intercourse and intoxication. (25) At present, oh personality of religion, you are hobbling along on the one leg of truthfulness, while quarrel personified [Kali], who flourishes on deceit, irreligiously tries to destroy that leg too. (26) Because of the actions of the Supreme Lord mother earth has been relieved of the great burden that she, this cow, carried. His all-auspicious footprints brought happiness everywhere. (27) Lamenting with tears in her eyes the unfortunate and chaste one [mother earth] being deserted by Him, is now enjoyed by lower-class people who, devoid of the culture of learning, pose as rulers in my place.'

(28) After he thus had pacified the personalities of religion and mother earth, the great warrior took up his sharp sword to kill Kali, the root cause of irreligion. (29) Realizing that the king wanted to kill him, Kali, stressed by the fear, abandoned his royal attire and in full surrender bowed his head down at the feet. (30) The hero who was kind to the poor, a refuge for the people and worthy of being glorified, out of compassion with a smile refrained from killing the one fallen at his feet and addressed him. (31) The king said: 'Because you surrendered yourself with folded hands to the maintainer of Arjuna's glory, you have nothing to fear. But that does not mean that you, as a friend of irreligion, just like that can stay in my kingdom. (32) With you physically present as a god of man, the irreligion of greed, falsehood, robbery, incivility, sin, misfortune, cheating, quarrel, vanity and such, will be abound in the masses. (33) For that reason, oh friend of irreligion, you do not deserve to remain in Brahmâvarta, this holy land, where the experts of religion and truth duly and expertly are of worship with sacrifices for the Lord of Sacrifices. (34) In such sacrificial ceremonies the Supreme Personality of God, the Lord, is worshiped as the Soul of all worshipable deities. In that form He spreads welfare, for He is the Supersoul efficacious for all desires, who is present both inside and outside, just like the air is for all that moves and does not move.' "

(35) Sûta said: "That way being ordered by king Parîkchit, the personality of Kali trembled as he saw him ready with a raised sword and speaking like Yamarâja, the Lord of Death. (36) Kali said: 'Wherever I may live under your order, oh Emperor, I will always have to face the reign of your bow and arrows. (37) Therefore please, oh best of the protectors of the religion, allot me a place where I may count on a permanent stay under your rule.' "

(38) Sûta said: "Thus being petitioned, he gave Kali permission to dwell in places where the four sinful activities of gambling, drinking, prostitution and animal slaughter [dyûtam, pânam, striyah, sûnâ] were practiced. (39) Next to that the master, upon his insistent begging, allotted him a place where there is gold, for the passion for gold that brings falsity, intoxication, lust and enmity, constitutes the fifth sin. (40) Kali, directed by the son of Uttarâ, thus occupied the five places given to him where irreligion is encouraged. (41) For that reason a person desiring his well-being should never resort to any of these places, especially not the one who follows the path of liberation and belongs to the royalty, the servants of the state and the teachers. (42) By encouraging activities that restored the bull's three lost legs of austerity, cleanliness and compassion, the earth was perfectly improved [by Parîkchit]. (43-44) He at present is [still] sitting on the earthly throne entrusted by the king, the grandfather [Yudhishthhira] when he wished to withdraw into the forest. From that rule this sage among the kings and chief of the Kuru dynasty is now known in Hastinâpura as the most fortunate and famous emperor. (45) Because of the belief of this king, because of the rule over the earth of the son of Abhimanyu, you all could initiate a sacrifice like this."

Edited: April 30 2016

Chapter 18: Mahârâja Parîkchit Cursed by a Brahmin Boy

(1) Sûta said: "He [Parîkchit] who in the womb of his mother was scorched by the weapon of the son of Drona, did not die thanks to the mercy of the Supreme Lord S'rî Krishna whose actions are so wonderful. (2) Cursed by a brahmin to die by a snake-bird, he was never overwhelmed by the great fear of death because he had consciously surrendered himself to the Supreme Lord. (3) After he had left behind all the ones surrounding him and had understood the actual position of the Invincible One, he as a disciple of the son of Vyâsa [S'ukadeva Gosvâmî] gave up his material body at the bank of the Ganges. (4) They who remembering His feet occupy themselves with His hymns and appreciate the nectarine stories in which He is glorified, will not even at the time of their death be confounded. (5) Even though he is present everywhere, the personality of Kali cannot flourish as long as the mighty ruler, the son of Abhimanyu, is the one who factually rules. (6) From the moment the Supreme Lord left this earth, Kali, he who promotes irreligion, appeared in this world. (7) The emperor who as a realist lived for the essence was never envious of the personality of Kali. Like a bee going for the nectar, he knew that auspicious things lead to immediate success, while working for the inauspicious one never attains. (8) Kali, who in the eyes of the weaker ones appears to be a great power, is to the self-controlled a cause of apprehension, and thus Parîkchit as a tiger among man was the one who among the careless took care. (9) Upon your request I have related almost all the stories that in relation to Vâsudeva can be told about the pious Parîkchit. (10) Those who want to develop and prove themselves should take notice of all and everything about the Supreme Lord His wonders, transcendental qualities and uncommon deeds I spoke about."

(11) The sages said: "O Sûta, may you live a long, happy and particularly eternally famous life, because you speaking so nicely about Lord Krishna grant us mortals certainly the nectar of eternity. (12) In this performance of sacrifice, of which the outcome is uncertain, we are black of the smoke, but by the pleasing of Govinda's feet of your good self we enjoy the nectar of a lotus flower. (13) Attaining higher worlds or liberation from matter, not even mentioning the worldly benedictions of those who inevitably head for their death, is nothing compared to finding but for a moment one's perfect balance in enjoying the company of a devotee of the Lord. (14) Once having acquired the taste someone will never get enough of relishing the nectar of the stories about the greatest and only refuge among the living beings, He whose transcendental qualities  could never be measured by even the greatest masters of mystic union like Lord Brahmâ and Lord S'iva. (15) Be so kind oh learned one to describe to us who are eager to hear about it, His impartial transcendental activities, for He to the good self of you, our most important person in relation to the Supreme Lord, is the one and only shelter, the greatest of the great. (16) Evidently Parîkchit, as a first-class devotee, attained the lotus feet of Him who has Garuda in His banner, after he had strengthened his intelligence with the knowledge that was voiced by the son of Vyâsa in order to inform him about the path of liberation. (17) Please tell us therefore about the supreme and purifying that is so wonderfully contained in bhakti [devotion]. Describe to us, the way it was spoken to Parîkchit, the activities of the Unlimited One that are so particularly dear to the pure devotees."

(18) Sûta said: "See how we, this way being connected to the great ones in conversation, despite having a mixed background, today clearly are promoted to take [a higher] birth [in the spirit of the Lord]. By serving the ones who are advanced in knowledge one is quickly freed from the suffering that is a consequence of one's being born in a lower [material] sense. (19) And, again, what to say of those who exclusively take to the shelter of the great devotees and thereto chant the holy name of Him who is called Ananta because of the fact that He is unlimited in His potency and unmeasurably great by His attributes? (20) To give a description of Him unlimited in His attributes and equal to none, it suffices to say, that the Goddess of Fortune, with rejecting others who asked for it, wished to serve in the dust of His feet, while He Himself never asked for it. (21) Who else would be worth the position of carrying the name of Supreme Lord besides Mukunda [Lord Krishna as the one granting liberation] from whose toenails the water [of the Ganges] collected by Brahmâjî emanated that via Lord S'iva purifies the whole universe. (22) Those who are firmly attached to Him are capable of instantly leaving aside the attachments of the gross body and the subtle mind and go away to take shelter of the highest stage of perfection [sannyâsa], the stage of life in which nonviolence and renunciation is found. (23) Because you who are as strong as the sun asked me, I can give you an account of the knowledge I have acquired; it is in this matter as with the birds who fly as far as they can: I can enlighten you on Vishnu as far as my realization permits.

(24-25) Once upon a time when Parîkchit was hunting stags with bow and arrows, he got very fatigued, hungry and thirsty. Looking for a reservoir of water he entered the hermitage of the famous rishi S'amîka where he saw the sage silently sitting down with his eyes closed. (26) Having restrained his sense organs, breath, mind and intelligence he, in quality equal to the Supreme Absolute, had ceased all activity while he remained unaffected in trance elevated above the three modes of consciousness [wakefulness, dream and unconsciousness]. (27) He was covered by his long, compressed hair as also by the skin of a stag. The king, whose palate was dry of thirst, asked for water. (28) Not being properly received with a place to sit, water and nice words, he felt neglected and so he got angry. (29) Oh brahmins, given the circumstance of being distressed because of his hunger and thirst, his anger and hostility against the brahmin was unprecedented. (30) Having lost his respect he with the tip of his bow picked up a lifeless snake and placed it angrily over the shoulder of the sage as he left to return to his palace. (31) There he wondered whether or not the sage's meditative state of withdrawing from the senses with closed eyes was a false, pretended trance to remain in avoidance of seeing a lower ruler.

(32) When the sage's son, who was a very powerful personality, heard of the grief the king had caused his father while he was playing with some children, he said this: (33) 'Just see how irreligious these rulers are! Enriching themselves like crows they defy what is settled for servants, while they are nothing but dogs keeping watch at the door! (34) The sons of the ruling class are to guard the learned ones like watchdogs - on what grounds would he who is supposed to stay at the door deserve it to enter the house of the master and eat from the same plate? (35) Since Krishna our protector, who is the Supreme Lord and ruler of those upstarts, has departed, I shall today punish them myself, just witness my power!' (36) Thus with eyes red-hot of anger speaking to his playmates, the son of the rishi touched the water of the Kaus'ika river and discharged the following thunderbolt of words: (37) 'Verily, seven days from now the wretched one of the dynasty who offended my father will, because of breaking with the etiquette, be bitten by a snake-bird.' (38) When the boy thereafter returned to the hermitage, he saw the snake over his father's shoulder and wept aloud over that sorry plight.

(39) Oh S'aunaka, when the rishi heard his son crying in distress, he who was born in the family of Angirâ slowly opened his eyes and saw the dead snake on his shoulder. (40) Throwing it aside, he asked: 'My dear son, what are you crying about? Has someone wronged you?' Thus being requested, the boy told him everything. (41) After hearing about the curse pronounced against the king who should never have been condemned because he is the best among man, he did not compliment his son, but lamented instead: 'Alas! What a great sin you have committed yourself today in awarding such a heavy punishment for such an insignificant offense! (42) In fact no one may ever place a transcendental man of God on the same footing with common men - your command of intelligence is immature... by his unsurpassable prowess his subjects completely protected enjoy the prosperity. (43) Oh my boy, the Lord who carries the wheel of the chariot is represented by this monarch; once he is abolished, this world will be full of thieves who immediately will vanquish the ones unprotected like they were lambs. (44) Because of us negating the monarch, from this day on, the reaction upon this sin will overtake us causing great social disorder. The wealth will be taken by thieves and among the people there will be murder and molestation as also abuse of women and animals. (45) The righteous civilization of human progress in the vocations and stages of life according to the Vedic injunctions will at that time systematically be vanquished, and with the economy then only serving sense-gratification will result in an unwanted population on the level of dogs and monkeys. (46) The protector of the religion, the king, is a highly celebrated emperor, a direct, first class devotee of the Lord and a saint of nobility; a great performer of horse sacrifices - and when he hungry and thirsty is stricken with fatigue he never deserves it to be cursed by us like this.'

(47) Next the sage addressed the Supreme, All-pervading Lord in order to beg His pardon for the great sin that by the child immature of intelligence was committed against a sinless, worthy and subordinate soul.  (48) [He prayed:] 'Whether they are defamed, cheated, cursed, disturbed, neglected or even when one of them is killed, the forbearing devotees of the Lord for certain never will avenge themselves for any of this.' (49) Thus the sage regretted the sin of his son while he personally did not consider the king insulting him sinful. (50) Generally the saints in this world prove themselves not distressed or happy when they because of others are engaged in worldly duality, because they are situated in the transcendence of the soul."

Chapter 19: The Appearance of S'ukadeva Gosvâmî

(1) Sûta said: "Going home the king thought that what he had done was something abominable and he was very depressed saying to himself: 'Alas, it was uncivilized and evil what I did to the faultless, grave and powerful brahmin. (2) I will no doubt because of going against the injunctions very soon meet with a very troublesome calamity. I certainly hope that that will happen as soon as possible so that I will be relieved of my sins and never do anything like that again. (3) May I, on this very day, burn with my kingdom, strength and wealth of riches in the fire ignited by the brahmin community, so that the inauspiciousness of sinning against the Lord, the culture and the cows may not return to me.' (4) Thus pondering the message reached him of the curse of death pronounced by the sage's son. That curse in the form of the fire of a snake bird he accepted as something auspicious because that expected happening would be the logical consequence of the indifference of an all too attached person. (5) He decided to give up on this world as also on the next, for he already had concluded that both worlds were inferior compared to a life of service at the feet of Krishna. So he sat down at the bank of the transcendental river [the Ganges] in order to fast. That was to his opinion the best thing he could do. (6) That river, always flowing mixed with tulasî leaves [a plant used in worship], consists of the auspicious water carrying the dust from the feet of Lord Krishna that sanctifies both the worlds inside and outside and even the Lord of Destruction [Lord S'iva]. What person destined to die would not turn to that river? (7) With that decision he, the worthy descendant of the Pândavas, with his sitting down at the river which flows from the feet of Vishnu, surrendered himself to the mercy of Mukunda till he died. He, free from all kinds of material attachment, would complete his fasting without deviating from the spirit of the vows respected by the sages.

All the great minds and thinkers who together with their pupils are capable of elevating the entire world, then came to gather there on the plea of a pilgrimage. It is because of their personal presence that the holy places enjoy their status of sanctity. (9-10) Atri, Cyavana, S'aradvân, Arishthanemi, Bhrigu, Vasishthha, Parâs'ara, Vis'vâmitra, Angirâ, Paras'urâma, Uthathya, Indrapramada, Idhmavâhu, Medhâtithi, Devala, Ârshthisena, Bhâradvâja, Gautama, Pippalâda, Maitreya, Aurva, Kavasha, Kumbhayoni, Dvaipâyana and the great personality Nârada arrived. (11) Also many other divine personalities, saintly brahmins, the best saintly advisors of the most prominent nobles and many other sages like Aruna appeared to the occasion. All the heads of the dynasties of sages assembling there were respectfully welcomed by the emperor bowing his head. (12) When all of them were seated comfortably he, with folded hands present before them as someone whose mind is detached from worldly affairs, after again having offered them his obeisances, thereupon humbly spoke about his decision to fast. (13) The king said: 'We are truly grateful to be the most fortunate of all the kings who are trained to be receptive to the favors granted by the greatest of souls, because at the feet of the brahmins the royal orders because of their reprehensible actions are but refuse to be kept at a distance. (14) Because of my sins the Controller of the transcendental and mundane worlds pronounced a curse against me via that brahmin, I who out of attachment always thought of family matters. Having assumed that form He, inspiring with fear, very soon will overtake my mundane attachment. (15) Therefore oh brahmins, just accept me as someone who with the Lord in his heart in surrender has taken to the divine mother Ganges. Let the snakebird, or whatever magical thing the twice-born called for, bite me forthwith. You please continue reciting the deeds of Lord Vishnu. (16) And, again, let it be so that wherever that I in relation to the Supreme, Unlimited Lord and the association He attracts in the material world may take birth, I will find friendly relations everywhere in obeisance to the twice-born.'

(17) And so it came to pass that the king, with the same perseverance as he had shown before, fully self-controlled seated himself on kus'a grass laid to the east, while facing the north from the southern bank of the wife of the sea [the Ganges]. The charge of his administration he had handed over to his son. (18) To that occasion the gods, who from the sky had seen that the king would fast until his end, all in praise scattered the earth with flowers, continually beating celestial drums in pleasure. (19) All the great sages who had assembled there praised him for the wisdom he had thus shown and in approval said from the power of their goodness for the living beings, a goodness that in its quality is as beautiful as the divine praised in the scriptures: (20) 'It is not astonishing that this saintly king, the chief of all of us who strictly follow Krishna, being seated on the throne that is decorated with the helmets of kings, immediately gave up his life out of his desire to achieve association with the Fortunate One. (21) We all will stay at this place as
long as it takes the king to give up his body and return to the world of the Supreme, where this foremost devotee will be completely free from worldly concerns and lamentation.'

(22) After having heard the assembled sages speak thus impartially, sweet to hear, grave and perfectly true, Parîkchit
complimented them all with their appropriate show of respect and said, desirous to hear about the activities of Vishnu: (23) 'You all have assembled here as the representatives of the One above the three worlds [Brahmâ], with no other intention in this world or a world hereafter but to act for the good of others according to your innate nature. (24) Therefore I beg you to tell me now, as trustworthy Vedic men of learning,  after due deliberation, what of all the different duties of each and especially of those who are about to die, to your opinion would be the proper and befitting conduct.'

(25) At that moment, as if called for, the powerful son of Vyâsa, S'ukadeva Gosvâmî appeared. He, looking like a mendicant satisfied in self-realization freely traveled around in the company of children without any concern about material comforts or an identity. (26) He, only sixteen years old, had a body with delicate legs, hands, thighs, arms, shoulders and forehead. His eyes were beautifully wide in a face with a high nose, similar ears, nice eyebrows and a neck as shapely as a conch shell. (27) With a fleshy collarbone, a broad chest and a deep navel he had nice folds in his abdomen. Stark naked with curly, scattered hair and long arms he had the hue of the best among the gods [Krishna; a dark complexion]. (28) Even though he covered his nakedness the sages, who had a keen eye for physiognomy, recognized the symptoms of the blackish skin, the beauty of his tender age and the attraction for the fair sex with his beautiful smiles. And so they all stood up from their seats. (29) To welcome the new guest, he who is always protected by Vishnu [Parîkchit] bowed before him and offered his obeisances, whereupon his less educated following of boys and women withdrew the moment he took his exalted seat in regard of the respect shown. (30) Surrounded there by the greatest of the great saints among the brahmins, the kings and the godly ones, S'ukadeva as the greatest lord shone as resplendent as the moon surrounded by the planets, heavenly bodies and stars. (31) Calm, intelligent and self-assured sitting down the sage was approached by the great devotee, the king, who properly bowing down with folded hands asked him questions in a polite and friendly manner.

(32) P
arîkchit said: 'Oh brahmin, what a blessing it is for us from the ruling class today to be chosen as a servant of the devotee, by  your mercy of being our guest to be considered worthy the visit of all these relations of your good self. (33) When we think of your person that immediately purifies all the places we inhabit, not to mention what it means to see you, touch you, wash your feet and offer you a seat. (34) Through your presence, oh great mystic, our gravest sins are immediately vanquished, just as the nonbelievers are by the presence of Vishnu. (35) Finally Krishna, the Supreme Lord so dear to the sons of Pându, is of mercy for me and has, for the satisfaction of His cousins and brothers, accepted me, their descendant, as one of theirs. (36) How else could it be possible that you, out of your own free will, specially for someone in his last hours before death have appeared here to meet us, while you normally, all-perfect as you are, cannot be found among the common people? (37) Therefore I beg you as the supreme spiritual master of all ascetics, to clarify what, in this life, the perfection, the final beatitude would be for a person and what for someone about to die all would be the duty. (38) Please explain what the people in general, oh master, should attend to and chant about, what they should do, what they should remember and share, as also what would be against the principle. (39) This I ask because, oh supreme devotee, in the house of the householders one rarely sees you staying for longer than the exact time of milking a cow.' "

(40) Sûta said: "Thus pleasantly being addressed and questioned by the king, the supreme son of Vyâsadeva who was so well versed in the knowledge of what is one's actual duty, began his reply."


Thus the first Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam ends named: Creation.


CANTO 2: The Cosmic Manifestation 


Chapter 1: The First Step in God Realization

(-) My obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva. (1) S'rî S'uka said: 'This inquiry of yours for the good of all is the best thing you can do, because this subject of study oh King, carries the approval of the transcendentalists and constitutes the supreme of all that is worth the attention. (2) There are countless subject matters to hear about in human society, oh Emperor, that are the interest of those materially engrossed ones who are blind to the reality of the soul. (3) They spend their lives oh King, with sleeping and having sex during the night and with making money and taking care of their family during the day. (4) All too attached to the fallible allies of the body, the children, the wife and everything thereto, they despite their experience, do not see the finality of these matters. (5) For this reason, oh descendant of Bharata, He must be discussed, glorified and remembered who as the Supersoul, the Supreme Personality, the controller and vanquishing Lord frees those who are of desire from their anxieties. (6) All this analyzing in the knowledge of yoga of one's particular nature and how a person after being born should attain to the full awareness of the Supreme, in the end only concerns the remembrance of Nârâyana [Krishna as the Supreme Personality]. (7) It are generally those sages who went beyond the sphere of prescriptions and restrictions oh King, who are the ones to take pleasure in especially describing the glories of the Lord.

(8) This story called the Bhâgavatam contains the essence of the Vedas and was by me, at the end of this Dvâpara-yuga [the age of honoring monarchs], studied under the guidance of my father Dvaipâyana Vyâsa. (9) Fully realized as I was in transcendence my attention was drawn towards the enlightened verses about the [Lord's] pastimes oh saintly King, and thus I studied the narration. (10) I will recite it to you, because you, oh goodness, are a most sincere devotee. They who respectfully dedicate their full attention to it very soon will realize an unflinching faith in Mukunda [Krishna as the Lord granting liberation]. (11) For those who are free from material desires as well as for those who are desirous and for all who being free from fear and doubts are united within [the yogis] oh King, the, according the tradition, repeated singing of the Lord's holy name is the approved method. (12) What's the use of spending one's years as an ignoramus in this world without having [this] experience? The hour one deliberately spends in service of the higher cause is the better one. (13) The saintly king known as Khathvânga set aside everything when he knew that he had but a moment to live longer in this world and thus experienced the full security of the Lord. (14) Oh member of the Kuru family, therefore also your life's duration that is limited to seven days, should inspire you to perform everything that traditionally belongs to the rituals for a next life. (15) Seeing the end of one's life one should be free from the fear of death by cutting, with the help of the weapon of non-attachment, with all desires as well as with everything associated with them. (16) Piously self controlled having left one's home for a sacred place, one should according the regulations properly cleansed and purified, in solitude sit down assuming the proper posture. (17) The mind should be turned to the practice of the three transcendental letters [A-U-M]. Thus not forgetting the seed of the absolute [Brahman, the impersonal spirit] one by regulating one's breath realizes the control [originating] with the Supreme. (18) When one for the sake of the virtue fixes oneself in meditation, the mind withdraws from the engagement of the senses. This happens because the intelligence being absorbed in fruitive labor tends to be driven by the mind. (19) With one's thereafter focussing of one's mind upon the different parts and divisions [of the body and also of the logic] without losing sight of the complete, one must consequently take care not to think of anything else but that refuge of [the feet of] the Supreme Lord Vishnu who pacifies the mind. (20) From the passion and inertia of nature the mind is always agitated and bewildered, but one will find that rectified in the focus of the ones pacified that destroys all the wrong done. (21) They who fixed in the habit of such a systematic remembrance seek unification and hold on to this devotion will soon be of success in the shelter of the yoga that approves this.'

(22) The king, attentive to what was said, asked: 'O brahmin, what is in short the idea of in which place and with which activities a person must be engaged and continue with, in order to directly escape from a polluted mind?'

(23) S'rî S'uka said: 'When one sits down in control, has subdued one's breath and has conquered one's attachment as well as one's senses, one should focus one's attention upon the gross matter of the outer appearance of the Supreme Lord [the virâth-rûpa].

(24) His individual body is this gross material world in which we experience all that belongs to the past, the present and the future of this universe in existence. (25) This outer shell of the universe which we know as a body consisting of seven coverings [see kos'as], constitutes the notion of the object of the Universal Form of the Purusha [the Original Person] who is the Supreme Lord. (26) The lower worlds are by the ones who studied it recognized as the soles of His feet [called Pâtâla] of which His heels and toes are called Rasâtala, His ankles Mahâtala while the shanks of the gigantic person are called the Talâtala worlds. (27) The two knees of the Universal Form are called Sutala, the thighs Vitala and Atala and the hips are named Mahîtala oh King. Outer space is accepted as the depression of His navel. (28) The higher, illumined worlds are His chest, with above it the neck called Mahar. His mouth is called Jana while Tapas is the name of the worlds of the forehead with Satyaloka [the world of Truth] as the uppermost of the [middle] worlds of the Original Personality who has a thousand heads. (29) The gods headed by Indra are His arms, the four directions are His ears and sound is His sense of hearing. The nostrils of the Supreme are the As'vinî-Kumâras [a type of demigods] while fragrance is His sense of smell and His mouth the blazing fire. (30) The sphere of outer space are the pits of His eyes, while the eyeball of the sun makes up His seeing. The eyelids of Vishnu are the day and night, the movements of His eyebrows are the supreme entity [Brahmâ and the other demigods], His palate is the director of water [Varuna] and His tongue is the nectarine juice. (31) They say that the Vedic hymns are the thought process of the Unlimited One, that His jaws make up Yamarâja [the Lord of death], His teeth are His affection and that His smile is the most alluring, unsurpassable material energy [mâyâ]. Material creation is only the casting of His glance.  (32) Modesty is His upper lip, His chin stands for the hankering, religion is His breast, and the path of irreligion is His back. Brahmâ is His genitals, His testicles are the Mitrâ-varunas [the friends], His waist the oceans and the stack of His bones are the mountains. (33) His veins are the rivers and the plants and trees are the hairs on the body of the Universal Form, oh King. The air is His omnipotent breathing, the passing of the ages, Time, is His movement and the constant operation of the modes of material nature is His activity. (34) Let me tell you that the hairs on the head of the Supreme Controller are the clouds oh best of the Kurus, and that the intelligence of the Almighty is the prime cause of the material creation, so one says. His mind, the reservoir of all changes, is known as the moon. (35) The material principle constitutes His consciousness, so one says, while Lord S'iva is the cause within [His ego, His self]. The horse, mule, camel and elephant are His nails, and all other game and quadrupeds are represented in the region of His belt. (36) The singing of the birds is His artistic sense and Manu, the father of man forms the contents of His thought with humanity as His residence. The angelic and celestial beings [the Gandharvas, Vidyâdharas and Caranas] constitute His musical rhythm while the remembrance of terrorizing soldiers represents His prowess. (37) With the intellectuals [brahmins] for the face and the rulers [kshatriyas] for the arms of the Universal Form, the traders [vais'yas] are the thighs and the laborers [s'ûdras, the dark or 'krishna'-class] occupy His feet. Through the various names of the demigods He overtakes with the provision of feasible goods [that appease Him] by means of the performance of sacrifices.

(38) I explained all these locations in the Form of the Supreme Lord to you so that anyone who may concentrate the mind on this virâth-rûpa Universal Form can attain through intelligence. Beyond Him as such there is nothing else to be found in the gross of matter. (39) He who may be known in so many ways as the Supersoul present in all forms, alike a dreamer who sees himself  [in different situations], is the one and only Supreme Truth and ocean of bliss. One must direct oneself to Him alone and nothing else if one does not want to see oneself degraded by attachments.'

Chapter 2: The Lord in the Heart

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Generated from the Supersoul [alike Lord Brahmâ] someone in contemplation [of the Universal Form] recovers, by thus finding satisfaction [with the Lord],  the lost remembrance of his prior existence. Thereafter he [the individual soul] with a cleared vision having arrived at intelligence can rebuild his life as it was before. (2) One's [spiritual] adherence to the sounds of the [impersonal] Absolute Truth makes the intelligence, because of the many terms [associated with it], ponder over incoherent ideas because of which one, without ever finding joy, wanders around in realities of illusion - and the different desires belonging to them - as if one is dreaming. (3) For that reason an intelligent person fixed in his attention [upon the Universal Form], in order to find perfection must only minimally, according to the necessity, abide by denominations [forms and other material interests] without ever being mad after them. He should be of the practical insight that he otherwise would engage himself for [nothing but] hard work (4) What is the need of a bed, when one can lie on the ground; what is the need of a pillow when one has one's arms; why should one use utensils if one can eat with one's hands and with the cover of trees, what is the use of clothing? (5) Are there no rags lying in the street, is there no giving in charity; do the trees not offer their alms maintaining others; have the rivers dried up; are the caves closed; has the Almighty Lord given up on protecting the surrendered soul? Why would a learned man then have to speak to the liking of those who are led by wealth? (6) When one thus with the matter of Him, the most cherished, eternal, One Supersoul fully present in one's heart, is detached from the world, one must be of worship for Him, the Fortunate One, the permanent gain by which for certain the cause of one's material bondage is put to an end. (7) Who else but the materialists would with neglecting the transcendental thoughts take to the non-permanent of material denominations because of which they, who constitute the general mass of the people that is controlled by the misery of the reactions of its fruitive labor, see themselves as fallen into the river of suffering?

(8) Others see in the meditation upon Him within their own body the Personality of Godhead residing in the region of the heart measuring eight inches, having four arms, carrying the lotus, the wheel of the chariot, the conch shell and the club. (9) With His mouth expressing happiness, His eyes wide spread like a lotus, His clothes yellowish like a Kadamba flower, bedecked with jewels and with golden ornaments studded with precious stones, He wears a glowing headdress with earrings. (10) His feet are positioned on the whorl of the lotus hearts of the great mystics. On His chest He wears the beautifully engraved Kaustubha jewel and around His neck He has a fresh flower garland spreading its beauty. (11) With a decorative wrap around His waist, valuable finger rings, ringing leglets, bangles, oiled spotless bluish, curly hair and His beautiful, smiling face He looks very pleasing. (12) His magnanimous pastimes and the glowing glances of His expression are indicative of the extensive benedictions of this particular transcendental form of the Lord one should focus upon as long as the mind can be fixed on it for the purpose of one's meditation. (13) One should meditate upon the limbs one by one, starting from the feet up, until one sees His smiling face, and thus gradually taking control over the mind one departs in one's meditation for higher and higher spheres and purifies that way the intelligence. (14) As long as the materialist has not developed devotional service for this form of the Lord who is the seer of the mundane and transcendental worlds, he must, when he is finished with his prescribed duties, with proper attention remember the Universal Form of the Original Person.

(15) Whenever one desires to give up one's body oh King, one should as a sage, without being disturbed, comfortably seated and with one's thinking unperturbed by matters of time and place, in control of the life air restrain the senses with the help of the mind. (16) Regulating the mind by the power of one's pure intelligence in relation to the original witness within [the 'knower of the field'], one should merge with this self. That self should be confined to the fully satisfied Supersoul and thus putting an end to all activities, one will attain full bliss. (17) Therein one will not find the supremacy of time that for sure controls the godly who direct the worldly creatures with their demigods, nor will one find there mundane goodness, passion or ignorance, nor any material change or causality of nature at large. (18) Knowing what and what not relates to the divine of the transcendental position, they who wish to avoid the godless completely give up the perplexities [of arguing to time and place], and place thereto in the absolute of goodwill every moment the worshipable lotus feet in their heart. (19) The sage familiar with the science of properly regulating the force [of the senses] in service of the purpose of life, should retire in the following way: he must block his arse ['air-hole'] with his heel and direct the life air upward through the six primary places [navel, plexus, heart, throat, eyebrows and top of the skull] and thus overcome the state of material inertia. (20) The soaring force the meditator should gradually direct from the navel to the plexus [the 'heart'] and from there to the chest from where he should bring it slowly into his throat.  This he should intelligently figure out by meditation. (21) From between the eyebrows the seer who is of detachment in order to attain the Supreme should, by blocking the outlet of the seven centers, enter the domain of the head in order to maintain there for a while ('half an hour') independent of sense enjoyment for the sake of tirelessness and eternality.

(22) If one, however, maintains a desire oh King, to lord over what one calls the place of enjoyment of the gods in the sky, or has the desire to manage the world of the gunas [the modes of nature] with the use of the eight mystic powers [the eight siddhis or perfections], one inevitably has to count with the mind and the senses associated with such a desire. (23) One says about the course of the great transcendentalists that they, departing from the realm of the subtle body, freely move within and without the three worlds, while those who do their work based upon a material motive never attain to the progress that is achieved by those who in the austerity of their devotional service are absorbed in yoga.
(24) In the control of the divinity of fire [Vais'vânara, or with regular sacrifice and meditation] one reaches through the gracious passage of [the sushumnâ, the channel of balancing] the breath, provided one follows the movements in the sky [the cakra order], the pure spirit [Brahmaloka, the place of the Creator] that enlightens and washes away the contaminations. Directed upwards one then reaches the circle [the cakra, the wheel] oh King, called S'is'umâra [meaning: dolphin, to the form of the Milky Way, galactic time]. (25) Passing beyond that navel of the universe, the pivot, the center of spin of the Maintainer [Vishnu], by the individual living being that was purified by the realization of his smallness, the place is reached that is worshipable for those who are transcendentally situated. There the self-realized souls enjoy for the time of a kalpa [a day of Brahmâ]. (26) Thereupon he who from the bed of Vishnu [Ananta] sees how the universe is burning to ashes because of the fire from His mouth, will leave that place for the supreme abode [of Brahmâ] which lasts for two parârdhas [the two halves of the life of Brahmâ] and is the home of the purified souls of elevation. (27) There one will never find bereavement or old age, death, pain or anxieties, save that one sometimes has feelings of compassion when one sees the ignorant who are subjected to the hard to overcome misery of the repetition of birth and death.

(28) After surpassing the forms of water and fire and thus having reached that pure self free from fear, one thus having attained the effulgent atmosphere, in due course of time by the self its air reaches the ethereal self, the true greatness of one's soul. (29) By scents having the smell, by the palate having the taste, by the eye having visions, by physical contact being in touch and finally by sound vibrations experiencing the quality of the ether, the yogi by dint of  the activity of the senses also attains [the more subtle sphere]. (30) After he thus at the mental level in relation to the gross and subtle has reached a neutral point of I-awareness, he in the mode of goodness surpasses that realization of himself that is subject to change [the ego]. Consequently he, completely suspending the material modes, progresses towards the reality of perfect wisdom. (31) By that purification towards the self of the Supersoul the person attains the peace, satisfaction and natural delight of being freed from all contaminations. He who attains to this destination of devotion for sure will never become attracted to this material world again, my dearest [Parîkchit].

(32) All that I described to you oh protector of man, is as your Majesty requested in proper accord with the Vedas. It is also in full agreement with the eternal truth as it before by Lord Vâsudeva was explained to Lord Brahmâ who had satisfied Him in worship. (33) For those who in this life wander in the material universe, there is for sure no way of attaining more auspiciously than the path by which one arrives at the devotional service [bhakti-yoga] of the Supreme Personality Lord Vâsudeva. (34) The great personality [Vyâsadeva] studied the Vedas three times in total and scrutinously, with scholarly attention examining them he ascertained that one's mind is properly fixed when one is attracted to the soul. (35) The Supreme Personality can be perceived in all living beings as the actual nature of that soul, as the Lord who by the intelligence of the seer is recognized by inference from different signs and effects. (36) Therefore every human soul must oh King, wherever he is and whenever he exists, hear about, glorify and remember the Lord, the Supreme Personality. (37) They who, filling their ears with the narrations about the Supreme Lord most dear to the devotees, drink from the nectar will find their by material pleasure contaminated state of mind purified and return to the feet residing near the lotus.'

Chapter 3: Pure Devotional Service - the Change in Heart

(1) S'rî S'ukadeva said: 'For the intelligent among men, I have given you all the answers in response to the inquiring of your good self about the human being on the threshold of death. (2-7) They who desire the luster of the Absolute worship the master of the Vedas [Brihaspati], Indra, the king of heaven is there for the ones desiring the strength of the senses [sex] and the Prajâpatis [the strong progenitors] are there for those who desire offspring. The goddess [Durgâ] is there for those who desire the beauty of the material world, the fire god  is there for the ones desiring power, for wealth there are the Vasus [a type of demigod] and the incarnations of Rudra [Lord S'iva] are there for those who wish strength and heroism. For a good harvest the mother of the demigods Aditi is worshiped, desiring heaven one worships her sons, for those desiring royal riches there are the Vis'vadeva demigods and to be of commercial success there are the Sâdhya gods. The As'vinîs [two brother demigods] are there for the ones desiring longevity, for a strong body mother earth is worshiped and those who want to maintain their position and be renown respect the goddesses of the earth and the heavens. Aspiring beauty there are the heavenly Gandharvas, those who want a good wife seek the girls of the heavenly society [the Apsaras and Urvas'îs] and anyone who wants to dominate others is bound to the worship of Brahmâ, the head of the Universe. Yajña, the Lord of Sacrifice is worshiped for tangible fame and for a good bank balance Varuna, the treasurer, is sought. But those who desire to learn, worship S'iva himself while f or a good marriage his chaste wife Umâ is honored.

(8) For spiritual progress the supreme truth [Lord Vishnu and His devotees] is worshiped, for offspring and their care one seeks the ancestral [the residents of Pitriloka], pious persons are sought by those who seek protection, while the demigods in general are there for the less common desires. (9) The godly Manus [the fathers of mankind] are there for those desiring a kingdom, but the demons are sought for defeating enemies. The ones desiring sense gratification are bound to the moon [Candra], while those who are free from desire worship the Supreme Personality in the beyond. (10) Whether he is free from desire, is full of it or else desires liberation, someone who has a broader outlook with all his heart should worship in devotional service [bhakti-yoga] the Original Personality of God, the Supreme One. (11) All these types of worshipers for sure develop, in their worship of the highest benediction in this life, through association with His pure devotees unflinching, spontaneous attraction to the Supreme Lord. (12) The knowledge leading to the limit of the complete withdrawal from the whirlpool of the material modes, gives the satisfaction of the soul, which in the transcendence of being detached from these modes, carries the blessings of the path of bhakti yoga. Who, absorbed in the narrations about the Lord would not act upon this attraction?"

(13) S'aunaka said: "What is it that the king, the ruler of Bharata, after hearing all of this, wanted to know more from the son of Vyâsadeva, the poetic wise? (14) Oh learned Sûta, explain those topics to us who are eager to hear about it, for in an assembly of devotees those talks are welcome that lead to the narrations about the Lord. (15) He, the king, that grandson of the Pândavas, was no doubt a great devotee, a great fighter who playing with dolls as a child enacted the activities of Lord Krishna. (16) And thus it must also have been so -  there in the presence of all those devotees - with the son of Vyâsadeva who, in his attachment to the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva who is glorified by so many souls, had all the great qualities for it. (17) Except for the one who spends his time on the topics about the One who is discussed in the supreme scriptural truth, the rising and setting sun is but decreasing the lives of the people. (18) Are the trees not also living, are the blacksmith's bellows not breathing as well and are the beasts all around us not also eating and procreating? (19) A person whose ear never reached the holy name of the One who delivers us from all evil is just as praiseworthy as a dog, a hog, an ass or a camel. (20) The ears of a man who never heard of Vishnu, the One of giant progress, are like those of snakes and also the tongues of those who never sang aloud the songs of worth are as useless as those of frogs. (21) Even carrying a heavy silk turban, the upper part of the body is just a burden, when that body never bows down to Mukunda [Krishna granting liberation];  just like hands not engaged in the worship of the Lord are alike those of a dead body, even though they are decorated with glittering golden bangles. (22) Like the eyes on the plumes of a peacock the eyes of those men are who do not look upon the forms of Vishnu and like the roots of trees the feet of those human beings are who never went for the holy places of the Lord.  (23) Dead while being alive the mortals are who never personally received the dust of the feet of pure devotees and a descendant of Manu [a man] is but a dead breathing body when he has never experienced the wealth of the aroma of tulsî leaves of Lord Vishnu's lotus feet. (24) Certainly that heart is steel-framed which, in spite of being absorbed in chanting the name of the Lord, is not transformed by the emotions of therewith having tears in one's eyes and hair standing on end. (25) Oh Sûta Gosvâmî, you express yourself in favorable terms, so please explain what transcendental knowledge the expertly leading S'ukadeva Gosvâmî upon being questioned conveyed to the king who sought the truth."


Chapter 4: The Process of Creation

 (1) Sûta said: "Just having realized what S'ukadeva Gosvâmî thus said about the verification of the reality of the soul, the chaste son of Uttarâ [Parîkchit] concentrated upon Lord Krishna. (2) He [thus meditating for a moment innerly] gave up his deep-rooted and constant possessiveness in relation to his body, his wife, his son, his treasury and all his relatives and friends in his undisputed kingdom. (3-4) The great soul in full faith inquired for the purpose of this exactly the way you are asking me, oh great sages. Being informed of his death he renounced his fruitive activity according the three principles [of self-realization: renouncing religious acts, economic development and sense gratification] and everything thereto and thus firmly fixed he achieved the attraction for the love of the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva. (5) The king said: 'What you said is perfectly right, oh learned one; being without contaminations you have the knowledge of it all and make the darkness of ignorance gradually disappear when you are speaking about the topics concerning the Lord. (6) Furthermore, I would like to learn how the Supreme Lord by His personal energies creates this phenomenal world of the universe that is so inconceivable for even the great masters of meditation. (7)  And please, also tell me about the way the powerful one maintains His energies and winds them up again, how He as the all-powerful Supreme Personality arrives at His expansions, involves them and being involved Himself presents them and causes them to act [see also canto 1, chapter 3]. (8) Even the highly learned in spite of their endeavors for His sake, fall short, dear brahmin, in explaining the wonderful, inconceivable acts of the Supreme Lord. (9) Even though He acts through His different incarnations He is the One and Supreme, whether He acts by the modes, is there simultaneously in the material energy or is manifesting in many forms consecutively. (10) Please clear up these questions asked by me, since you, being as good as the Supreme Lord, are of the oral tradition with the Vedic literatures and also of full realization in transcendence.' "

(11) Sûta said: "Upon thus being requested by the king to describe the transcendental attributes of Lord Hrishîkes'a [Krishna as the master of the senses] S'uka, in order to reply properly, proceeded methodically.

(12) S'rî S'uka said: 'My obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who for the maintenance and also the winding up of the complete whole of the material creation, by His pastimes assumed the power of the three modes while residing within as the One whose ways are inconceivable. (13) Again my obeisances to Him who frees the truthful ones from the distressing controversies of those who follow untruth, unto Him who is the form of pure goodness, granting all that is sought by those who are situated in the status of the highest stage of spiritual perfection [the paramahamsas]. (14) Let me offer my obeisances unto the great associate of the Yadu dynasty who, keeping far from mundane wrangling, vanquishes the non-devotees. I bow down to Him who is of the same greatness of enjoying the opulences as in enjoying the sky in His own abode. (15) For Him of whom the glorification, remembrance, audience, prayers, hearing and worship forthwith cleanses away the effects of the sins of everyone, unto Him of whom one speaks as being the all-auspicious one, I bring my due obeisances again and again. (16) The bright ones who by simply dedicating themselves to His lotus feet completely give up all attachments to a present or future existence, realize without difficulty the progress of the heart and the soul towards a spiritual existence; unto that renown all-auspicious One my obeisances again and again. (17) The great sages, the great performers of charity, the ones most distinguished, the great thinkers, the great mantra chanters [reciters/singers] and the strict followers will never attain to tangible results when they are not dedicated to Him. I offer my obeisances again and again to Him about whom to hear is so very auspicious. (18) The people of old Bharata, Europe, southern India, Greece, Pulkas'a [a province], Âbhîra [part of old Sind], S'umbha [another province], Turkey, Mongolia and more who are also addicted to sin, at once get purified when they take to the shelter of the Lord's devotees. Him, the powerful Lord Vishnu I offer my respectful obeisances. (19) He is the soul and Lord of the self-realized ones, the personification of the Vedas, the religious literatures and austerity. May the Supreme Lord, He who is held in awe by those who in their transcendence are free from all pretension - the Unborn One [Lord Brahmâ], Lord S'iva and others - always be graceful with me. (20) May He, the Supreme Lord and master of all the devotees, who is the owner of all opulence, the director of all sacrifices, the leader of all living entities, the master of the intelligent ones, the ruler of all worlds, the supreme head of the planet earth and the destination and first among the [Yadu] kings of the Sâtvatas, the Andhakas and the Vrishnis, be merciful with me. (21) It is said that thinking of His lotus feet and at each moment being absorbed in it, when one follows the authorities, purifies and results in the actual knowledge of the ultimate reality of the soul and also that it makes the scholars describe Him to their liking. Oh Mukunda, my Supreme Lord, may Your grace always be with me. (22) May He who strengthened the first one of creation [Lord Brahmâ] with remembrance in his heart about Himself and his origin and who [thus] from the beginning inspired the Goddess of Learning who appeared to have been created from Brahmâ's mouth - may He, the Teacher of Teachers, be pleased with me. (23) He who lies down within the material creation and empowers all these bodies made of the material elements while He as the Purusha [the original person] causes all to be subjected to the modes of nature with her sixteen divisions [of consciousness, the elements of earth, water, fire, air, ether, the five organs of action and the senses]; may that Supreme Lord give strength to my statements. (24) My obeisances unto him, the great expansion of Vâsudeva  [viz. Vyâsadeva] who is the compiler of the Vedic literatures from whose lotus mouth his adherents drank the nectar of this knowledge. (25) The first created being [Brahmâ], my dear king, imparted, on the request of Nârada, from the inside the Vedic knowledge exactly as it was spoken by the Lord in the heart.' "


Chapter 5: The Cause of all Causes

(1) Nârada said [to the Creator]: 'My obeisances to you oh god of the demigods, for you are the one firstborn from whom all living beings generated. Please explain which knowledge specifically leads to the transcendental insight. (2) What is the form, the basis and the source of this created world? Oh master, how is it conserved, by what is it controlled and please, what is it factually? (3) All this is known by your good self, since you know all that has become, will become and is becoming. Master, you hold this universe in the grip of your scientific knowledge, like one holds a walnut. (4) What is the source of your wisdom, who protects you and who is above you? In what capacity do you, with the help of the potency of the soul, on your own create the lives of all beings with the elements of matter? (5) Like a spider creating its web, you without any help manifest from your own soul power all these lives by whom you are never controlled. (6) Oh almighty one, in this world I do not know a single entity having a name and form that is superior, inferior or equal, of a temporary nature or lasting forever, which owes its existence to another source [than you]. (7) We are weary of the fact that you with your perfect discipline underwent severe penances. We thus had the chance to doubt whether your good self would be the ultimate truth [and thus thought of an entity higher than you]. (8) Oh all-knowing ruler over all, please explain to me all that I have asked you, so that I will be of an understanding in accordance with your instructions.'

(9) The Creator replied: 'Oh gentle one so dear to me, you are so very kind in your perfect inquiries. That inspires me to further see into the heroism of the Supreme Lord. (10) My son, you are not mistaken in what you just said in your describing me, because without knowing the Supreme beyond me, it certainly will turn out to be as you said. (11) All of the world that I created was created by the effulgence [the brahmajyoti] of His existence, just as the fire, the  sun, the moon, the planets and the stars [radiate after His effulgence]. (12) I bring Him my obeisances, the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva upon whom I meditate, by dint of whose invincible potencies one calls me the teacher [guru] of the world. (13) Unashamed about keeping a prominent position with the bewildering material energy, those who are deluded make a wrong use of words in speaking of 'I' and 'mine'. By that use of words I am poorly understood. (14) The five elements in their interaction with Eternal Time as also the natural disposition of the living being, are certainly part of Vâsudeva oh brahmin, but the truth is that each of them separately has no value. (15) Nârâyana [Krishna as the four-armed original Personality of God and primordial Lord of man] is the cause of the knowledge, the demigods are His helping hands, for His sake the worlds exist and all sacrifices are just there to please Him, the Supreme Lord. (16) Concentration of mind is just there to know Nârâyana, austerity is only there to achieve Nârâyana, the culture of transcendence is just there to become aware of Nârâyana and progress on the path of salvation is there only to enter the kingdom of Nârâyana. (17) Inspired by what was created by Him, the Seer, the Soul of All, the Controller of All Intelligence who created me, I also create.

(18) Of the [modes of] goodness, passion and ignorance [see 4.23], that because of the Almighty [Lord of Time] by the external energy were assumed, there are the three qualities of transcendence: maintenance, creation and destruction. (19) The eternally liberated, living entity subjected to conditions of cause and effect is affected [though] by the modes of material energy that [in his life then] manifest with the symptoms of [respectively] knowledge, activities and material inertia. (20) He, the Supreme Lord,  the witness of the witness who [by the living entity who is led] by the symptoms of  the three modes cannot be recognized in His movements oh brahmin, is the controller of everyone as also of myself. (21) [The Lord of] Eternal Time, the controller of the deluding potency of matter [mâyâ] thus took upon Himself, from His own potency spontaneously appearing in different obtained [guna] forms, the workload [karma] and specific nature [or svabhâva, of the living entity]. (22) Because of the superintendence of the original person the creation of the mahat-tattva [the 'greater reality'] took place, from eternal time there was the transformation of the modes and from these specific natures the different activities found their existence. (23) But because of the transformation of the greater complete passion and goodness strongly dominated [in the beginning]. Thereupon [countering in reaction] the mode of darkness became more prominent that is characterized by matter, material knowledge and a predominance of material activities. (24) That transformed material ego, as said, manifested itself according to the three characteristics of goodness, passion and ignorance, and thus prabhu, the powers of a guiding intelligence, knowledge of creation and material evolution divided. (25) From the form of darkness that underwent transformation, of all the elements [first] the ether evolved with its subtle form and quality of sound which is indicative of both the seen and the seer. (26-29) By transformation of the ether the air found its existence which is characterized by the quality of touch. Along with it sound also appeared as a characteristic that was remembered from the ether. Air thus acquired also a life of diversity with energy and force. Air on its turn again transformed under the influence of time and generated from its nature the element of fire in response to what preceded. With its form there was likewise touch and sound [as the hereditary burden or the karma of the previous elements]. Fire transformed  [or condensated from oxygen and hydrogen] into water. Thus the element of taste came about which consequently was accompanied by touch, sound and form. But because of the variegatedness of that transformation of water next the smell of the juice followed which assumed form [as the earth element] together with the qualities of touch and sound. (30) From the mode of goodness the [cosmic] mind of the gods generated who act in goodness, counting the ten of them [according to the five senses of perception and action] as the controllers of the directions [the Digdevatâs], the air [Vâyu], the sun [Sûrya], the waters [Varuna], longevity [the As'vinî-Kumâras], fire [Agni], the heavens [Indra], the deity of transcendence [Vishnu in the form of Upendra], the deity of friendship [Mitra] and the guardian of creation [Brahmâ]. (31) From the passion of ego the according tenfold transformation took place that gave the living energy the intelligence of all the senses of action - the mouth, the hands, the feet, the genitals, and the anus - and  perception - sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. (32) As long as all these categories of the elements, the senses, the mind and the modes of nature remained separate, the body [of man and mankind] could not be formed, oh best one of knowledge [Nârada]. (33) When all these [elements] by means of the [compelling] force of the Supreme Lord were assembled and found their application, this universe with both its true and illusory, its spiritual and material realities [sat/asat] found its existence.

(34) The universe after countless millenia having been submerged in the [causal] waters, was by the individual soul [the jîva or the Lord] who animates the inanimate awakened to its own time of living. (35) He Himself as the original person [the Purusha] appeared from within the universal egg to divide Himself in thousands of divisions of legs, arms, eyes, mouths and heads. (36) The great philosophers conceive of all the worlds of the universe as the limbs of a body [the virâth rûpa] which has seven systems below the waist and seven systems in the upper portion. (37) The brahmins represent the mouth of the Original Person, the ruling class constitutes His arms, the traders form the thighs of the Supreme Lord and the laborer class His legs. (38) The earthly [lower] worlds [Bhûrlokas] belong to His legs so one says, the ethereal worlds [Bhuvarlokas] belong to His belly, the heavenly worlds from the heart [Svarlokas] are situated in His chest while the highest worlds of the saints and sages [Maharlokas] are of the Great Soul. (39) Above the chest up to the neck one finds the world of the godly ones [the sons of Brahmâ, Janaloka] and higher up in the neck one finds the world of renunciation [Tapoloka, of the ascetics]. The world of truth [Satyaloka of the self-realized, the enlightened ones] is found in the head. [These worlds are all temporal] but the spiritual world [Brahmaloka, the world of the one Soul, the Supreme Lord] is eternal. (40-41) With on His waist the first of the lower worlds, further down the second on the hips, the third down to the knees, the fourth on the shanks, the fifth on His ankles, the sixth on His feet and the seventh on the soles of His feet [compare 2-1: 26-39], the body of the Lord [virâth-rûpa or Universal Form] is filled with all the [fourteen types of] worlds. (42) One imagines the worlds alternatively [simply divided in three] with the earthly, lower worlds situated on the legs, the ethereal, middle worlds in the region of the navel and the heavenly, higher worlds found from the chest upwards.'

Chapter 6: The Hymn of the Original Person Confirmed

(1) The Creator said: 'The mouth [of the Universal Form] is found in the fire which is the center for the voice of the seven [meters of] hymns [sung in honor] of the essential ingredients [the elements, the layers of His body. Dhâtava, literally: skin, flesh, sinew, marrow, bone, blood and fat]. With respect for the forefathers and the gods offering all kinds of foodstuff and delicacies that by humans beings then are appreciated as the nectar [of the remnants] is the field of action [for the sake of] His tongue. (2) For His nose there is the life breath and the air outside in order to bring about the transcendental experience of longevity [the As'vinî demigods] in combination with all the medicinal herbs and fragrances one may enjoy. (3) The eyes [of the gigantic body] that see all kinds of forms as also everything illuminated that glitters to the eyeball of the sun, accompany the hearing by the ears of all the sounds of veneration that from all directions resound in the ether. (4) His outer appearance [the presence of the Universal Form] constitutes the foundation of all things and favorable opportunities and is also the field where one harvests, while His skin of moving airs forms the touch that leads to all kinds of offerings. (5) His bodily hair is the vegetation of the kingdoms with the help of which in particular the sacrifices are performed. The clouds with their electricity, the stones and the iron ore make thereto for the hair on His head, His facial hair and His nails. (6) His arms, the governing men of God, predominantly provide what is needed and protect the general mass. (7) In the Lord's lotus feet that offer shelter the progress is recognized of the lower, middle and heavenly worlds, because they, in providing all that was needed, liberate from fear and contain all the benedictions. (8) Water, semen and the generative capacity of rain refer to the genitals of the Creator, the Lord, or to the spot where happiness originates that is brought about by the [need of] begetting [offspring or cultural products]. (9) Oh Nârada, the   where the evacuation of the Universal Form takes place is the birthplace of Yama the controlling deity of everything running to its end and of Mitra. It forms the rectum where envy, misfortune, death and hell are remembered. (10) Frustration, immorality and ignorance are found at His backside, while the rivers and streams [as said] make for His veins and the mountains for the stack of His bones. (11) The unseen mover [viz. Time] of the seas and oceans of the living beings that are involved with evolution and extinction is, as seen from His belly [the middle worlds, S'iva], by the intelligent ones known as the [beating] heart that is located in the subtle body.

(12) Your, mine, my sons [the Kumâras] and Lord S'iva's promotion of dharma depends on the life and soul of the Supreme Being [who constitutes the safe harbor] of truth and wisdom. (13-16) Me, you, Lord S'iva, and the great sages before you, the godly ones, the demoniac ones, the human beings and the excellent ones [the Nâgas], the birds, the beasts, the reptiles and all the heavenly beings and also the plants and many other living entities found on land, in water and in the sky, together with the asteroids, stars, comets, planets and moons and lightening and thunder; all that was, that is and will be created, this entire universe together is [pervaded] and covered by the Original Person in a form measuring not more than nine inches [see also 2.2: 8]. (17) The same way the sun spreads its rays outside and illumines and gives strength [inside with prânâ], the expansion of the Universal Form, the Supreme Person also vitalizes all that lives from both the inside and the outside. (18) He is the controller of immortality and fearlessness, transcendental to death and the fruitive action of anyone and therefore, oh Nârada, the glories of the Original Personality are considered immeasurable.

(19) You should know that all the living entities exist in [but] one fourth of the secure reservoir of all opulence where there is no death or fear. That reservoir is the Supreme Person who resides in the beyond of the material coverings of the three worlds. (20) The [remaining] three fourths of Him in the beyond is the place where they reside who will never be reborn. Within [the material world] there are by contrast the three worlds [heaven, purgatory and hell] that are reserved for the status positions of those who, attached to family life, do not strictly follow the vow of celibacy. (21) Thus neatly arranging the destination of the living beings, the Maintainer rules over the devotion of the nescient ones and the ones who factually know, and is thus, as the Original Personality of God, the master of both. (22) He from whom all the planets and the gigantic Universal Form originated together with the elements and the senses according to the material qualities of the universe, can in the superlative of that Universal Form be compared to the sun [that in] relating to its distributed rays and heat [remains aloof from it].

(23) When I took birth from the lotus flower sprouting from the navel of this great person, I had next to the personal limbs of the Original Person nothing to perform sacrifices with. (24) For the performance of sacrifices, the sacrificed such as flowers and leaves and burning material [such as straw] is needed together with an altar as also a framework of time [a calendar e.g.] in order to follow the modes of nature. (25) Utensils, grains, fuel [clarified butter], sweetener ['honey'], capital ['gold'] and a fire place ['earth'], water, the scriptures ['Rig, Yajur and Sâma Veda'] and [at least] four [officiating] persons are comprised in this, oh pious one. (26) It also involves the invocation of holy names and mantras and the settling of contributions and taking of oaths concerning the specific godhead at hand. And for the purpose of each of them there is a particular scripture. (27) In order to be able to progress towards the ultimate goal by means of  worship and to be able to compensate [to safeguard, correct or excuse] with the offerings ultimately made for the diverse parts of the [governing] body of the Original Person [the representing demigods], I arranged for the ingredients. (28) Thus well-equipped I worshiped, engaging with all the ingredients, the expansions of the Original Person, the Supreme Personality, the original enjoyer of all sacrifices. (29) According to that example your [God-]brothers, the nine masters of the living creatures [schools; demigods next to Brahmâ; compare 5: 30], with proper ritual were of sacrifice for the manifest and non-manifest personalities. (30) In following those [schools or demigods] also the Manus, the fathers of mankind, in due course of time were of worship to please Him, and so did the other great sages, forefathers, scholars, opponents [Daityas] and mankind at large.

(31) For the sake of Nârâyana, the Personality of Godhead, all these greatly powerful manifestations, who had accepted the material illusion of form in the spheres of the universe, found their existence in the reality of creation, maintenance and destruction, even though He Himself is self-sufficient above it. (32) According to His will, I create while under His subordination S'iva destroys. He Himself acts thereto as the Original Person and controller of the three energies who maintains the entire universe.

(33) Thus I explained upon your request my dear, all this to you. Whatever you think of, whether it is a cause or an effect, there is nothing to be found that has its existence beyond the Supreme Lord. (34) Oh Nârada, this state of mind always proved itself to be correct because my heart with great zeal managed to hold on to the Lord. My mind never wandered off in untruth with it nor was I by my senses degraded in the temporal reality. (35) I am the personification of Vedic wisdom, full of austerity, the worshipable master of all the forefathers and a self-realized expert in the practice of yoga, yet I could not fathom Him from whom I myself generated. (36) I am [therefore] devoted to the all-auspicious feet of the Lord of the surrendered souls, which stop the repetition of births and deaths and grant the vision of happiness. One surely cannot estimate the potency of His personal energies - just like the sky that cannot see its own limit. Therefore, how can others know? (37) Since neither I, nor you oh sons, nor the Destroyer have an idea of the true nature of  His movements, one cannot expect that the other God-conscious ones would do any better. With one's intelligence bewildered by the illusory energy of what is created one is only able to see as far as one's ability reaches.

(38) We offer Him, the Supreme Lord, our respectful obeisances, whose incarnation and activities we glorify, even though persons like us do not fully know Him. (39) He, the very Primordial Original Personality in each millennium creates within Himself, by Himself, His own transcendental presence, maintaining Himself [for some time] and absorbing [Himself again]. (40-41) Without a material tinge, pure and perfect in knowledge and all-pervading in His fullness He is situated in truth as the absolute without a beginning and an end, in freedom from the modes of nature and in a position in which He is eternally unrivaled. Oh wise one, the great thinkers can only understand this with a pacified self and their senses under cover, otherwise it will certainly be beyond their scope and be distorted by untenable arguments. (42) The first avatâra of the Lord is the Original Person: [Mahâvishnu or Kâranodakas'âyî Vishnu. He forms the basis of] spacetime [kâla svabhavah, the original nature of time], cause, effect, the elements, the modes, as also the ego, the senses and the mind. These together constitute the diversity of  the complete whole of all that moves and does not move of the universal being [also called Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu].

(43-45) I myself [Brahmâ], the Destroyer and the Maintainer; all the fathers of the living beings like Daksha [and Manu], you yourself and the other sons [the Kumâras]; the leaders of the higher worlds, the space travelers, the earth and the lower worlds; the leaders of the denizens of heaven [of the Ghandarva, Vidyâdhara and Cârana worlds] as also the leaders of the demons [the Yakshas, Râkshasas and Uragas] and the underworld; the first among the sages, the forefathers, the atheists, the specially gifted ones, the uncivilized ones and the dead; the evil spirits, the Jinn and the Kûshmândas [other evil spirits], including all the great aquatics, beasts and birds - in other words each and everyone in the world who is of power to a special degree or of a specific mental or perceptual dexterity or exceptional strength, forgiveness, beauty, modesty, opulence, intelligence or breeding, exists as if he himself would offer the [ultimate] form of [representing] His transcendental reality, but in fact they are only a part of it. (46) Oh Nârada, now relish the devotion for the pastimes of the most important incarnations of the Original Supreme Personality. That devotion will evaporate the foul matter that accumulated in your ears. I will relate these stories, that are all a pleasure to hear, one after the other the way they are present in my heart.'

Chapter 7: Brief Description of the Past and Coming Avatâras

(1) The Creator said: 'When the Lord as the Unlimited One within the universe for His pastimes assumed the form of the sum total of all sacrifices [as the boar avatâra Varâha], He was determined to lift the earth out of the great [Garbhodaka] ocean. In the ocean the first demon [called Hiranyâksha, the demon of gold] appeared who by Him was defeated with His tusk, like a thunderbolt piercing a pack of clouds.

(2) From Âkûti ['good intention'] the wife of the Prajâpati Ruci, Suyajña ['appropriate sacrifice'] was born who with his wife Dakshinâ ['the reward'] gave birth to the godly headed by Suyama ['proper regulation']. With them He greatly diminished the distress in the three worlds and for that reason the father of mankind Svâyambhuva Manu renamed Him Hari [the Lord].

(3) Next He took birth in the house of the twice-born Kardama ['the shadow of the Creator'] from the womb of Devahûti ['the invocation of the Gods'] together with nine sisters. As Lord Kapila ['the analytic one'] He spoke to His mother about spiritual realization because of which she in that life was freed from the material modes that cover the soul and achieved liberation.

(4) Satisfied about the surrender of the sage Atri who prayed for offspring, the  Supreme Lord said to him: 'I will give Myself to you!' and for that reason He received the name of Datta [Dattâtreya, 'the given one']. The dust of His lotus feet purified the body of mysticism and brought the wealth of the spiritual and material worlds of Yadu [the founder of the dynasty], Haihaya [a descendant] and others.

(5) Because I formerly lived austere in penance for the sake of the creation of the different worlds, the Lord appeared as the four Sanas [ 'of old', the four celibate sons called Sanat-kumâra, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanâtana]. In the epoch before, the spiritual truth was devastated in the inundation of the world, but with these sages who had a clear vision of the soul the knowledge was fully recreated.

(6) From Mûrti ['the idol'], the wife of Dharma ['righteousness'] and the daughter of Daksha ['the able one', a Prajâpati], He took  birth in the form of Nara-Nârâyana ['man, the progress of man']. The Supreme Lord thus [descending] never allowed, by the strength of [the beauties originating from] His personal penances, that His vows would break because of the celestial beauties that came to Him from Cupid [the god of love]. (7) Great stalwarts [like Lord S'iva] can overcome their being overwhelmed by lust by means of their wrathful vision, but they cannot overcome their own intolerance. But with [the both of] Him within, the lust is too afraid to enter. How can with Him in mind the lust ever demand attention?

(8) Incited by the sharp words of a co-wife who uttered them even in the presence of the king [Uttânapâda], his son Dhruva [the immovable], only a boy at the time, took to severe penances in a great forest. The Lord pleased with his prayers confirmed the goal of his realization [Dhruva loka, the pivot of the stars] for which the great sages and denizens of heaven directed up and downward have prayed ever since.

(9) When the twice-born, cursed King Vena ['the anxious one'] who strayed from the path of religion, it burned him like a thunderbolt with him going to hell with all his great deeds and opulence. The Lord being prayed for delivered him coming to earth as his son [named Prithu, 'the great one'] and achieved with also that the earth could be exploited to yield all kinds of crops.

(10) As the son of King Nâbhi ['the pivot'] He was born as Rishabha ['the best one'] from Sudevî. Equipoised in the matter of yoga appearing foolish He performed at the highest level of achievement of the sages in which one in acceptance of the spiritual essence - one's independence - has subdued the activities of the senses and is perfectly liberated from material influences.

(11) The Supreme Lord, the soul of all the gods, the Personality of Sacrifice who is worshiped in all sacrifices, appeared in a sacrifice of mine with a horselike head and a golden hue [and is thus called Hayagrîva]. From His breathing through His nostrils the sounds of the Vedic hymns can be heard.

(12) He who became the Manu [called Satyavrata, 'the truth-abiding one'] at the end of the epoch saw Lord Matsya ['the fish'] who as the stay of the earth offered shelter to all living beings [in the form of a boat during the deluge]. The Vedas that because of the great fear for the waters came forth from my mouth then were taken up by Him who sported there.

(13) When in the ocean of milk [or knowledge] the leaders of the immortals and their opponents where churning the mountain [called Mandara, the 'big one'] for gaining the nectar, the primeval Lord half asleep as a tortoise [called Kurma] supported him, so that it scratched and itched on His back.

(14) As Nrisimha ['the lion'] He appeared as the one who took away the fear of the God-conscious with the movements of His eyebrows and the terrifying teeth of His mouth, while He on His lap without delay with His nails pierced the fallen king of the demons [Hiranyakas'ipu] who had challenged Him with a club in his hands.

(15) The leader of the elephants [Gajendra] who within the river was seized by his leg by an exceptionally strong crocodile, holding a lotus in great distress addressed [Him] as follows: 'You are the Original Personality and Lord of the Universe. From You being as famous as a place of pilgrimage all good ensues by just hearing Your name, the name so worthy to be sung.' (16) The Lord who heard him in his distress, as the Unlimited Powerful One seated on the king of the birds [Garuda], cut the beak of the crocodile in two with His cakra weapon and in His causeless mercy freed him by pulling him up by his trunk.

(17) Despite His transcendence, He [as Lord Vâmana] surpassed the qualities of the sons of Aditi by covering all the worlds in this universe. For that reason He was called the Lord of Sacrifice. Begging He had pretended that He needed only three steps of land but seized that way all the lands [of Bali Mahârâja] without ever offending the authorities under whose wings one may never lose one's property. (18) Oh Nârada, by virtue of the strength of the water that washed from the feet of the Lord, he [Bali Mahârâja], who kept it on his head and who had the supremacy over the kingdom of the godly ones, never, not even when it would cost him his body, tried for anything else but to keep his promise because he had decided to be dedicated to the Lord.

(19) The Supreme Lord satisfied about the goodness you developed through your transcendental love oh Nârada, nicely explained to you in all detail the light of the knowledge of yoga and the science of relating to the soul, which all who have surrendered to Vâsudeva so perfectly know to appreciate.

(20) Undeterred in all circumstances of the ten directions He by the glories of His personal strength subdues the three systems [see loka] as He in the different ages of Manu [manvantaras] incarnates as a descendant of  the Manu dynasty. Ruling over the miscreants and kings of that type with the help of His cakra weapon, He thus establishes His fame up to the world of truth [Satyaloka] *.

(21) As fame personified the Supreme Lord carrying the name of Dhanvantari ['moving in a curve'] descends in this universe in order to direct the knowledge that is necessary to obtain a long life. This He accomplishes by providing the nectar of the [Kurma churning] sacrifice that swiftly cures the diseases of all living entities.

(22) For the purpose of diminishing the increasing dominance of the ruling class the great soul [Lord Paras'urâma],  the Ultimate Spiritual Truth in person, will remove all those thorns from the world who strayed from the path and opted for a hellish life. He awfully powerful for that purpose will wield His transcendental hatchet twenty-one times.

(23) Because of His causeless all-embracing mercy, the Lord of All Time will descend [as Lord Râma] in the dynasty of Ikshvâku [the dynasty of the solar order]. Together with His wife [Sîtâ] and brother [Lakshmana] He upon the command of his father [Das'aratha] will take to the forest under the opposition of the ten-headed one [the demoniac ruler Râvana] who caused great distress. (24) The fearful Indian ocean, seeing her aquatics [sharks, sea snakes and such] burnt, will quickly give way the moment He in His anger about His aggrieved intimate friend [the kidnapped Sîtâ], from a distance meditates the city of the enemy [on the island of Lankâ] with red-hot eyes like Hara did in his desire to burn down [the heavenly kingdom with his fiery looks]. (25) When the trunk of the elephant carrying Indra breaks on the chest of Râvana light will radiate in all directions. Râvana overtaken by joy will parade proud between the armies, but in no time the laughter and life breath of the one who had kidnapped Sîtâ will be put to an end by the twanging bow [of Râma].

(26) When the entire world is miserable because of the burden of soldiers of the disbelievers, He [Krishna] together with His plenary expansion [Balarâma], His beauty and His black hair, He whose glorious path of activities is so hard to recognize for the people in general, is bound to appear for the sake of the decimation of those atheists. (27) Who else but Him would for God's sake as a child kill a living being that has assumed the form of a giant demoness [Pûtanâ] or being only three months old with His leg will turn over a cart as also uproot two high rising Arjuna trees? (28) At Vrindâvana [where Krishna will grow up] He with His merciful glance will bring back to life the cowherd boys and their animals who drank from the poisoned water [of the Yamunâ]. In order to purify [the water] from the excess of the highly potent poison He in the river will take pleasure in severely punishing the snake that is lurking there with its venomous tongue. (29) He with His superhuman deeds that very night will save all the inhabitants of Vraja [the cowherd village] who free from worries are sleeping, from being burned by the fire ablaze in the dry forest. He thus will prove to them who are sure to be seeing the last of their days, together with Balarâma, His unfathomable prowess by simply having them close their eyes [and thus deliver them the same way He later on will free the gopas from another forest fire]. (30) Whatever rope His [foster] mother [Yas'odâ] will try to bind her son with, will time and again prove to be too short. And that what she will see when He opens His mouth to the doubting cowherd woman [who looks for dirt He would have eaten] are all the worlds, which is something that will convince her another way. (31) Nanda Mahârâja His [foster] father whom He also will save from the fear for Varuna [the demigod of the waters] and the cowherd men who were held captive in the caves by the son of Maya [a demon] as also the ones [living in Vrindâvana] who because of their hard labor worked during the day and slept during the night, He will all award the highest world of the spiritual sky [Brahmaloka or Vaikunthha]. (32) When the cowherd men are being stopped [by Krishna] in their sacrifices for the king of heaven, Indra will cause a heavy downpour of rain. He [Krishna], only seven years of age, wishing to protect the animals, in His causeless mercy playfully with one hand only for seven days in a row then will hold up Govardhana hill like [an umbrella], without getting tired. (33) When He in His nightly pastimes in the forest desires to dance in the silver light of the moon with sweet songs and melodious music He will awaken the amorous desires of the wives of Vrajabhûmi [the region of Vrindâvana] and decapitate their kidnapper [S'ankhacûda] who was after the riches of Kuvera [the heavenly treasurer]. (34-35) All [demons] like Pralamba, Dhenuka, Baka, Kes'î, Arishtha, Cânûra and Mushthika [wrestling for Kamsa], Kuvalayâpîda [the elephant], Kamsa [the demoniac uncle]; many foreign kings [like those of Persia], the ape Dvivida, Paundraka and others, as well as kings like S'âlva, Narakâsura, Balvala, Dantavakra, Saptoksha, S'ambara, Vidûratha and Rukmî and all powerful and well equipped warriors like Kâmboja, Matsya, Kuru [the sons of Dhritarâshthra], Sriñjaya, and Kekaya, will thanks to Him disappear from the scene and attain His heavenly abode or else because of the actions of one of the other names belonging to Him, like Baladeva [Krishna's brother], Arjuna or Bhîma.

(36) Born from Satyavatî He [as Vyâsadeva] will in due course of time understand the difficulties of the less intelligent and short-lived people with the all too complex and specialized Vedic literatures. According to the circumstances of the age He then will divide the entire collection of the desire tree of the Vedas into different branches. 

(37) For those who became well informed on the path of education but envious with the divine roam the worlds and the ether with inventions of Maya [or with modern technology], He will dress up most attractively and [as the Buddha and His representatives] with the use of many terms deviating from the tradition extensively discourse on their destructive bewilderment.

(38) When even with the civilized gentlemen there is no mention of the Lord, and when the twice-born [the higher classes] and the government consisting of members of the laborer class itself never under any circumstances take to His hymns, paraphernalia, altars and words, then, at the end of the Age of Dissent, the Supreme Lord [Kalki], the chastiser will appear.

(39) In the beginning there was penance with me and the seven sages who brought about everything, in the middle there is the activity of dharma with Vishnu, Manu, the demigods and the kings in their worlds and in the end there is the godlessness with S'iva and the angry atheists and such. They are all powerful representatives of the deluding energy of the One of Supreme Power. (40) Who can fully describe the prowess of Lord Vishnu? Not even the scientist who might have counted the atoms. All were greatly moved by Him who by His own leg could cover the universe [as Trivikrama] up to the topmost world beyond the operating modes. (41) Neither I, nor all the sages who prior to you were born are capable of determining the reach of the Almighty Supreme Person. What then would one expect from others who were born after us? Not even Ananta S'esha [the 'snake bed' of Vishnu] the first incarnation of  the primordial God with the thousand faces is to the present day singing the qualities not able to reach His limit. (42) Only they to whom the Lord extends His grace are able to cross over the infinite ocean of matter. It concerns those protected souls whose seeking shelter meant that they without reservation, without duplicity surrendered at His lotus feet, or that they consciously refused to consider His diverse energies to be their own including that of them [their bodies] which is meant to serve as food for the dogs and jackals. (43-45) Oh Nârada, know that we both belong to the bewildering game of illusion of the Supreme One, as do also the great Lord S'iva, Prahlâda Mahârâja from the atheist family, S'atarûpâ, the wife of Manu and Svâyambhuva Manu himself with his children, Prâcînabarhi, Ribhu, Anga [the father of Vena], as also Dhruva, Ikshvâku, Aila, Mucukunda, Janaka, Gâdhi, Raghu, Ambarîsha, Sagara, Gaya, Nâhusha, and others like Mândhâtâ, Alarka, S'atadhanu, Anu, Rantideva, Bhîshma, Bali, Amûrttaraya, Dilîpa, Saubhari, Utanka, S'ibi, Devala, Pippalâda, Sârasvata, Uddhava, Parâs'ara, Bhûrishena and champions like Vibhîshana, Hanumân, S'ukadeva Gosvâmî, Arjuna, Ârshthishena, Vidura and S'rutadeva. (46) Undoubtedly do also those persons who are women, laborers, barbarians and outcasts - provided they follow the instructions of the admirable devotees - manage to surpass the illusion of the divine energy and to arrive at knowledge, even if they led sinful lives. And when even animals that were trained by humans succeed in it, how much more would that not be true for those people who have heard about Him? (47) The Absolute of the Spirit [Brahman] is known as unlimited happiness free from grief. It is the ultimate position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in front of whom illusion flies away in shame. That pure uncontaminated state free from distinctions is beyond the words belonging to the material motive of fruitive actions, it is the original principle of the Supersoul, the cause of all cause and effect, it is consciousness free from fear and the undisturbed counterpart of the totality of matter [see also B.G. 2: 52]. (48) In that state of full independence the diverse practices of the mystics who in the process of their spiritual culture strive for perfection, are then given up, just as Indra [the god of rain] does not have to dig a well. (49) The Supreme Lord is the one master of all goodness because He brings the success of [spiritual realization to] all the good work that by the living entity was performed according  to its natural disposition. After the work is done the body dissolves in its constituent elements but just like the ether never is vanquished, the unborn spirit soul of the person is never lost either [see also B.G. 2: 24].

(50) My dear, I thus explained in brief to you how the Supreme Lord created the universe. Whatever that may exist in the phenomenal [material] or noumenal [spiritual] world cannot be of any other cause than Hari, the Lord. (51) This story of the Fortunate One called the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, was handed down to me by Him, the Supreme Lord and constitutes the summary of His diverse potencies. Now you from your good self must expound on this science of Godhead yourself. (52) Therefore describe with determination, for the cause of enlightening mankind, this science of devotion [bhakti] for the Supreme Personality, the summum bonum and Absolute of all Souls. (53) With the description of the Lord's external affairs the living being who is of regular attention and devoted appreciation for it will never be deluded by the external energy.'

 *: At verse twenty the time of Brahmâ's speech changes into the present and thereafter into the future tense from verse twenty-one on. From this can be derived that Vyâsadeva projected this conversation in the period of Avatâra Kurma when Dhanvantari appeared.


Chapter 8: Questions by King Parîkchit

(1) The king asked: 'How did Nārada, being instructed by Lord Brahmā oh brahmin, explain the modes and their transcendence and to whom did he explain it? (2) This I wish to understand oh best one: what is the reality of those who are in the Absolute of the truth of the Lord who is so full of wonderful potencies and whose narrations are so beneficial to all the worlds? (3) Please continue speaking, oh you of great fortune, so that I, with my mind focussed upon the Supreme One of the soul, Lord S'rî Krishna, freed from material attachment may relinquish my body. (4) Those who with faith regularly take to this spiritual matter and also seriously persist in the endeavor, will after not too long a time see the Supreme Lord appear in their hearts. (5) When one thus through one's ears receives the sounds [of the Bhâgavatam], this lotus flower of the loving relationship with Krishna will wash away all the impurities, the way the autumnal rain cleanses the water of the pools. (6) Once being cleansed a person who took to the shelter of Krishna's feet will never want to give up on that liberation, just like a traveler who going through the miseries of life will never want to give up his home [the Soul, see also B.G. 5: 17; 8: 16; 8: 21-28; 9: 3; 15: 3-4; 15: 6].

(7) When it thus is not a question of being material oh brahmin, can you from your self-knowledge, tell me whether the living being in this undertaking accidentally arrives at a body or because of some cause? (8) If He is in the possession of the lotus flower of this world that as it were sprouted from His abdomen, then what is the difference between the Original Person to the measure of this extent [of the Virâth Rûpa] and the situation one speaks of with the different embodiments [of the living entities]? (9) How could he on the lotus flower who was not born from matter himself but from the navel, he [Brahmâ] who gave life to all the ones born with a material body, through His mercy see His Form? (10) And also [how can it be that] He as the Original Person maintaining, creating and annihilating the material worlds, remains untouched by His own external energy while He as the Lord of all energies rests in the heart of everyone? (11) Formerly I heard you discuss [in chapter 2.5] the different [planets or] worlds with their governors as the different parts of the body of the Original Person. So what [can you tell us] about those governors who by their different places are the different parts of Him?

(12) And what about a day of Brahmâ [a kalpa] and the periods between them [vikalpas]? What can you say about the time measures we call the past, the future and the present? And how about the lifespan allotted to embodied beings? (13) Oh purest of the twice-born ones, what could be the beginning of time and what can you say about the way time, in the context of one's karma, is experienced as being short or long? (14) And also to what extent is one ruled by one's accruing karma in relation to the different modes of nature and the different life forms resulting from it as a consequence of one's desire? (15) Please describe to us how the creation of the lower regions, the four quarters of heaven, the sky, the planets and the stars, the hills, rivers, the seas and the islands and their inhabitants took place. (16) What is the extent and measure of [the] outer space [universe] and the inner space, and what are their divisions? And what is the character and action of the great souls and the vocations and age  groups of society? (17) What are the different ages, how long do they take and what is their nature? And which incarnation of the Lord performs what kind of wonderful activities in each and every age?

(18) What are the different religious duties of human society at large and what are the duties of the three classes [labor, trade and intellect] and their administration [the fourth class]? And what would the obligations be towards people in distress? (19) How many elements are there in creation, what are their characteristics and how do they react? What are the rules and regulations of the devotional service to de Original Person in the culture of yoga and what are the different spiritual methods that lead thereto? (20) What are the powers the yoga master acquires, where do they lead to, how do the yogis detach from the astral body and what is the transcendental knowledge found in the Vedas, their subsidiary literatures [the Upaveda], the law books and the Vedic stories and historical accounts(21) How do the different ways of the living beings come about and how do they find their end? What are the procedures for performing rituals, pious works and deeds of self-interest and what are the regulations for the three goals of life [the economic, religious and sensual interests]? (22) How do all those who either live in union with the Lord or go against Him find their existence and to what extent are those who are liberated conditioned relative to the ones who lead a life less determined? (23) How does the independent Supreme Lord enjoy His pastimes from His own inner potency and how can He forsake them when He as the Almighty One remains a witness to the external of His capacity?

(24) About all this and more that I did not ask you oh fortunate one, I have been wondering from the beginning. Please explain in accordance with the truth oh great sage, that what you want to tell me with us all having fallen at your feet. (25) Surely in these matters of factual knowing you are as good as Brahmâ who originated directly from the Lord, while others who following the customs accordingly may only speak from borrowed knowledge. (26) I never tire oh brahmin, of drinking, in the hunger of my fasting, from the nectar of the infallible truth that flows from the ocean of what you say.' " 

(27) Sûta Gosvâmî said: "He [S'ukadeva] thus in that assembly being questioned by the king on topics concerning the highest truth like these, was, as the instrument of the Creator, very pleased with this servant of Vishnu. (28) He instructed this Purâna called the Bhâgavatam the way it was transmitted by the Supreme Lord to Lord Brahmâ at the beginning of the first day [or kalpa] of creation. (29) This was the first thing he [in 2.1: 8] said in preparation of a full description from the beginning to the end of everything that the king, the best of the Pându dynasty, had asked and would ask more."

 Chapter 9: Answering by Citing the Lord's Version

(1) S'rî S'uka said: "Between the soul of pure consciousness in the beyond and the material body there can never be any meaningful relationship without the [divine self] its [or His] illusory potency [of mâyâ] oh King, the same way a dreamer cannot make any use of what he saw in his dream. (2) Wishing to enjoy in different ways the multifarious forms offered by the external energy of mâyâ there is because of [the operation of] her qualities or modes the notion of 'I' and 'mine'. (3) The very moment he [the witness, the soul], in his glory of transcending the time of the material energy, enjoys to be free from illusion, he in that fulness will forsake the two [of that 'I' and 'mine']. (4) When the Supreme Lord showed His form to the Creator who was veracious in his vows and diligence, He pointed out that the goal of all purification is to find the love of the knowledge of self-realization [âtma-tattva, filognosy, the soul principle]. (5) [And so] he, the first godly person in the universe, the supreme spiritual teacher, began from his own divine position [on the lotus of creation] to reflect on the source [of that lotus]. But considering therewith how he would start his creation, he could not figure out what the directions and the ways were of how it all materially should be put together.

(6) When he once was immersed in thinking this way, he heard two syllables being spoken which were the sixteenth [ta] and the twenty-first [pa] of the spars'a alphabeth. Joined together [as tapas, penance], these syllables became known as the potency of the renounced order, oh King. (7) When he heard that being spoken, he looked in all directions to detect the speaker, but there was none to be found. From where he in his divine position sat he then thought it best to do penance the way it was instructed. (8) He endowed with a spotless vision controlled his life breath, mind and senses of perception and action for a thousand godly years* and thus proceeding he in the past enlightened all the worlds by being of all who do penance the one of the severest practice.

(9) For him, the Supreme Lord being pleased by his penance, manifested His own abode [also called Vaikunthha, the place free from indolence], beyond which no other world is found and which is worshiped as the place where the five miseries of material life [ignorance, selfhood, attachment, hatred and death-fear] have completely ceased. It is the place that is praised by persons who free from illusion and fear for a material existence are of perfect self-realization. (10) There where the Lord is worshiped by both the enlightened and the unenlightened devotees, the mode of goodness prevails over the other two of passion and ignorance without ever being mixed with them. Nor is there the influence of time or the external energy, not to mention [the influence of] all the other matters [like attachment, greed etc.]. (11) As blue as the sky and glowing with lotus like eyes, very attractive and youthful with yellow garments, all inhabitants there are endowed with the four arms and the luster and effulgence of pearls and fine ornaments. (12) Some radiate like coral or diamonds, with heads with earrings and garlands blooming like a celestial lotus. (13) That place which radiates with rows of brilliant high rising, excellent buildings [specially designed] for the great devotees and is populated by celestial, flashing beauties with heavenly complexions, is as attractive as a sky decorated with clouds and lightning. (14) The goddess [S'rî] performs there, enraptured together with her personal, singing associates, with the diverse paraphernalia devotional service at the lotus feet of the Lord, surrounded by black bees who busily humm along in the attraction of the [everlasting] spring season. (15) There he [Brahmâ] saw the Lord of the entire community of devotees, the Lord of the goddess, of the Universe and the sacrifice, the Almighty One who is being served in transcendental love by foremost associates like Sunanda, Nanda, Prabala and Arhana. (16) The servants affectionately facing Him are intoxicated by the very pleasing sight of His smile, His reddish eyes, His face with His helmet and earrings, His four hands, His yellow dress, His marked chest and the Goddess of Fortune at His side. (17) Seated on His highly valuable throne He as the Supreme Lord fully enjoys His abode where He is surrounded by the opulence of His four energies [the principles of matter, original person, intellect and ego], His sixteen energies [the five elements, perceptive and working senses, and mind] His fivefold energies [the sense objects of form, taste, sound, smell and touch], His six energies [of the opulences of knowledge, intelligence, beauty, penance, fame and riches] and the other personal powers He sometimes demonstrates [the eight siddhis or mystic perfections].

The Creator of the Universe, who was overwhelmed by the sight of that audience, with his heart full of ecstasy and his body full of divine love bowed down with tears in his eyes before the lotus feet of the Lord. It was an example that is followed by the great liberated souls. (19) Seeing him present before Him, the Lord deemed the worthy, great scholar suitable for creating - in line with His own control - the lives of all living beings. Mildly smiling He very pleased shook hands with His partner in divine love and addressed the beloved one with enlightening words. (20) The Supreme Lord said: 'As opposed to the penance of the ones who are falsely unified ['kûtha yogis'], I am most pleased with prolonged penance, the penance by which the Vedic knowledge has accumulated in you, who desired to create. (21) All my blessings for you, just ask Me, the giver of all benediction, whatever favor you wish oh Brahmâ. For to reach the ultimate of realizing Me is the final success of everyone's penances. (22) This enviable perception of My abode was granted to you because you submissively listened when you in seclusion were of the highest penance. (23) It was Me who told you [to do penance] in that situation because you were perplexed in your duty. That penance is My very heart and the Soul is what I am for the one who is engaged in it, oh sinless one. (24) I create by that penance, I maintain the cosmos by that penance and I withdraw again by that penance. My power is found in severe penance.'

Brahmâ said: 'Oh Supreme Lord of all living beings, You are the director seated in the heart who by Your undisputed, superior intelligence knows about all endeavors. (26) Nevertheless I ask You oh Lord, to please fulfill my desire to know how You, despite being formless, can exist in the beyond on the one hand while You descend in Your form as we may know on the other hand. (27) And how do You, from Yourself by means of Yourself, by combination and permutation, manage to manifest Your different energies in the matter of evolving, accepting, maintaining and annihilating? (28) Oh Mâdhava [master of all energies], please inform me in intelligible terms about all those [forms] You infallibly, with determination enact the way a spider invests [its energies in its web]. (29) I wish that I in learning from You as my teacher of example, by Your mercy acting as Your instrument, despite creating the lives of the living beings, thus may never be caught in material attachments. (30) Oh Lord, like a friend does with a friend You [with a handshake] have accepted me for creating the different lives of the living entities. Oh Unborn One, may because of all who [throug me] in the service of You undisturbed saw the light of the world, never the imagination get hold of me.'

(31) The Supreme Lord said: 'The knowledge acquired about Me is very confidential and is realized in combination with devotional service and the necessary paraphernalia. Take it up the way I explain it to you. (32) May from My mercy with you there be this factual realization of My eternal form and transcendental existence, My colors, qualities and activities. (33) It was I who existed before the creation when there was nothing else, nothing of the cause and effect of all of this that is also Me, and it is Me as well who of all that was created remains in the end; that is what I am. (34) That which appears to be of value, is not what it seems when it does not relate to Me - know that illusory energy of Mine to be a reflection of the darkness. (35) The elements of the universe appear, before they are engaged and also thereafter, both minutely and gigantically. The same way I am [minutely] present in them as also [gigantically] not present in them. (36) He who has made the soul his object of study may count on it that he, until he arrives at this notion, has to investigate the reality and principle of the Self directly [spiritually] as also indirectly [scientifically] in the context of whatever time, place or circumstance. (37) When your focus of mind remains fixed on this conclusion about the Supreme you do not have to fear a fall in bewilderment, not when you have temporally lost your way [with the kalpa], nor when you have reached the end of your life [at the vikalpa end of the world].' "

(38) S'rî S'uka said: "After thus fully having explained everything, the Unborn One disappeared, He, Lord Hari the way He by the leader of the living entities [Brahmâ] was seen in His transcendental form of the Supreme Self. (39) After He had disappeared from view Brahmâjî, who had folded his hands before the Lord who is the object of all the senses [of the devotees], resumed the work of creating the lives of all living beings populating the universe, exactly the way he did before. (40) And thus it once happened that he, the father of all living beings and religious life, with vow and respect dedicated himself to the matter of the welfare of the living beings, for that was what he desired in the interest of their own good qualities. (41) Nârada, the dearest of his heirs, is very obedient to him in his willingness to be of service with his good behavior, meekness and sense control. (42) Oh King, the great sage and first-class devotee pleased his father [Lord Brahmâ] very much with his desire to know [more] about Vishnu, the Lord of all energies. (43) The same way you are questioning me, Nârada Muni questioned him when he saw that it was to the satisfaction of the great grandfather of the entire universe. (44) This story of the Fortunate One, the Bhâgavata Purâna with its ten characteristics [that is summarized in the four verses 33-36, see further the next chapter], was with great satisfaction by the Supreme Lord explained to His [unborn] son, the creator of the universe. (45) On the bank of the Sarasvatî Nârada [in his turn] instructed this Supreme Spirituality to the great sage, the meditative Vyâsadeva who is of an immeasurable potency, oh King. (46) All the things you've been asking me concerning the world of the Universal Form of the Original Person and other matters, I shall now explain to you in great detail."

*: One godly, divine year, a year of the gods or a celestial year equals 360 earthly years.


Chapter 10: The Bhâgavatam is the Answer to All Questions
 (1) S'rî S'uka said: 'In this [book, the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam] the following [ten] subjects are discussed: primary creation [sarga], how the interactions of life and the lifeless came about [visarga], the planetary order [sthâna], the maintenance of belief [poshana], the impetus for action [ûtaya], the administrative eras [manvantaras], stories about the Lord's appearances [îs'a-anukathâ], returning to God [nirodha], liberation in devotional service [mukti] and the summum bonum [the life of Krishna, âs'raya]. (2) The great sages reduce the purpose of [the first nine] characteristics of this [Bhâgavatam] to the clarification of the summum bonum. This they deduced from either the words themselves used in the text or from their purport. (3) The [sixteen elements of the five] gross elements, the [five] sense objects and the senses themselves including the mind, constitute the manifestation that is called the creation of the creator [sarga] and that what resulted from their interaction with the three modes of nature [the gunas] is what is called the secondary creation [visarga]. (4) The stability of the worlds [sthâna] is the victory of the Lord of Vaikunthha and His mercy is the maintenance of belief [poshana]. The reign of the Manus [during the manvantaras] settles the perfection of the dutifulness that constitutes the impetus for action with the karmic propensities [ûtaya]. (5) The different stories about the Lord [îs'a-anukathâ] describe the activities of the avatâras of the Personality of Godhead  and the persons who are His followers. (6) Returning to God [nirodha] pertains to the resigning of souls to the Original Person and His energies, while liberation [mukti] is concerned with forsaking other ways [of living] in order to get established in the Original Nature. (7) He who as the source from which the cosmic manifestation takes place also stands for the return to God, is for that reason called the reservoir [the âs'raya] of the Supreme Spirit or the Supersoul.

(8) He as the individual person in possession of his senses [adhyâtmika] is both the controlling deity [adhidaivika] and the person who separate therefrom is perceived as another embodied living being [adhibhautika]. (9) He who knows that one cannot understand anyone of these three without the other two, knows that He, the Supersoul is the support for His own shelter. (10) When that Supreme Person [of space-time] separated the universes, He in His desire to be of the purest transcendence came out of Himself to lie down in the created [causal] waters. (11) Residing in these waters of His own creation for a thousand celestial years He became known by the name of Nârâyana ['the way of Nâra'] because these waters that originated from the Supreme Person [from 'Nara'] are called Nâra. (12) The material elements, karma, time and  the conditioned living entities all exist by His mercy and cease to exist on  [His] neglect. (13) Where He laid in His mystical slumber He was all alone. Thus wishing to multiply Himself He by means of His mâyâ  divided His golden seminal principle in three. (14) Let me now tell you about how the Lord, who divided His one potency in three different powers, arrived at the three parts of 1) Himself or His nature,  adhidaiva, 2) the individual soul, adhyâtma and 3) the other living beings, adhibhûta.

(15) From the ether within the body of the Original Person, with His wish, the power to sense, the power to mind and the power for physical action generated, after which next the life breath [the prâna] came about as the principle ruling over each and all. (16) Like the followers of a king, the senses follow the life force of prâna that is active in all living beings and when the life force is no longer active all the rest stops also. (17) The life force that was generated [from the ether] made the Almighty One hungry and thirsty and to quench that thirst and satisfy that hunger, first of all the mouth was opened. (18) From the mouth the palate was generated whereupon the tongue manifested and the various tastes to be relished by it. (19) With the need to speak from the mouth of the Supreme One [the presiding deity of] fire originated as also the organ of speech and speech itself, but because He was at rest in the waters, they for a very long time remained suspended. (20) Desiring to smell odors the nose with its sense of smell developed together with the nostrils to rapidly inhale the air that carries the smell. (21) Being by Himself in the darkness He desired to observe Himself and the rest of creation. For the sake of His vision the sun then separated that gave the eyes the power of sight. (22) When the Lord decided that the sages should understand the Supreme Being also the ears manifested themselves including the authority of the wind directions, the power to hear and that what could be heard. (23) From His desire to experience the hardness, softness, lightness, weight, heat and cold of all matter, the sense of touch was distributed over the skin along with its bodily hair, the plants and trees. That sense of touch of the skin rose from the objects that were perceived within and without.

(24) From His desire for different types of work the two hands manifested, but to give strength to the manipulation that depends on them [viz. on the gods who are His hands], Indra, the king of the gods, found his existence as the manifestation of both. (25) Desiring to control movement the legs manifested, for the purpose of which the Lord of Sacrifice [Vishnu] Himself manifested [as their presiding godhead] who motivates the different human beings according to the duties of their fruitive actions [karma]. (26) Desiring to taste the nectar of sexual enjoyment the genitals of the male and female organ appeared and the lustfulness found its existence that is the shelter cherished by the both of them [controlled by the Prajâpati]. (27) Desiring to evacuate the refuse of eatables first the opening of the anus and then its sense and substance came about after which Mitra, the controller over the excretion, appeared to offer the protection of both. (28) With His wish to move freely from one body to the next, within the body the navel manifested that is the refuge for first the last breath expired and next death. (29) In want of food and drink the abdomen with the intestines and arteries originated to which the rivers and seas are their source of sustenance and metabolism. (30) Desirous to know His own energy the heart [as the seat of thought] manifested after which the mind, Candra the controller [the moon] appeared as also determination and all desire. (31) The seven elements of the nails, skin, flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone are predominantly of earth, water and fire whereas the life breath is a product of ether, water and air [see also kos'a].

(32) The senses of the material ego are attached to the modes of matter. Those modes influence the mind and all the feelings belonging to it because of which for the individual the intelligence and the realized knowledge assume their form. (33) The Supreme Lord's gross form, as I explained to you, is among all of this that what is known by the eight elements [of earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego] of the planets and everything else, that together constitute an unlimitedly expanded, external covering. (34) For that reason we have the words of the mind in accordance with the transcendental that serve the Supreme which is finer than the finest, the featureless unmanifested reality, which is without a beginning, an intermediate stage or an end and thus is eternal. (35) None of these two [material and verbal] forms of the Supreme Lord as I described to you are, because of their externality, by the scholars of consciousness ever taken for granted. (36) He who in fact does nothing [who is of akarma] manifests in the form of the word and in that what the word denotes: the different appearances of the Absolute Truth and the Supreme Lord, while He in the pastimes of His forms and names engages in the work of transcendence [that is free from karma]. (37-40) Oh King, know that all the happiness and distress and their mixture is there as a result of profit-minded labor [of karma]. This is the experience of all the members of the family of Brahmâ, the Manus, the godly ones, the wise, the inhabitants of Pitriloka [the forefathers] and Siddhaloka [the perfected ones]; the Câranas [the venerable ones], Gandharvas [the singers of heaven], Vidyâdharas [the scientists], Asuras [the unenlightened ones or the demons], Yakshas [treasure-keepers or evil spirits], Kinnaras [of superpowers] and angels; the snake-like, the monkey-shaped Kimpurushas, the human beings, the inhabitants of Mâtriloka [of the place of the mother], the demons and Pis'âcas [yellow flesh-eating demons]. This includes the ghosts, spirits, lunatics and evil spirits, devils taking possession of people and the birds, the forest-dwelling and domestic animals, the reptiles, the ones of the mountains, the moving and immobile living entities, the living entities born from embryos, from eggs, from heat [micro-organisms] and from seeds, and all others, whether they are of the water, of land or the sky.

(41) Depending the modes of goodness, passion and slowness there are thus the three [life conditions] of the godly ones, the human beings and the ones who have to suffer. There are also others [other births] oh King, when one reasons from mixed forms according to the habits one develops in one mode of nature with approaches derived from the other two. (42) Evidently the Supreme Lord, the maintainer of the universe, after having created the universes, assumes for the purpose of maintaining the dharma [and redeeming the living beings] the forms of gods, human beings and lower creatures. (43) Like the wind dispersing the clouds He in the form of Rudra [S'iva the destroyer] at the end of the era by fire will completely annihilate all. (44) The Supreme Lord is by those who are not conversant with His essence described with the notion of these characteristics [of creation and destruction], but the wise and the teachers must not deign to regard the supreme glory as only this. (45) Never is in the matter of creation and so on the Supreme in the beyond described as the engineering agency, for that notion [of having a Supreme position] is there to contrast with that what is manifested by the material energy. (46) That what is summarized here by me concerns the generation of the entire expanse of material creation. I only dilate on this now to illustrate the regulative principles of importance for the process of creation during a day of Brahmâ [a kalpa] and of destruction during an intermediate period [a vikalpa]. (47) I will also tell you about the characteristics and measures of time of a day of Brahmâ [a kalpa], but first let me inform you about this period [also called the Pâdma Kalpa or Varâha Kalpa].' "

(48) S'aunaka said: "Oh Sûta, you from the goodness of yourself told us about Vidura, who is one of the best devotees,  going to the places of pilgrimage on this earth and leaving behind the relatives who are so difficult to give up. (49-50) Oh gentle one, please tell us here about the conversation Vidura had with Maitreya [a famous rishi] who is so full of transcendental knowledge. What did he ask His grace and what truths did he get in return for an answer? And why exactly did Vidura give up his activities and associates and why did he return back home thereafter?"

(51) Sûta replied: "This is what King Parîkchit also asked. I will tell you what the great sage said about it when he answered the king's question. Please listen."

Thus the second Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam end named: The Cosmic Manifestation.


CANTO 3: The Status Quo

Chapter 1: Questions by Vidura 

(1) S'uka said: 'This is what formerly Vidura asked His Grace Maitreya Rishi when he entered the forest after renouncing his prosperous home: (2) 'What to say about the house [of the Pândavas] I am identified with? S'rî Krishna, the Supreme Lord and master of all, was accepted as the minister of its people and had given up entering the house of Duryodhana.'

(3) The king said: 'Please tell us master, where and when Vidura met with His Grace Maitreya Rishi to discuss this? (4) Certainly the questions Vidura asked the holy man cannot have been unimportant, they must have been full of the highest purpose as is approved by the seekers of truth.'

(5) Sûta said: "He, the great sage S'ukadeva thus being questioned by King Parîkchit, fully satisfied replied, speaking from his great expertise: 'Please listen to this.'

(6) S'rî S'ukadeva said: 'During the time King Dhritarâshthra was raising his dishonest sons, he who never walked the straight path had lost his sight being the guardian of the sons of his younger brother [the deceased Pându, see family tree]. He let them enter the laquer house which he next set on fire [see Mahâbhârata I 139-148]. (7) When in the assembly the wife of the saintly Kurus [Draupadî] was insulted by his son [Duhs'âsana] who grabbed her by her hair, the king did not forbid this, although his daughter-in-law shed tears that washed the red dust of her breast [see Mahâbhârata II 58-73]. (8) When by unfair means he who was without an enemy [Yudhishthhira] was defeated in a game of gambling and as someone faithful to the truth went to the forest, he upon returning was never allotted the share that was promised by the one who was overcome by illusion [Dhritarâshthra]. (9) Also Lord Krishna, when He on the plea of Arjuna for their sake appeared in the assembly as the teacher of the world, was, with His words as good as nectar, by the king not taken seriously among all the men of sense whose last bit of piety was dwindling.

(10) When Vidura was called to the palace by his elder brother [Dhritarâshthra], he had entered there for consultation and the advice that he then with his directions gave was exactly what the ministers of state could appreciate: (11) 'Return now the legitimate share to the one who has no enemy [Yudhishthhira] and who was so patient with your unbearable offenses. You would better be afraid of him and his younger brothers, of whom we know Bhîma to be as angry and wrathful as a snake. (12) The sons of Prithâ are now adopted by the Supreme Lord of Liberation who at present , resides with His family, the honorable Yadu dynasty, that together with Him has defeated an unlimited amount of kings. (13) He [Duryodhana], this bad guy you consider your son, stepped forward in your household as an enemy of the Original Person. You thus having turned against Krishna are therefore bereft of all goodness - that inauspiciousness you must, for the sake of the family, give up as soon as possible.'

(14) After these words of Vidura Duryodhana addressed him on the spot. Swollen with anger and with trembling lips, he insulted the respectable one of good qualities in the company of Karna, his younger brothers and S'akuni [a maternal uncle] saying: (15) 'Who asked him to be here, this bastard son of a maid-servant who grew up living on the cost of those he betrays as an enemy spy? Throw him immediately out of the palace to be left with his breath only!' (16) Vidura in his turn immediately put his bow at the door and left the palace of his brother, being hurt in the core of his heart by the violence aimed at him. But despite these arrows so painful to the ear, he was unperturbed and felt great.

(17) After having left the Kauravas he achieved upon his departure from Hastinâpura the piety of the Supreme Lord the moment he sought the salvation of pilgrimages. All he wanted was the highest grade of devotion as was established by means of all those thousands of idols. (18) He traveled to holy places of devotion where the air, the hills and the orchards, waters, rivers and lakes are pure with temples decorated with the appearances of the One Unlimited. Thus he proceeded alone through the holy lands. (19) Traversing the earth purely and independently, he was sanctified by the ground he slept upon and without his familiar clothes being dressed like a mendicant and performing according to the vows to please the Lord, one could not recognize him. (20) Traveling this way through India only, he arrived at the holy land of Prabhâsa, which at the time was under the reign of King Yudhishthhira who by the mercy of the Invincible Lord ruled the world under one military force and flag [see 1.13]. (21) There he heard how all his kinsmen had perished [at Kurukshetra] in a violent passion like a bamboo forest burning down because of ignition through its own friction. Thereupon he, silent with his thoughts, went westward heading for the river Sarasvatî. (22) On the bank of the river he visited and duly worshiped the holy places called Trita, Us'anâ, Manu, Prithu, Agni, Asita, Vâyu, Sudâsa, Go, Guha and S'râddhadeva. (23) Also other places had been established there by the twice-born godly ones and the devotees of the various forms of Lord Vishnu, who, as the leading personality marked each and every part of the temples. Even at a distance they reminded one  of  Lord Krishna. (24) From there passing through the wealthy kingdoms of Surat, Sauvîra and Kurujângala (west of India), he after some time reaching the Yamunâ river, also happened to meet Uddhava, the Supreme Lord His greatest devotee [see Canto 11].

(25) He embraced the sober and gentle constant companion of Vâsudeva who was formerly a student of Brihaspati, the master of all ritual, and with great love and affection he questioned him about the family of the Supreme Lord: (26) 'Are the original personalities of Godhead [Krishna and Balarâma], who, on the request of the Creator who was born from the lotus, descended in the world for the elevation and well-being of everyone, all well in the house of S'ûrasena [the father of Queen Kuntî, aunt Prithâ]? (27) And, oh Uddhava, is our greatest Kuru and brother-in-law, Vasudeva [the father of Lord Krishna] happy who is truly like a father to his sisters and so generous in providing to the pleasure of his wives everything they desire? (28) Please Uddhava, tell me whether the military commander-in-chief of the Yadus, Pradyumna, is all happy. He was in his previous life the god of love and is now the great hero who was born from Rukminî as the prince of the Supreme Lord after she had pleased the brahmins. (29) And is Ugrasena the king of the Sâtvatas, Vrishnis, Dâs'ârhas and Bhojas doing well? He is the one to whom Lord Krishna restored the hope of the throne after he had to give it up being put aside [under the rule of uncle Kamsa]. (30) Oh grave one, is the son of the Lord, Sâmba, faring well, he, the foremost and best behaved among the warriors, who is so much alike Him and to whom Jâmbavatî [another wife of Krishna] who is so rich in her vows gave birth after his previous life as the godly Kârttikeya who was born unto the wife of S'iva? (31) And how is Yuyudhâna [Sâtyaki] faring, he who learned from Arjuna and fulfilled his purpose as someone understanding the intricacies of military art and on top of that in being of service attained the destination of the Transcendence that even for the greatest renouncers is so difficult to achieve? (32) And the scholarly impeccable son of S'vaphalka, Akrûra, how is he? He is the one who in his surrender on the path of Krishna's lotus feet lost his balance and fell down in the dust showing symptoms of transcendental love. (33) Is everything well with the daughter of King Devaka-Bhoja? The way the purpose of sacrifice originated from the Vedas and the mother of the demigods [Aditi] gave birth to the godhead, she [Devakî] gave birth to Lord Vishnu. (34) And is also He, the Personality of Godhead Aniruddha all happy, He who as the source for the fulfillment of the desires of the devotees traditionally is considered the birth channel for the Rig Veda, the creator of the mind and the transcendental fourth plenary expansion of the Reality Principle [of Vishnu-tattva]? (35) And others like Hridîka, Cârudeshna, Gada and the son of Satyabhâmâ, who accept the divinity of their own self as being the soul, oh humble one, and who follow with an absolute faith, are they also faring well in passing their time?

(36) Does Yudhishthhira, ruling with the principles of humanity, maintain the respect of religion under the protection of the arms of Arjuna and the Infallible One? It was he who with the opulence of his royal entourage and the service of Arjuna, raised the envy of Duryodhana. (37) And did the unconquerable Bhîma, who is like a cobra, vent his long-cherished fury upon the sinners? The way he with the wonderful play of his club operated on the battlefield, he could not be defeated. (38) Is Arjuna doing well, he the famous one among the chariot fighters who with his bow the Gândîva vanquished so many enemies? He once satisfied Lord S'iva covering him with arrows when he presented himself unrecognizable as a false hunter. (39) And are the twin sons of Prithâ [Nakula and Sahadeva] carefree? They were by their brothers protected as eyelids covering eyes when they reclaimed their property in the fight with the enemy like Garuda [the carrier of Vishnu] did [with the nectar] from the mouth of Indra. (40) Oh dear one, is Prithâ still alive? She dedicated her life to the care for the fatherless children when she had to live without King Pându who alone as a commanding warrior could master the four directions with a second bow only.

(41) Oh gentle one, I just pity him [Dhritarâshthra] who falling down when his brother [Pându] died, turned against me and drove me, his well-wisher, out of my own city adopting the same line of action as his sons. (42) Therefore I travel by the grace of His feet incognito through this world of the Lord which is so bewildering for others to manage. I never missed to see His feet being doubtless in this matter. (43) As for the kings who went astray because of the three kinds of false pride [about wealth, education and followers] and who constantly agitated mother earth with the movements of their troops, He, being the Supreme Lord willing to relieve the distress of the surrendered souls, of course waited to kill the Kurus despite their offenses. (44) The appearance of the Unborn One, He without any obligation in the world, is there to put an end to the upstarts so that each may understand. What other purpose would He serve in taking up a body and all kinds of karma? (45) Oh my friend, sing the glories and discuss the topics of the Lord of all sacred places who from His unborn position took birth in the family of the Yadus for the sake of all rulers of the universe who surrendered to Him and [the devotional culture of ] His self-control.'


Chapter 2: Remembrance of Lord Krishna

(1) S'uka said: 'The great devotee [Uddhava] questioned by Vidura about what could be said regarding the dearest one, reflected upon the Lord but could not reply immediately because he was overwhelmed by emotion. (2) He was someone who in his childhood being five years old, called by his mother for breakfast, did not like to have it because he was absorbed in playing the servant [of Lord Krishna]. (3) How would such a servitude of Uddhava have slackened in the course of time? So when he was simply asked to tell about Him, everything of the Lord's lotus feet popped up in his mind. (4) For a moment he fell completely silent because of the nectar of the Lord's feet. Strong as he was and well matured in the union of devotion, he became fully absorbed in the love of its goodness. (5) Every part of his body showed the signs of transcendental ecstasy and when tears filled his eyes because of missing Him so much, Vidura could see that he had reached the object of his greatest love. (6) Slowly Uddhava returned from the world of the Lord to the human world and wiping his tears away he spoke affectionately to Vidura about all these recollections.'

(7) Uddhava said: 'What can I say about our wellbeing now the sun of Krishna has set and the house of my family has been swallowed by the great serpent of  the past? (8) How unfortunate is this world and especially the Yadu dynasty who living together with the Lord did not recognize Him any more than the fish recognize the moon. (9) His own men, the Sâtvatas, were audacious people with a good judgement of  character who could relax with Him as the head of the family and  thought of Him as the one behind everything. (10) Even though they were all overcome by the illusion of the external reality of God [or the gods], as good as others who attach to illusions, the intelligence of the souls who are innerly of full surrender to the Lord will never go astray because of the words used by the others. (11) After having shown Himself to persons living without penance and  the fulfillment of ideals, He, withdrawing His form from public vision, next took to the feat of His own disappearance. (12) The form He showed in the mortal world was perfectly suited for His pastimes that demonstrated the power of His inner magic. It led to the discovery of His wonders, His supreme opulence and the ultimate ornament of all ornaments: His feet.

(13) All the [inhabitants of the] three worlds who during King Yudhishthhira's Rajasûya-[royal] sacrifice witnessed His all-attractive form were perplexed and thought that the craftmanship of Brahmâ's universal creation had been surpassed with Him present in the mortal world. (14) Because of His smiles, playful nature and glances the women of Vraja became more and more attached to Him and followed Him with their eyes so that they completely distracted sat down with their mind in the clouds without attending to their household duties. (15) The Unborn One who still took birth, the infinitely merciful Lord and ruler over the spiritual and material realm appeared for the sake of the devotees as the Fortunate One, the Lord of the Opulences, as Bhagavân who accompanied by all His associates is as fire to all the others who, [like Kamsa] living to their own material standards, constitute a plague.

(16) It distresses me to see how He, being unborn, so amazingly, took His birth [in the prison] were Vasudeva lived, how He  in Vraja at home with Vasudeva, lived like He was afraid of the enemy [uncle Kamsa] and how He, the unlimitedly powerful one, fled from Mathurâ city [the capital where Krishna resided after defeating Kamsa]. (17) My heart hurts when I think of what He said in worship of the feet of His parents: 'Oh mother, oh father, in great fear of Kamsa we failed in our service, please be pleased with us!' (18) How can one forget Him once one has the dust of His lotus feet in the nose, Him who by the mere raising of His eyebrows dealt the death blow to the burden of the earth? (19) Did your goodness not witness with your own eyes how during Yudhishthhira's royal sacrificial ceremony the king of Cedi [S'is'upâla] despite his jealousy of Krishna attained perfection, the fulfillment most desired by all the yogis who by dint of their yoga manage to tolerate separation from Him? (20) And certainly also others in human society have achieved His heavenly abode: they who as warriors saw Krishna's very pleasing lotus-like face and eyes on the battlefield that was purified by Arjuna's arrows. (21) He is none but the unique, grand Lord of the threefold reality by whose independence supreme fortune is achieved and to whose feet countless [kings full of] desires bow their helmets in worship with all the paraphernalia under the direction of  the eternal keepers of societal order. (22) For that reason we as servitors in His service are in pain oh Vidura, when we see how He before King Ugrasena expectantly sitting on his throne, submitted Himself with the words: 'Oh my Lord, please see it this way.'

(23) To the shelter of whom else should I take? Oh, who else would assure a greater mercy than He who, despite the faithlessness of that she-devil [Pûtanâ] who in envy poisoned her breast for nourishing Him to death, granted her the position of a mother? (24) I think that they who as opponents are waging against the Lord of the Threefoldness are great devotees because they in their preoccupation of fighting Him, could see Him coming forward on His carrier [Garuda] with His cakra wheel. (25) Born from the womb of Devakî in the prison of the king of Bhoja [Kamsa], the Supreme Lord being prayed for [by the Creator] appeared to bring welfare on earth. (26) Thereafter He was brought up in the cow pastures by His [foster] father Nanda, where He out of fear for Kamsa, together with Baladeva [Balarâma] resided [in secret] for eleven years the way one covers a flame. (27) Surrounded by cowherd boys herding calves the Almighty One roamed on the banks of the Yamunâ through gardens that vibrated with the chirping of the heavenly birds in their many trees. (28) The alluring display of the pastimes of His youth could only be appreciated by the inhabitants of Vraja, the land of Vrindâvana, where He, looking like a lion cub, just like other kids cried and laughed and was struck with wonder. (29) Tending the treasure of beautiful cows He as the source of happiness enlivened the cowherd boys by playing His flute. (30) The great wizards engaged by the king of Bhoja to assume any form they liked, were upon their approach in the course of His pastimes killed by Him who acted just like a child playing with dolls. (31) [To help the inhabitants of Vrindâvana] being perplexed by the great trouble of drinking poison [from the snake Kâliya in the water of the Yamunâ], He subdued the chief of the reptiles and after coming out of the water He caused the cows to drink it, proving it natural again. (32) Desiring the proper use of the wealth of Nanda, the king of the cowherds his opulence, He with the help of the brahmins helped them to perform worship for the sake of  the cows and the land [instead of Indra]. (33) Indra angry upon being insulted highly perturbed created a heavy downpour of rain above Vraja. [The cowherds then were] protected by the merciful Lord with His pastime of [lifting] the hill [Govardhana, that served as an] umbrella oh sober Vidura. (34) One autumn He, during a night brightened by moonlight, devoted Himself to singing songs to enjoy the women, delighting in their midst as the face of the night its beauty in person.'


Chapter 3: The Lord's Pastimes Outside of Vrindâvana

(1) Uddhava said: 'When the Lord thereafter came to the city of Mathurâ, He wished His parents all well [freeing them from imprisonment], after together with Baladeva having dragged down from the throne the leader of public hostility [Kamsa] and having killed him by pulling him upon the ground with great strength. (2) He mastered every detail of  the Vedas after hearing them only once from His teacher Sândîpani whom He rewarded the benediction of bringing back his deceased son from the inner region of the departed souls, from death [Yamaloka]. (3) Invited by the daughter of King Bhîshmaka [Rukminî] Lord Krishna stole her away as His share exactly like Garuda did [with the nectar of the gods], and thus gave all those [princes] the go-by who according to the custom were candidates to marry her and for that purpose had come expecting that fortune. (4) In an open competition for the selection of the bridegroom for Princess Nâgnajitî He subdued seven wild bulls and won her hand, but the fools who in their disappointment nevertheless wanted her, He killed and wounded without getting hurt Himself, well equipped as He was with all weapons. (5) Only because of the fact that He, just like an ordinary living being, tried to please His dear wife who wanted Him to bring the Pârijâta flower shrub [from heaven], Indra the King of Heaven henpecked of course by his own wives, blind of anger with all his strength waged against Him.

(6) When mother Earth saw how Narakâsura [Bhauma], her son who in the battle [against Krishna] physically dominated the sky [with missiles], was killed by His Sudars'ana Cakra [the disc weapon], she prayed to Him to return to Narakâsura's son that what had remained [of the kingdom]. Doing so He entered Narakâsura's fortress. (7) Upon seeing the Lord, the Friend of the Distressed, all the princesses there who were kidnapped by the demon immediately stood prepared joyfully to accept Him, with eager glances shyly closing Him in their hearts, [as their husband]. (8) Although they resided in different apartments, He accepted the hands of all women simultaneously by joining in a perfect settlement with each her individual nature through His internal potency. (9) Desiring to expand Himself, He with each and every one of them begot ten children who in every respect were all alike Himself.

(10) Kâlayavana, the king of Magadha [Jarâsandha], King S'âlva and others who with their soldiers had surrounded Mathurâ, He did not prove His own wondrous prowess but the prowess of His men. (11) Of S'ambara, Dvivida, Bâna, Mura, Balvala and others like Dantavakra and more of them, He killed some, while others He caused to be killed [by Balarâma e.g.].

(12) Thereafter in the battle of Kurukshetra of both parties of the nephews the kings were killed of whose chariot wheels the earth shook. (13) It was not His delight to see how because of the ill advice of Karna, Duhs'âsana and Saubala, Duryodhana with all his power had lost his fortune and lifespan and now along with his followers laid down [on the battlefield] with broken limbs. (14) 'What is this', the Lord said when with the help of Bhîshma and Drona [on the one hand] and Arjuna and Bhîma [on the other] the enormous burden of the earth of eighteen akshauhinîs [an army consisting of ten anikinis, or 21.870 elephants, 21.870 chariots, 65.610 horses, and 109.350 foot soldiers] had been removed. 'There is still the unbearable burden of the great strength of My descendants, the Yadu dynasty. (15) They will vanish when, intoxicated from drinking [honey-liquor], a quarrel will take place among them which will turn their eyes red as copper; there is no alternative to ensure this in case of My disappearance.' (16) With this in His mind the Supreme Lord installed Yudhishthhira on the throne, gladdening His friends by indicating the path of the saints.

(17) The descendant of Pûru [Parîkchit] by the hero Abhimanyu begotten in the womb of Uttarâ, surely would have been burned by the weapon of the son of Drona if the Supreme Lord had not averted it by protecting him again [see S.B. 1: 7 & 8]. (18) The Almighty One induced the son of Dharma [Yudhishthhira] also to perform three horse sacrifices and in that assisted by his brothers he protected and enjoyed the earth as a constant follower of Krishna.

(19) The Supreme Lord and Supersoul of the Universe customarily following the path of Vedic principles, enjoyed the lusts of life in the city of Dvârakâ without getting attached. He accomplished this by keeping to the analytical system of yoga [Sânkhya]. (20) Gentle and with His sweet glances and words  that compared to nectar, He, with His flawless character, resided there in His transcendental body, the residence of the goddess of fortune. (21) He, specifically pleasing the Yadus, enjoyed this earth and certainly also the other worlds, in the leisure of the night with the women being of friendship in conjugal love. (22) Thus He for many, many years enjoyed a household life of [sensual] uniting that constituted the basis of His detachment. (23) Just like with Him, the enjoyment of the senses of whatever living entity is controlled by the divine, a divinity in which one can put faith by joining in the service of the Lord of Yoga.

(24) In the city of Dvârakâ the princely descendants of Yadu and Bhoja some day had been playing a prank and thus had angered the wise who thereupon cursed them as was desired by the Supreme Lord. (25) A few months later the descendants of Vrishni, Bhoja and others like the sons of Andhaka, bewildered by Krishna with great pleasure went to the place of pilgrimage called Prabhâsa. (26) There they took a bath and with the same water proved their respects to their forefathers, the gods and the great sages. Then they gave in royal charity cows to the brahmins. (27) For their livelihood they also provided them with gold, gold coins, bedding, clothing, seat covers, blankets, horses, chariots, elephants, girls and land. (28) After supplying the brahmins with highly delicious food that was first offered to the Supreme Lord, the valiant representatives offered, for the sake of their good life, the cows and the brahmins their obeisances by touching the ground with their heads.'


Chapter 4: Vidura Approaches Maitreya

(1) Uddhava said: 'After, with the permission of the brahmins, partaking of the offerings they [the Yadus] drank liquor that spoilt their minds so that they hurt each other with harsh words. (2) At sunset, they who lost their balance of mind because of the faults made in that intoxicated state, saw the destruction with the bamboos [with which they started fighting one another] take place. (3) The Supreme Lord, who from His internal potency foresaw the end, went to the river the Sarasvatî and after sipping water He sat down underneath a tree. (4) The Lord vanquishes the distress of the ones who surrender to Him and thus He who desired the destruction of His family told me: 'You have to go to Badarikâs'rama'. (5) But because I couldnot tolerate it to be separated from His lotus feet I, against my better knowledge of His wish, followed the Master, oh subduer of the enemy [Vidura]. (6) Then I saw how my Patron and Master, He who does not need to take shelter, lost in thoughts alone sat down at the riverbank to take shelter of the goddess.

(7) Beautiful with His blackish color, of pure goodness and peaceful with His reddish eyes, He could be recognized as having four arms and yellow silken garments [Vishnu]. (8) Resting with His right foot on His thigh against a young banyan tree He who had left His household comforts looked relieved.

(9) At that time [Maitreya,] a great devotee and follower of Krishna Dvaipâyana Vyâsa [Vyâsadeva], a well-wisher and friend traveling the three worlds, on his own accord [also] arrived at that place. (10) Attached to Him the sage bent over in a pleasing attitude and listened with rapt attention while the Lord with kind glances and smiles allowed me to rest and then spoke. (11) The Supreme Lord said: 'I know from within what you in the past desired when the wealthy ones who built this world were making their sacrifices. I grant you that what for the others is so difficult to achieve, oh fortunate one: the association with Me you desire as the ultimate goal of life. (12) This life is of all your incarnations, oh honest one, the fulfillment because you have achieved My mercy now you have seen Me in the seclusion of quitting the worlds of man. This is what you see when one is unflinching in one's devotion [:Vaikunthha, freedom from foolishness]. (13) Long ago, in the beginning of creation, I told Brahmâ on the lotus that came out of My navel about the knowledge of the supreme of My transcendental glories: I explained that what the theists call the Bhâgavatam.'

(14) With His favor of thus addressing me, I, who at each instant was the object of the Supreme Personality's mercy, saw how because of my emotion my hairs stood on end. With my eyes hazy because of wiping my tears, I with folded hands said faltering: (15) 'Oh my Lord, for those who live in respect of Your feet that are so difficult to obtain, it is in this world all a matter of the four goals of life [dharma, artha, kâma and moksha; religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation], but I do not care for them so much oh Great One,  I'm rather concerned with serving Your lotus feet. (16) Even though You have no desires You engage in all kinds of activities, even though You are unborn You still take birth, as the controller of eternal Time You take nevertheless shelter of the fortress out of fear for Your enemies and despite enjoying within Yourself, You lead a household life in the association of women; this bewilders the intelligence of the scholars in this world. (17) You are never divided under the influence of time, yet You, in Your eternal intelligence oh Master, call me in for consultation, as if You would be bewildered. But that is never the case. That boggles my mind, oh Lord. (18) If You deem me fit to receive it, then please, my Lord, tell me - in order for me to overcome worldly misery - in detail about the complete of the knowledge concerning the mystery of the supremely enlightening nature of Your Self, the way You told it the fortunate Brahmâjî.'

(19) Thus being prayed to by me from the core of my heart, He, the lotus-eyed Supreme Lord of the beyond, instructed me on His transcendental position. (20) Thus I have, to the instruction of the Master, appreciated and studied the knowledge of self-realization, in which I understood the path by respecting His lotus feet. And so I reached, after circumambulating Him, this place with sadness in my heart because of the separation. (21) My best one [Vidura], I am thus in pain without the pleasure of seeing Him. And so I will, as He instructed, go to Badarikâs'rama [in the Himalayas] to enjoy the proper company. (22) There the Supreme Lord as Nârâyana, incarnated in the form of His humanity, and as Nârâ, in the form of a sage amiable to everyone, for a long time was of severe penance for the welfare of all living beings.'

(23) S'rî S'uka said: 'Hearing from Uddhava the unbearable [news] of the annihilation of his friends and relatives, the learned Vidura pacified his rising bereavement by means of transcendental knowledge. (24) As the great devotee of the Lord and best among the Kauravas was leaving, Vidura in confidence submitted the following to this leading personality in the devotional service of Krishna. (25) Vidura said: 'The Lord of Yoga enlightened you on the mystery of the transcendental knowledge of one's own soul - be as good now to expound on it so as to honor Vishnu and the servants who wander in the interest of others.' (26) Uddhava then said: 'Turn to the worshipable sage, the son of Kushâru [Maitreya] who stays nearby. He was directly instructed by the Supreme Lord when He left  the mortal world.'

(27) S'S'uka said: 'With the overwhelming emotion with which he on the bank of the Sarasvatî river with Vidura discussed the nectar of the qualities of  the Lord of the Universe, the night passed in a moment. Thereafter the son of Aupagava went away.'

(28) The king [Parîkchit] asked: 'How could it be that after the destruction that happened to the Vrishni and Bhoja dynasty, the great leader in command among them, the prominent Uddhava, was the only one to remain after the Lord had completed His pastimes as the Master over the three worlds?'

(29) S' S'uka said: 'After He by the power of Time had called for the end of His numerous family through the curse of the brahmins and He was about to give up His outer appearance He thought to Himself: (30) 'When I have left this world the knowledge of Myself and My shelter will be in the right hands with Uddhava who is at present the foremost of the devotees. (31) Uddhava is not in the least inferior to Me inasmuch as he is never affected by the material modes. Thus he [rightfully] may remain as the master of the knowledge about Me which he can disseminate in this world.'

(32) After thus having received perfect instructions from the spiritual master and source of all Vedic knowledge of the three worlds he [Uddhava] reached Badarikâs'rama feeling blissfully happy in being absorbed in the Lord. (33) So also Vidura  had such an experience when he heard from Uddhava how Krishna, the Supersoul, extraordinarily had assumed a form for His pastimes and most gloriously had engaged with it. (34) His entering a physical body is for the persevering great sages as well as for others a thing most difficult to understand and for people with an animal interest it is simply something mad. (35) And now also Vidura himself oh best among the Kurus, overwhelmed by joy in ecstasy could not help bursting in tears when he thought of how Krishna the Fortunate One had remembered him during the moments He left this earth.

(36) Oh best of the Bharatas, after Vidura thus had passed his days on the bank of the Yamunâ [see 3:1.24], he reached the holy waters of the Ganges where he met sage Maitreya [the son of Mitrâ, his mother].'


Chapter 5: Vidura Talks with Maitreya

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'At the source of the celestial river [the Ganges] Vidura, the best among the Kurus who had come closer to the Infallible One, sat before Maitreya Muni whose knowledge was fathomless and with a perfect respect he from the satisfaction of his transcendence politely asked him questions. (2) Vidura said: 'For the sake of happiness everyone in this world engages in fruitive activities, but by those activities one never becomes happy or finds satisfaction, on the contrary, one rather becomes unhappy that way. Please, oh great one, kindly enlighten us on what would be the right course in which circumstances. (3) The great souls who are of sacrifice wander around for the sake of the Lord of the three worlds, because of their compassion for the common man who turned his face away from Lord Krishna and under the influence of the material world is always unhappy in neglect of his duties to God. (4) Therefore oh greatest among the saints, please instruct me on the path that is favorable for us serving the Supreme Lord perfectly who, residing in the heart of the living beings, awards the unalloyed devotee the knowledge of the basic principles [the Truth] with which one learns the classical wisdom [the Veda]. (5) What does the self-sufficient Supreme Lord and ruler of the three worlds all do when He despite being desireless accepts it to be incarnate in order to arrange the maintenance of the created universe? (6) How can He who withdraws to lie down in the ether and be unconcerned at the basis of the universe as the One Lord of Unification, as the one and only original master then again have an existence in the form of the many different [avatâras]? (7) Why is it that, concerning the pastimes that He for the welfare of the twice-born ones, the cows and the devoted ones displays in the transcendental activities of His different incarnations, our minds never seem to have enough in spite of time and again hearing about the auspicious, nectarean characteristics of the Lord? (8) What are the different principles on the basis of which the Lord of all Lords generated the different rulers and their higher and lower worlds wherein, as known, all classes of beings are differently occupied? (9) And please describe to us, oh chief among the brahmins, how the creator of the universe Nârâyana, the self-sufficient Lord who for mankind is the way, put together all the different forms, engagements and dispersed cultures of the incarnated souls.

Oh fortunate one, from the mouth of Vyâsadeva I repeatedly heard about the higher and lower [nature] of these occupations, but without the nectar of the talks about Krishna I am little satisfied about these matters and the happiness derived from them. (11) Who can get enough of the stories about Him whose feet are the places of pilgrimage and who in society is worshiped by the great devotees? When these stories enter someone's ears they, because of the love they bestow, cut the ties of affection a person has with his family! (12) Your friend sage Krishna Dvaipâyana Vyâsa has described the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Lord in the Mahâbhârata. That book is only there to draw the attention of people who take pleasure in attending to worldly topics towards the stories of the Lord. (13) The weight of that belief gradually brings about indifference for other matters. The one who constantly remembers the Lord His feet has achieved the bliss that without delay vanquishes all miseries. (14) I pity all those ignorant poor people who, in decay with the divinity of Time, in the sinfulness of their pitiable state of ignorance have turned away from the stories about the Lord and waste the length of their lives with useless philosophical exercises, imaginary purposes and a diversity of rituals. (15) Trotes the good fortune [of everyone], please describe for our welfare of all topics the essence: the talks about the Lord that alike the nectar of flowers constitute the glory of all pilgrimaging. (16) Please tell us everything pertaining to the transcendental, superhuman activities accomplished by the Lord in His with all potencies equiped embodiments for the sake of a perfect grip on the maintenance and creation of His universe.'

(17) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus as requested the great sage, His lordship Maitreya, did Vidura for the ultimate welfare of all the honor of giving an exposition [on these matters]. (18) S'rî Maitreya said: 'My blessings, oh good one whose mind is constantly fixed upon the Lord beyond the senses. Your questioning me for the sake of all is proof of the goodness of your mercy to broadcast the glories of the soul in this world. (19) Oh Vidura, I am not surprised that you who accepted the Supreme Personality our Lord, without any deviation of thought have asked me these questions, for you were born from the semen of Vyâsa. (20) Because of a curse of the powerful sage Mândavya Muni you have, from the maidservant of the brother [Vicitravîrya] and the son of Satyavatî [Vyâsadeva], taken birth as the incarnation of Yamarâja, the controller of death [see family tree]. (21) Your goodness is recognized as one of the eternal associates of the Supreme Lord. Upon His return to His abode He ordered me to instruct you in spiritual knowledge. (22) Therefore I shall now give you a systematic description of the pastimes of the Supreme Lord in His control over the enormously extended outer illusion for the sake of the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe.

(23) Prior to the creation of the universe the  Supreme Lord, the Self and master of the living beings, existed as one without a second. It was His wish [then] not to be manifested as [many] individual soul[s], with [each] a vision of his own and outer characteristics. (24) He at the time being nothing of that all, as a seer could not discern anything visible. Free to act to His wishes He, with His inner potency manifested but with His expansions and His material potency not manifested, felt as if He did not exist. (25) That what He as the perfect seer sees is energy characterized by cause and effect. Oh fortunate one, this energy with which the Almighty has built this world is called mâyâ [illusory, bewildering]. (26) With the effect of Eternal Time [kâla] upon the three modes of this illusory energy, the Supreme being, He who essentially is spiritual, generated the virility [the valor, the manliness, the power] by [entering the universe as] the person [as the Purusha]. (27) From the unmanifested then by the interaction of time came about the Mahat-tattva [the complete of the Supreme, the cosmic intelligence]. This physical self that situated in the totality drives away darkness and ignorance is of an understanding nature and capable of creating complete [spiritual] universes. (28) The [sum total of manifestation] which thus constitutes a plenary expansion of guna, kâla and [jîv]-âtmâ, forms the range of sight of the Personality of Godhead. It is the reservoir, the reason for existence, the self, of the many differentiated life forms of this universe that urges on creative effort.

(29) The Mahat-tattva transforming into the material reality of ego consciousness manifests itself in terms of cause, effect and doer.  Thus we have three kinds of ego that constitute a reflection in the mind of [the gunas of] the self, the material elements and sentience: [respectively] brilliance [sattva], ignorance [tamas] and variability [rajas]. (30) With the principle of variability of the ego [vaikârika] a transformation is brought about of the mind that in its emotionality calls for all the God-conscious ones who constitute the basis of the material knowledge concerning the phenomenal world. (31) With the brilliance [taijasâni] of one's sense spiritual knowledge about fruitive activities [karma] dominates. (32) In ignorance [tamas] one arrives at the realization of the subtle sense objects [of imagined sounds and images] of which the ether [their medium] constitutes the representation of the Supersoul. (33) Material energy is a partial mixture of time [the time of expanding and contracting]. The Supreme Lord glancing this over from the ether, thus being contacted created the transformation of that touch in the form of air. (34) The air, also transformed by the extremely powerful ether, gave rise to the form of light and [the bio-electricity] of sense perception by which the world is seen. (35) From the interaction of the air and its bio-electricity with the glance of the Lord [of the ether] there was by the mixture of time a transformation of the material energy that created the taste [for life] in water. (36) The electrified water thus created due to the transformation of the Supreme Spirit [of the ether] glancing over the earth, led to the creation of the quality of smell with the partly uniting of the external energy with eternal time.

(37) Oh gentle one, understand that from the ether onwards, all the material elements and the great number of their superior and inferior qualities, [owe their existence to] the finishing touch of the Supreme. (38) The gods ruling over all these material elements are all part and parcel of Lord Vishnu. Embodied in the time-bound energy as partial aspects they fail in their personal duties and express their honest feelings for the Lord. (39) The gods said: 'Our obeisances at Your lotus feet oh Lord, in distress we surrendered to them because they are the protecting umbrella that offers all the great sages shelter who vigorously fully put behind themselves all the great miseries of material life. (40) Oh Father, because of the fact that in this material world oh Lord, the individual souls are always embarrassed by the three miseries [born from oneself, others and nature] they are never happy, but attaining Your self oh Supreme Personality, they obtain the shelter of the shade of Your lotus feet and the knowledge. (41) At every step taking to the shelter of the place of pilgrimage of Your feet, the great sages, who on the wings of the Vedic hymns with a clear mind search for Your lotus like face, find their shelter at the best of rivers [the Ganges] that liberates from the reactions to sin. (42) The meditation that with belief, simply hearing and devotion cleanses the heart with the strength of the knowledge of detachment, obliges those who found the peace to head for the sanctuary of Your lotus feet. (43) Let us all seek the shelter of the lotus feet of You who assumed the forms of the avatâras for the sake of the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe. Oh Lord, they constitute the refuge that awards the courage of the devotees with remembrance. (44) Because the people get entangled and are thus of the material body in the mind of 'I' and 'mine', they are immersed in an undesirable eagerness and see themselves far removed from You, even though You are present in their bodies. Let us therefore worship Your lotus feet, oh Lord. (45) They [Your feet] cannot be seen by those who, under the influence of the material world, by their sense perception became alienated from the internal vision oh Supreme One. But oh Greatness, for those who do have the [inner] vison there are the pastimes of Your divine activities. (46) Oh Lord, those who are seriously committed simply by drinking the nectar of the talks attain the full maturity of devotional service, the true meaning of renunciation, the intelligence in which one quickly achieves the spiritual sphere where foolishness and indolence have ended [Vaikunthha]. (47) For others of  transcendental realization in the yoga in which one conquers the very powerful material world, You are also the one, pacifying Original Person whom they enter. But while it for them is a thing hard to accomplish that is not the case for the ones who serve You. (48) Oh Original Lord, we are therefore much obliged. Since we for the sake of the creation of the world one after the other were created and in the past were  separated as a consequence of what we did according to the three modes of nature, we were caught in the network of our own pleasures and failed to stand united in Your service. (49) Oh Unborn One, direct us in making our offerings at the right time whereby we can share our meals and also all other living beings can have their sustenance so that we with our offerings of food can eat without disturbance. (50) Oh Lord, You are of us the gods, the God-conscious and our orders, the one unique original primal person. You oh Lord are, although You are unborn, for the material energy the cause of the gunas and the karma, alike the seed that is sown for begetting the species. (51) Oh Supreme Soul, tell us what we, who were all created from and for the totality of the cosmos, should do for You and specifically grant us the vision of Your personal plan. Please grant us the ability oh Lord, to work and act according to Your special mercy with us [the status-orientations and their transcendence].'

Chapter 6: Manifestation of the Universal Form

(1) The wise [Maitreya] said: 'Thus the Lord was faced with the fact that the progress of what was created in the universe was suspended because of a lack of coherence between His potencies [see 3.5: 48]. (2) At that time He simultaneously with His supremely powerful potency that is known as Kâlî, the goddess of the power to destroy, entered all the twenty-three elements [the five elements and their qualities, the five organs of action and the senses and the three forms of individual consciousness: mind, intelligence and ego; compare 2.4: 23]. (3) That entering later on of the Supreme Lord in the form of the force of matter, Kâlî, separately engaged all the living beings in labor by awakening them from their unconscious state to their karma. (4) When the twenty-three principal ingredients thus by the will of God were roused to [coherent] action, their combination led to the manifestation of His plenary expansion of the Original Person [in the appearance of the Universal Form]. (5) The moment He thus entered there with His plenary expansion [of the material power], all the elements of creation that thus found each other therein transformed into the worlds of organic and anorganic existence. (6) He, the Original Person, this [Garbhodakas'âyî] Vishnu called Hiranmaya, for a thousand celestial years [one such year is a 360 years to man] resided together with all that belonged to his goodness within the egg-shaped universe supported by the [causal] waters.

(7) With the content of that egg, the complete of the gigantic person being put to work by His divine Self filled with His [female] power, He thus divided Himself into one [consciousness], three [identifications of the self] and ten [activities]. (8) This unlimited expanse is the self of the living entities, the first incarnation and plenary portion of the Supersoul, whereupon the aggregate of all of them flourishes. (9) The threefold of the gigantic form pertains to the three aspects of âdhtmika [the self with its senses and mind], âdhidaivika [nature and all her gods] and âdhibhautika [the others and what more appears to the senses], the tenfold relates to the [organs of the] life force [or prâna: hands, feet, anus, the genitals, eyes, nose, ears, tongue, skin and mouth; see brahma sûtra 2.4: 5-6] and the oneness refers to the heart. (10) The Lord beyond the senses recalling the prayer of the deities of the universe by His own radiance [thus] illumined the gigantic form for their understanding. (11) Now listen to my description of the many different ways of the demigods who then manifested as a consequence of His consideration.

(12) A mouth manifested and with that happening it was the god of fire who among the directors of the material world took his position along with his power, the organ of speech with which one utters words. (13) A palate appeared. It was the abode of Varuna [the god presiding over the waters] who in [the body of] the Lord among the directors of the material world took his position along with his power: the organ of the tongue with which one tastes. (14) Next the nostrils appeared where the two As'vinî Kumâras have their position with the sense of smell with which one perceives odors [see also 2.1: 29 and 2.5: 30]. (15) Eyes appeared in the gigantic body which offered a position to Tvashthâ, the director of light and the power of sight by which forms can be seen. (16) Then the skin of the gigantic form manifested, a position taken by Anila, the director of the air with the power of breath which enables the experience of touch. (17) With the manifestation of the ears of the gigantic form that position was occupied by the deities of the directions [the Digdevatâs] with the power of hearing by which sounds are perceived. (18) Thereafter the [hair of the] skin of the gigantic body manifested for the divinity of the [herbs and plants with] the power to feel by means of the hairs with which itching feelings  are experienced. (19) When the genitals of the gigantic form appeared the first one [Brahmâ, the Prajâpati] took his position with the function of semen with which the pleasure [of sex] is experienced. (20) An anus formed in the original embodiment offering a position taken by the god Mitra with the function of evacuation with which one defecates. (21) With the manifestation of the hands of the Universal Form the king of heaven Indra took his position with the ability to handle matters with which one makes one's living. (22) The legs of the Universal Form that manifested were occupied by Vishnu, the godhead of the power of locomotion by which one reaches one's destination. (23) When the intelligence of the Universal Form manifested de ruling godhead Brahmâ, the Lord of the spoken word, found his position with the power of insight with which one arrives at understanding. (24) Next the heart of the Universal Being manifested in which Candra, the god of the moon took his position with the function of mental activity because of which one is lost in thoughts. (25) What next came about in the Universal Form was the I-awareness in which the identification with the body [the 'false ego'] took its position [under the rule of  Lord Rudra] with the function of karma by which one engages in concrete activities. (26) What followed was the manifestation of the spiritual essence of goodness in the gigantic body in which the complete[ness, of the mahat-tattva] found its place with the power of consciousness by means of which one cultivates wisdom.

(27) From the head of the Universal Form the heavenly worlds manifested, the earthly places originated from His legs and the sky rose from His abdomen. In those areas the enlightened souls and other living beings are found who evolved as a result of the operation of the three modes of nature. (28) By the infinite mode of goodness [of sattva] the gods found their place in the heavens whereas all the human beings who on earth live by the nature of their passion [rajas] are subordinate to them. (29) Those of the third kind are as the associates of Rudra because of their nature [of tamas] found in the region of the atmosphere - the navel of the Lord - situated in between the other two.

(30) Spiritual wisdom, generated from the mouth of the Universal Form, oh chief of the Kuru dynasty. Those who are inclined to this wisdom became the leading order [the chief varna] of society. They, the brahmins, are the recognized teachers and spiritual spokesmen [the gurus]. (31) The power to protect the citizens manifested from the arms [of the gigantic body]. They who exercise that power [the kshatriyas or rulers] are the followers [of the brahmins] and deliver, as representatives of the Supreme Personality, the other classes from the vice of disturbing societal elements. (32) For the production and distribution of the means of livelihood the mercantile community [the vais'yas], whose occupation it is to take charge of provisioning all man, generated from the thighs of the Almighty. (33) From the legs of the Supreme Lord the service manifested which is of prime importance to the fulfillment of all sacred duties. It is traditionally the profession of the laborer [the s'ûdra] by which the Lord is satisfied [*]. (34) In order to purify their soul all the classes in society under the lead of their spiritual teachers with faith and devotion by means of their occupational duties worship the Lord from whom they generated along with their duties.

(35) Who can estimate, oh Vidura, the totality of this form of the divine operating Self of the Supreme Lord that manifested by the strength of the deluding material oneness [of His internal potency, yogamâyâ]? (36) Oh brother, nevertheless I will give a description as far as my intelligence permits and my knowledge allows of what I heard about the glories of the Lord that purify, for without speaking up [about Him] we wander off in untruth. (37) One says that the One Beyond Compare is attained by discussions about the Supreme Personality that were piously handed down through history for the glorification of His activities. Also the ear is served best by the nectar of the transcendental message as prepared [in writing] by the learned. (38) My dear son, were the Glories of the Supreme Soul known by the original poet [Brahmâ] after his intelligence for a thousand celestial years had matured in meditation? (39) Therefore, when even those skilled in creating illusions have no knowledge because they - as also the one self-satisfied [Creator] personally - are under the spell of the bewildering potencies of the Supreme Lord, then what may one expect from others? (40) Him out of our reach intangible for our ego, mind and words as also for the respective gods, we offer our obeisances.'

*: S'astri Gosvâmî in this context remarks that the laborer, the s'ûdra, occupies an important place among the classes in society. Of the four purushârthas, the civil virtues, the brahmin stands for moksha, or liberation. The kshatriya is there for the regulation of sense gratification, kâma, and the vais'ya is there for the purpose of distributing the welfare, artha. But the laborer in fact makes possible the practice of religiosity, the service to God, of all the other occupational duties. He who simply serves, is just as important for the dharma.

Chapter 7: Further Inquiries by Vidura

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus speaking with Maitreya Muni, the learned son of Dvaipâyana Vyâsa, Vidura, respectfully expressed a request. (2) Vidura said: 'Oh brahmin,  the Supreme Lord is the unchangeable one of the complete whole. How can despite Him being outside of the modes His pastimes take place of acting with the modes of nature? (3) Boys who want to play with other boys are enthused in the matter of playing, but in what respect is that different with someone who is self-satisfied and at all times detached? (4) The creation of this universe was caused by the deluding potency of the Lord Himself that engaged the three modes of nature. And through her He also maintains and destroys the universe. (5) How can He, the Pure Self whose consciousness is never obscured by time or circumstance, or because of Himself, of others or because of what manifested [as nature], [be situated in the normal position of a living entity and] be associated with nescience? (6) How can the one Supreme Lord who is present in every range of the lives [in all kshetras] of all living beings [see also B.G. 13: 3] run into any karmically settled misfortune or obstruction? (7) Oh learned one, because of the ignorance I suffer from, my mind gives me trouble. Therefore, oh great one, please drive away the great impurity of my mind.'

(8) S'rî S'uka said: 'The sage this way urged on by Vidura in his anxiety to find out about the reality, acted surprised and then without hesitation gave a God-conscious reply. (9) Maitreya said: 'It is contradictory to say that the Fortunate One is subject to material illusion on the one hand and that He is free from imperfections and bondage on the other hand. (10) Because of such a contradiction about the soul a person loses his way, which works like from the outside looking at oneself with one's head cut off. (11) The way by the quality of water the moon reflected in it is trembling, the quality of the body offers an illusory image to the seer who differs from it. (12) In this earthly existence that [illusion] gradually diminishes when one, in relation to the Fortunate One being united in devotion [in bhakti-yoga], by the mercy of Vâsudeva engages in detachment. (13) When the senses in the transcendence unto the Lord have turned away in the direction of the seer who is the soul, the miseries are completely vanquished as if one has enjoyed sound sleep. (14) For those who feel attracted to serve in the dust of His lotus feet it thus goes without saying that all misery finds its end by repeatedly speaking about and hearing of the qualities of Murâri, Krishna the slayer of Mura.'

(15) Vidura said: 'Oh powerful sage, now that you've cut down my doubts with the weapon of your convincing words, oh lord of opulences, my mind concerning the two [of God and the living being] has arrived at a perfect union. (16) Oh learned one, you're perfectly right in stating that [reasoning from] the deluding energy of the Lord is not the path for the soul to follow; it proves itself as meaningless when one goes without the basis of the Supreme source apart from which one misses the point. (17) In this world the ignorant fool as also he whose intelligence has returned to the transcendental position enjoys happiness, whereas persons positioned in between these two have to suffer. (18) Now that I have the insight and am convinced of the fact that one abiding by outer appearances misses the essence,  misses the soul, I with the serving of your feet am able to forsake [the wrong notion that the Supreme One would be subject to illusion]. (19) In serving the immutable Personality of Godhead who is the enemy of the demon Madhu, one develops in different relationships [or râsas] with the lotus feet [step by step] the intensity that vanquishes distress. (20) Those who are of little austerity are rarely seen on the path of service towards the Kingdom of God [Vaikunthha] where the Lord  is always glorified by the gods as the controller of all living beings.

(21) After the creation of first the complete of the material energy, in a gradual process of differentiation [evolution] the universal form manifested along with its senses and organs in which later on the Almighty One entered [for His incarnations]. (22) He who is called the original person has thousands of limbs, legs and hands and is home to all the worlds of the universe with all the life that has its existence on them. (23) You explained how there are three kinds of life [to the modes] in which one has ten kinds of life-force with the [five] senses and their [fivefold] interest. Please describe now to me what the specific powers of the societal divisions are. (24) In these [divisions] that prowess has, with the sons, grandsons and family members of the different generations, spread itself in the different forms of existence. (25) Who are the original progenitors [the Prajâpatis] evolved by their original leader [Brahmâ]? What are the generations of these fathers of mankind and what generations followed them? And what Manus ruled over the different manvantaras [cultural periods]? (26) What worlds are there above and below the earthly worlds, oh son of Mitrâ? Please describe what their positions and sizes are as also the measures and proportions of the earthly worlds. (27) Tell me what the generations and subdivisions are of the infrahuman, human and superhuman living beings the way they are born from eggs, wombs, from moisture [micro-organisms] and from earth [de plants]. (28) Kindly describe the incarnations according to the modes of nature for the sake of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the universe [Brahmâ, Vishnu and S'iva] as also the magnanimous activities of the Personality of Godhead living with the Goddess of Fortune [S'rînivâsa] who constitutes the ultimate shelter.

(29) What are the divisions of societal status [varna] and spiritual order [âs'rama] and what are their features, how do they behave and what is their character? What are the birth and activities of the sages and what are the divisions of the Veda? (30) What oh master are all the ceremonies of sacrificing and what are the different ways of the yoga perfections, of the analytical study of knowledge and of relating to the Personality of God with regulative principles? (31) What are the ways followed by the faithless and what are their shortcomings? What is the situation of those who stem from mixed marriages and what is the destiny of life of the many types of individual souls according to the modes they follow and the kinds of labor they perform? (32) How can the different interests of religiosity, economic development, sense-gratification and salvation, the different means of livelihood, the codes of law, the scriptural injunctions and the different regulative principles be balanced? (33) Oh brahmin, how are the periodical offerings [of S'râddha] regulated to honor the deceased and to respect what the forefathers have created and how are the times settled in respect of the positions of luminaries like the planets and the stars? (34) What may one expect from charity, penance and the endeavoring for reservoirs of water and how are the duties described for someone away from home and for a man in danger? (35) Please describe to me oh sinless one, how He, the Supreme Person, the Father of  Religion and Controller of All, can be satisfied completely and who of us could do that? (36) Oh best among the brahmins, the spiritual masters who are so kind to the needy tell their devoted disciples and sons even what they did not ask for. (37) Oh supreme master, how many dissolutions [or end times] are there for the elements of nature? Who are they who are saved then and who are they who [being of praise] may serve Him? And who may merge with Him when He goes asleep? (38)  And what is the nature and identity of the individual person and of the Supreme, what is the leading motive of the Vedic wisdom and what moves the guru and his disciples? (39) Spotless devotees speak of this source of knowledge in the world. How would someone on his own accord have knowledge of devotional service and detachment?

(40) All these questions I have asked in my desire to know about the pastimes of the Lord. Please answer them as a friend to me [and everyone else] who in his ignorance lost his vision with the external energy. (41) Oh spotless sage, the assurance of an existence free from fear one obtains from someone like you cannot in any way be compared to the liberation offered by all the Vedas, sacrifices, penances and charity.'

(42) S'rî S'uka said: 'He [Maitreya], the chief among the sages so well versed in the stories [Purânas], was most delighted to hear these questions posed by the chief of the Kurus and thus being urged to the topics about the Supreme Lord, he with a smile gave Vidura his reply.'

Chapter 8: Manifestation of Brahmâ from Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu

(1) S'rî Maitreya said: 'The descendants of King Pûru deserve it to be honored because their kings are chiefly devoted to the Supreme Personality; and with you who are also born in this chain of devotional activity in respect of the Invincible One, there is step by step [with every question you ask] constantly new light shed on this subject matter. (2) Let me therefore now discuss this Bhâgavatam, this Vedic supplement which originally by the Supreme Lord in person was spoken to the wise for the mitigation of the great distress of the human beings who experience so little happiness.

(3) The son of Brahmâ [Sanat-kumâra] as the leader of the great sages [the four boy-saints, the Kumâras], just like you inquired after the truth concerning the Original Personality with Lord Sankarshana [the first plenary portion and companion of the Lord] who undeterred in His knowledge resides at the basis of the universe. (4) He in that position with Him whom one in great esteem calls Vâsudeva had turned His vision inwards, but to encourage the highly learned sages He forthwith slightly opened His lotus like eyes. (5) With the hairs on their heads wet from the water of the Ganges they touched the shelter of His lotus feet that is worshiped by the daughters of the serpent-king with great devotion and various paraphernalia in the desire for a good husband. (6) Known with His pastimes they with words and great affection in rhythmic accord repeatedly glorified the activities while from the thousands of raised hoods [of Ananta, the serpent king] the glowing effulgence emanated of the valuable stones upon their thousands of helmets. (7) Oh Vidura one says that He then discussed the purport of the Bhâgavatam with Sanat-kumâra who had taken the [yoga] vow of renunciation and, as was requested, passed it on to Sânkhyâyana who had also taken the vow. (8) When the great sage Sânkhyâyana as the chief of the transcendentalists reciting this Bhâgavatam [thereafter] expounded on it, the spiritual master Parâs'ara whom I followed as also Brihaspati were present. (9) Urged on by sage Pulastya he [Parâs'ara] kindheartedly told me this finest one of the Purânas which I on my turn will relate to you, my dear son, for you are an ever faithfull follower.

(10) At the time the three worlds were submerged in the waters He [Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu] was lying down there with almost closed eyes upon the snake bed Ananta desiring nothing more but the satisfaction of His internal potency. (11) The way the power of fire is hidden in wood He resided there in the water keeping all that existed in the subtle of His transcendental body from where He gives life in the form of Time [kâla]. (12) For the duration of thousand times four yugas [4.32 billion years] He lay asleep with His internal potency for the sake of the further development - by means of His force called kâla [time] - of the worlds of the living beings who depend on fruitive activities. That role gave His body a bluish look [the blue of the refuge of the vivifying water]. (13) In accordance with the purpose of His internal attention for the subtle subject matter, there was in due course of time because of the material activity of the modes of nature, the agitation [of the primal substance] that then most subtly broke forth from His abdomen [from the ether]. (14) With the Time that roused the karma into activity, soon from the original self [of Vishnu] with that [agitation] a lotus bud appeared that just like a sun illumined the vast waters with its effulgence.

(15) That lotus flower of  factually the universe was entered by Vishnu in person as the reservoir of all qualities from which, so one says, He in the beginning generated the personality of Vedic wisdom, the controller of the universe who is the self-born one [Brahmâ]. (16) [Brahmâ] in that water situated on the whorl of the lotus could not discern the world and spying all around in the four directions he thus received his four heads. (17) [Brahmâ] seated upon and sheltered by the lotus flower that because of the stormy sky at the end of the yuga had appeared from the restless waters, could in his bewilderment not fathom the mystery of creation nor understand that he was the first demigod. (18) 'Who am I, seated on top of this lotus? Wherefrom has it originated? There must be something in the water below. Being present here implies the existence of that from which it sprouted!' (19) This way contemplating the stem of the lotus, he by following that channel in the water towards the navel [of Vishnu], despite his entering there and extensively thinking about its origin, could not understand the foundation. (20) Groping in the dark oh Vidura, with his contemplating this way, it thus came to pass that the enormity of the three-dimensional of time [tri-kâlika] came about which as a weapon [a cakra] inspires fear in the embodied, unborn soul by limiting his span of life to a hundred years [compare 2.2: 24-25].

(21) When he failed to achieve the object of his desire the godhead gave up the endeavor and seated himself upon the lotus again to control with confidence step by step his breath, withdraw his mind and unify his consciousness in meditation. (22) [Thus] practicing yoga for the duration of his life the unborn one in due course of time developed the understanding and saw how in his heart out of its own that manifested what he could not see before. (23) On the bed of the completely white gigantic S'esha-nâga [snake] lotus flower the Original Person was lying all alone under the umbrella of the serpent hood that was bedecked with head jewels by the glow of which the darkness in the water of devastation was dissipated. (24) The panorama of His hands, legs, jewels, flower garland and dress derided the green coral of the evening splendor of the sun over the great, golden mountain summits with their waterfalls and herbs, flowers and trees. (25) With the beauty of the divine radiance of the ornaments that dressed His body, the length and width of the measurement of His transcendental presence covered the totality of the three worlds with all their variety.

(26) According to the desire of the human being who in worship of the lotus feet - that reward with all what is longed for - follows the path of devotional service, He in His causeless mercy showing the moonlike shine of His toe- and fingernails thus revealed the most beautiful [flowerlike] division. (27) With the expression of His face acknowledging the merit of each, He vanquishes the worldly distress with the bedazzlement of His smiles, the decoration of His earrings, the rays reflected from His lips and the beauty of His nose and eyebrows. (28) Dear Vidura, the waist was well decorated with a belt and cloth with the saffron color of kadamba flowers, there was a priceless necklace and on the chest there was the attractive S'rîvatsa mark [a few white hairs]. (29) The way trees in the world have their separate existence and with their thousands of branches spread their high value [of flowers and fruits] as if they're ornamented with precious jewels, so too the Lord, the ruler of Ananta, [Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu] is ornamented with the hoods above His shoulders. (30) The Supreme Lord as a mountain surrounded by water is the abode for all beings mobile and immobile and as the friend of Anantadeva with his thousands of golden helmets [and jewels], He with His Kaustubha jewel manifests Himself thereto as a mountain range of gold in the ocean. (31) [Brahmâ found that] surrounded by the flower garland of His personal glories in the form of the sweet, beautiful sounds of Vedic wisdom, the Lord of the sun, the moon, the air and fire was most difficult to reach because He, fighting for the duty, wandered around in the three worlds. (32) Thus it happened that the godhead of the universe, the creator of destiny, could behold His navel, the lake, the lotus flower, the  waters of destruction, the air with its winds and the sky, but could not glance beyond the created reality of the cosmic manifestation. (33) With the reach of that vision he as the seed of all worldly activities was invigorated by the mode of passion, and thus, considering the living beings eagerly procreating, prayed to create in service of the worshipable One of transcendence on the path of the steadfast soul.'

Chapter 9: Brahmâ's Prayers for Creative Energy

(1) Brahmâ said: 'Today, after a long time [of penance], I have come to know You and can say that it is really a shame for embodied beings not to have knowledge of Your ways as the Supreme Lord. There is none beyond You, oh my Lord, and anything that appears to be so can never be the absolute, for You are [the transcendence of] the greater reality to the modes of the material energy that lost its equilibrium. (2) That [greater] form is always free from the darkness of matter because You in the beginning for the sake of the devotees manifested Your inner potency, the potency that is the source of the hundreds of avatâras and from which I also found my existence upon the lotus flower sprouting from Your navel. (3) Oh my Lord, beyond this [source] I see no other superior to Your eternal form full of bliss that is free from change and deterioration of potency. You are the one and only Creator of the cosmic manifestation and the nonmaterial Supreme Soul itself. I who take pride in the identification with the body and senses am surrendered to You. (4) That form, or however You make Your presence, is all-auspicious for the entire universe and beneficial to our meditation, and You, Supreme Lord who have manifested Yourself to us devotees, I offer my obeisances. For You I perform that what is neglected by persons who head straight for hell in their appetite for material matters. (5) But those who hold on to the flavor and smell of Your lotus feet that is carried by the sounds of the Veda that reaches their ears, accepted by their devotional service Your transcendental course. For those who are Your devotees there is never the separation from You [installed] on the lotus of their hearts oh Lord. (6) Till that is the case there will be fear because of the wealth, the body and the relatives, and the lamentation and desire as also the avarice and contempt will be great. Until that time, as long as the people of the world do not take to the shelter of the security of Your lotus feet one will, undertaking according to the perishable notion of owning things, be full of anxieties. (7) How unfortunate are they who are bereft of the memory of Your topics! Tied down by inauspiciousness and bereft of good sense, they act to their desires finding happiness for only a brief moment. They are poor fellows whose minds are overwhelmed by greed and whose activities are full of stress. (8) Their always being troubled by [neurotic] hunger, thirst and their three humors [mucus, bile and wind], winter and summer, wind and rain and many other disturbances as also by a strong sex drive and inescapable anger, I consider all together as spiritually most unbearable, oh Man of the Great Strides. It aggrieves me a lot. (9) As long as a person under the influence of the material illusion is a servant of his senses and is faced with an existence of being separated in a body oh Fortunate One, such a one oh Lord, will not be able to overcome the cycle of repeated births in the material world. Even though working for outer results carries no factual meaning [to the soul], it will bring him endless miseries. (10) During the day they are engaged in stressful labor and at night they suffer insomnia because of their ruminations that constantly disturb their intelligence and sleep. The divine order frustrates their plans and also those sages oh my Lord, who turned against Your topics, will have to keep wandering around in this world. (11) Directed at You for a hundred percent united in devotion, with You residing on the lotus of their hearts, the devotees who are on the path of listening oh my Lord, see how You, in the here and now, in Your causeless mercy exactly manifest that transcendental form they had in mind of You who are glorified by so many. (12) You are never that much pleased by pompous arrangements with a lot of paraphernalia of high-class servants who are of worship with hearts full of all kinds of desires. For You, the variously perceived Unique and Only Well-wisher, the Supersoul within the living entities, are there to show all living entities Your causeless mercy and cannot be achieved by those who settle for what is man-made and temporal [asat]. (13) The correct, infallible course [the dharma] to be fixed upon is therefore the people's worship which, with different fruitive activities, charities, difficult penances and transcendental service, is performed for simply pleasing You, the Fortunate One.

(14) Let me offer my obeisances to You, the Supreme One who always by the glories of His transcendental form distinguishes Himself in enjoying the pastimes of His cosmic creation, maintenance and destruction. Unto You, the Transcendence whom one realizes by intelligently dealing with the illusory diversity, I offer my obeisances. (15) I take refuge in the Unborn One whose names representing His incarnations, transcendental qualities and activities open the way to immortality. When they, even unconsciously, are invoked the moment one leaves this life they immediately remove the accumulated sins of many, many lives so that one attains Him. (16) He, the Almighty Personality, who for reasons of maintenance, creation and dissolution penetrates [this world] with three trunks - I,  S'iva and Himself - grew rooting in the soul as the one and only to the many branches [of religion]. Him, the Personality of Godhead, this tree of the planetary systems, I offer my obeisances. (17) As long as the people of the world are engaged in unwanted activities and in the activities of their self-interest despise the by You as beneficial pronounced devotional activities, the struggle for existence of these people will be very tough and under Your Vigilant Rule [of Time] lead straight to a shambles. Let there be my obeisances unto You. (18)  Even I existing in a place that lasts for two parârdhas [2 x 50 years, with one day and night being two times 4.32 billion earthly years: 311.04 trillion years], being respected in all the worlds and having undergone severe penances for many years for my self-realization, fear You. To You I offer my respectful obeisances my Lord, oh Supreme Personality and enjoyer of all sacrifices. (19) Desiring to fulfill Your obligations You manifest Your transcendental pastimes by the grace of Your will projecting Yourself in the different life forms of the animals, human beings and gods. In spite of appearing in Your divine form you are never under the influence of the material energy. I offer my obeisances to that Lord of the Opulences, the Supreme Personality. (20) And also the ignorance [avidya] that is known in five ways [see further 3.12: 2] does not affect You. On the contrary, You are as kind amidst the violent series of waves in the waters lying on the snake bed to be in touch [with Ananta S'esha] and to slumber carrying all the worlds in Your abdomen for the sake of their maintenance. And with that You show the [intelligent] human being Your happiness. (21) Him by the power of whom I, from the lotus house sprouting from the navel, manifested to assist, by His grace, Him, the worshipable one, in the creation of the three worlds; He who has the universe in His abdomen and whose eyes after the end of His yogic slumber are blossoming like lotuses, I offer my obeisances.

(22) May He, the Lord of all universes, the one friend and philosopher, the Supersoul who by the mode of goodness as the Supreme Lord of the six opulences [beauty, intelligence, penance, power, fame and wealth] brings happiness, grant me the power of introspection so that I will be able to create as before this universe as a surrendered soul dear to Him. (23) To this benefactor of the surrendered soul, who enjoys with the Goddess of Fortune [Lakshmî] whatever He may enact from His internal potency with accepting His incarnations of goodness, I pray that I gifted with His omnipotency may be of service and that I, in spite of the material affection of my heart, will also be able to stop with it. (24) I pray that I, who as the energy of the total universe was born from the lake of the Supreme Person His navel for the sake of the manifestation of the variegatedness of His unlimited power, may not suffer the misfortune of losing sight of the sound vibrations of the Vedic truth. (25) And may He, the Supreme Lord who is of an endless mercy in His ultimate love and smiles, open His lotus eyes so that the cosmic creation may flourish and find the glory when He with His sweet words as the oldest and Original Person takes away our dejection.'

(26) Maitreya said: 'After he thus, in having observed the source of His appearance, with penance, full of knowledge and a focussed mind, to the best of his ability had given thought to the words of his prayer, he fell silent like being tired. (27-28) When Madhusûdana [Krishna as the killer of Madhu] saw the sincerity of Brahmâ and how depressed he was about the devastating waters of the age and at a loss about the different positions of the worlds, He in deep thoughtful words addressed him in order to remove his anxiety.

(29) The Supreme Lord said: 'You who have the depth of all Vedic wisdom, do not despair about the endeavor of creation. What you have set yourself to and pray for, I have arranged already. (30) To be sure of My support you must as before have to be of penance and serve the principles of knowledge. By these qualities you will see all the worlds laid open within your heart, oh brahmin. (31) Thereafter, when you connected in devotion are fully absorbed in the universe, you will see Me spread throughout oh Brahmâ and that you including all the worlds and the beings, are part of Me. (32) When you see Me in all living entities and in the universe like fire present in wood, you without doubt that very instant will be able to leave the weakness behind. (33) As soon as you are free from the gross and subtle self and your senses are no longer controlled by the modes of nature, you will, in approaching Me, see your pure essence [svarûpa] and enjoy the kingdom of heaven. (34) With your desire to expand the varieties of service and increase the population innumerably, your soul will never be saddened in this matter because My mercy is unbounded. (35) You are the original sage; the vicious mode of passion will never encroach upon you because, despite the fact that you generate progeny, your mind will always be compacted in Me. (36) Even though I for the conditioned soul am difficult to know, I today am known by you because you understand Me as not being a product of matter, the senses, the modes or the bewilderment of the self. (37) I showed Myself to you when you, in contemplating the source of the lotus through its stem in the water, tried to figure Me out. (38) Your prayers for Me oh Brahmâ, about My stories and enumerating My glories or about your penance and your faith, you may all consider a result of My causeless mercy. (39) May all benediction rest upon you who in your desire prayed for the victory of all the worlds by describing so nicely My qualities and transcendental position. I am most pleased by you. (40) Anyone who regularly prays these verses as stated will by his worship very soon see all his desires fulfilled, for I am the Lord of all benediction. (41) By means of good works, penances, sacrifices, charities and absorption in yoga satisfying Me, the human being will find his ultimate success so is the opinion of those who know the Absolute Truth. (42) Because I am the Supersoul, the director of all other souls and the dearest one of all that is dear, one should make sure to dedicate all one's attachment to Me, for the love one has for one's body and other things is there on account of Me. (43) And now generate with the control of your knowledge of the Veda and with your body, who both directly owe their existence to the [Super]soul, as is customary the lives of all to be devotedly attached to Me.'

(44) Maitreya said: 'After thus having instructed him, the creator of the universe, the primeval, original Lord in His personal Nârâyana form disappeared from sight.'


Chapter 10: Divisions of the Creation

(1) Vidura said: 'How many living beings were by the almighty grandfather of all creatures on this planet created from his body and mind after the disappearance of the Supreme Personality? (2) Be so kind to eradicate all my doubts and describe from the beginning to the end everything I asked you, oh best among the ones of vast knowledge.' "

(3) Sûta said [see Canto 1]: "Oh son of Bhrigu [S'aunaka], the great sage, the son of Kushâra [Maitreya] thus being stimulated by Vidura felt pleased and answered the questions speaking from his heart.

(4) Maitreya said: 'Brahmâ thus for the sake of the soul engaged himself in penance for a hundred celestial years the way the unborn One, the Supreme Lord told him to. (5) He who was born on the lotus, then saw how the lotus upon which he was situated and the water surrounding it were moved by the wind that was propelled by the power of eternal Time. (6) Because of his penance having increased his transcendental knowledge and self-awareness he had matured in practical knowledge, and with that power he took in the wind along with the water. (7) When he saw how widespread the lotus was upon which he was situated he thought to himself: 'I will with this [lotus in these time stirred waters] bring back to life all the worlds who in the past have merged in me.' (8) By the Supreme Lord being encouraged to engage in action, he entered the whirl of the lotus and divided the complete in three main divisions he further distributed over fourteen subdivisions [see also 2.5: 42]. (9) These different circumstances of life of the individual souls, together constitute the consequence of their [more or less] selfless performance of duty in relation to the Supreme Personality.'

(10) Vidura said: 'Discussing the variety of different forms of the Lord, the wonderful actor, you spoke about eternal time as one of His names. Oh brahmin, can you please describe to us how time factually makes its appearance, oh master, what are its characteristics?'

(11) Maitreya said: 'It [Eternal Time] is the source of the different [organic and anorganic] interactions of the modes of nature, it is undivided and unlimited and it is the instrument of the Original Person who through His pastimes created the material life of the soul. (12) Time [kâla] is the hidden, impersonal feature of God by means of which the cosmic creation in the form of material energy was separated from the Supreme Lord as His objective manifestation, as the phenomenal that was established by Vishnu's bewildering potency. (13) The way it [Eternal Time] is there in the present, it was there in the beginning and will be there hereafter.

(14) The conditioning [or creation] that took place because of it is divided in nine according to its material modifications [or modes: passion, goodness and ignorance],  according to the material qualities of eternal time [movement, knowledge and inertia], and depending its three types of dissolution [with time: the ending of humans, of animals and of the inertial realm of plants and the rest of the universe]. (15) The first one [the mahat-tattva, of the goodness] is the complete of the creation that emanated from the Lord with the three modes in interaction. The second one [of passion] is the I-awareness [or ego] from which proceeded material objects, material characteristics and material activities. (16) The third type of creation is that what was created as a mixture of matter [of ignorance] and [in the form of living beings] is of sense perception. Fourth there are the goods to the senses that constitute the practical basis of material knowledge. (17) The interaction [the movement] to the mode of goodness and the consequent mind results in the deities [ruling the senses] who constitute the fifth kind of creation. Sixth there is the darkness of creation [the slowness of matter] that turns masters into fools. (18) These are the six primary material creations. Now hear from me about the three secondary creations [of plant, animal and man] produced by the almighty incarnation of passion [Brahmâ] who is the intelligence of the Lord.

(19) The seventh main division of creation concerns the six kinds of beings who do not move around: trees bearing fruit without flowers, plants and bushes that exist until the fruit has ripened, the creepers, the pipe-plants, creepers without support and fruit trees that blossom. (20) These beings who seek their sustenance upwards, are practically unconscious with only an inner feeling and are of many varieties. (21) The eighth creation concerns the species of lower animals. There are twenty-eight different kinds of them and  they are considered to have no knowledge of their destiny, to be of an extreme ignorance, to discriminate by smell and have a poorly functioning conscience. (22) Oh purest one, the cow, the goat, the buffalo, the antelope, the hog, the gavaya [a type of oxen], the deer, the sheep and the camel all have split hooves. (23) The ass, the horse, the mule, the gaura, the s'arabha-bison and the wild cow have only one toe. Oh Vidura,  just let me tell you now about the animals with five nails. (24) They are the dog, the jackal, the fox, the tiger, the cat, the rabbit, the sajâru-porcupine, the lion, the monkey, the elephant, the tortoise, the iguana ['four legged snake'], the alligator and such. (25) The heron, the vulture, the crane, the hawk, the bhâsa [another kind of vulture], the bhallûka, the peacock, the swan, the sârasa [indian crane], the cakravâka, the crow, the owl and more of them are the birds. (26) The ninth kind that [also] fills its belly, oh Vidura, is of one species: the humans. In them the mode of passion is very prominent. They are very busy to [diminish] their misery but always consider themselves happy.

(27) These three secondary creations including the creation of the demigods [as an extra category] my dear one, are contrary to the other ones [of the modes and the qualities] I described, subjected to modifications [to mutation or evolution], but the sons of Brahmâ [the brahmins, the Kumâras] are of both [viz. evolving along physically, but they do not change in quality]. (28-29) The creation of the demigods is of eight kinds: (1) the self-realized souls, (2) the forefathers, (3) the atheists, (4) the celestial beings, angels and the saints, (5) the protectors and the giants, (6) the celestial singers, (7) the spirits of guidance in what is good and bad and the denizens of heaven and (8) the superhuman beings and such. All the ten types of creation I described to you, oh Vidura, are created by Brahmâ, the creator of the universe. (30) Next I will explain the different descendants of the Manus and how the Creator, moved by the mode of passion, in the different ages creates with an unfailing determination in respect of the Supreme Lord who, by dint of His own energy, as Himself appeared from Himself.'

Chapter 11: Division of Time Expanding from the Atom

(1) Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of that what shows itself in the manifold as being indivisible, one should know to be the infinitesimal particle [paramânu] whose combination [into material forms] creates illusion in man. (2) The supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of a continual, unrivaled uniformity. (3) And thus time, my best one, can be measured by the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of particles, of which the Supreme, unmanifest Lord is the great force that controls all physical action. (4) Atomic time is the time taken by an infinitesimal particle in occupying [or vibrating in] a certain atomic space. The greatest of time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.

(5) Two infinitesimal particles constitute an atom [an anu] and three atoms make a trasarenu of which one is reminded by a beam of sunlight falling through a lattice window in which one sees something [a dust-particle] going up in the sky. (6) The time taken by the combination of three trasarenus is called a truthi [calculated as 1/16.875 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha. Three of them are called a single lava. (7) The duration of three lavas equals one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those make a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] and a laghu consists of  fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (8) The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhûrta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a light day or night] depending the human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (9) The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha [17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise. (10) Four yâmas form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâmas each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (11) The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season.  There are six of them [resp. 'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and 'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to the movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky. (12) This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].

(13) The infinitesimal particles and their combinations, the planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the universe, to return in a year in the Almighty [cyclic order] of eternal of time. (14) We speak about an orbit of the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon oh Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently named] year [resp. a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic year, a lunation and a tropical year]. (15) The One [Lord of Time] who differing from all that was created moves by the name of Eternal Time, who by means of His energy in different ways brings to life the seeds of creation and who during the day dissipates the darkness of the living entities, should be offered respect with attention for all His five different types of years, so that one thus with one's offerings brings about quality in one's material existence.'

(16) Vidura said: 'You pointed out the measure of time of the life periods of the elevated living beings of the ancestors, the gods and the human beings. Can you now, oh great sage, give a description of the time periods that cover more than a millennium? (17) Oh mighty one of the Spirit, you know the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of eternal time, for you in the control of your yogic command have the eyes of a self-realized soul to see the entire universe.'

(18) Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali together take approximately 12.000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [comprising 360 vatsaras each]. (19) The subsequent yugas starting with Satya-yuga are each respectively four, three, two and one times 1.200 demigod years long. (20) Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennium we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (21) The complete sense of duty of mankind concerning its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and purity] was during Satya-yuga properly maintained, but in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one [first penance, then compassion, then purity] with an increasing tolerance for irreligion. (22) Next to the one thousand [mahâ-]yugas that, oh dear one, together constitute one day of Brahmâ [of 4.32 billion years] of the external reality of the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones], there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (23) Following the end of the night when another day of Lord Brahmâ begins, the creation of the three worlds that in its totality covers the lives of fourteen Manus, starts all over. (24) Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [mahâ-]yugas.

(25) After the end of each Manu, the next one appears as also simultaneously his descendants, the seven sages, the God-conscious ones and the king of the demigods [Indra] together with all those who follow them. (26)  This is Lord Brahmâ's day to day creation wherein the lower animals, the human beings, the forefathers and the gods wander around in the three worlds because of their karma. (27) With the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations, as the Manu Himself and as others, and thus unfolding His divine potencies He maintains this universe. (28) At the end of the day [of Brahmā] the Almighty Time arrests its manifestation whereupon, with the complete whole fallen in darkness, all living entities remain merged in silence. (29) The sun, the moon and all three worlds have disappeared from sight then, just as it happens during an ordinary night. (30) When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarṣana [see 3.8: 3], then  sage Bhṛgu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [Maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of the godly men [Janaloka, the next world of the celibate saints]. (31) Immediately after the onset of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas will overflow with excessive, violent winds and hurricanes pushing up the waves. (32) Within the water the Lord, who in His mystical slumber with closed eyes lies down on the bed of Ananta, is glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of the God-conscious people.

(33) Thus there is decline in the course of time of these days and nights wherein his [Lord Brahmâ's] life comes to an end. [His life ends in a hundred years] just like it happens with our lives, even though [in his case] it are a hundred of his years [together forming two parârdhas or 2 times 155.5 trillion human years, see also 3.9: 18]. (34) The first half of his lifetime called one parârdha has passed and now in this age we have begun with the second half. (35) The superior first half started with a grand kalpa called the Brâhma-kalpa in which Lord Brahmâ manifested whom one knows as the [source of the] Vedic sounds. (36) Thereafter, at the end of the Brâhma-millennium, the period called the Pâdma-kalpa came into being in which the lotus of the universe sprouted from the Lord His navel. (37) The present kalpa at the beginning of the second half, oh descendant of Bharata, is celebrated as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form of a boar [see also 1.3: 7]. (38) The time measured by the two halves of Brahmâ's life takes but a second for the beginningless, unchanging and unlimited Soul of the universe. (39) This eternal time, beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the controller of the ones identified with their body. (40) As a combination of the basic elements and  their transformations this manifest universe has expanded to a diameter of half a billion [yoyanas - a dynamic cosmic measure]. (41) [The space occupied by the infinitesimal particles of the primal ether, pradhâna] expanded to the tenfold [of the dimensions of the therefrom condensating basic elements and their transformations] that appearing like atoms entered to cluster into many other lower universes [or galaxies]. (42) That cause of all causes [containing all the universes] is said to be the imperishable Absolute Truth, the supreme abode of the direct, personal manifestation of the Supreme Soul: Lord Vishnu.'

See also the page: "S'rîmad Bhâgavatam & Bhagavad Gîtâ Time Quotes".

Chapter 12: Creation of the Kumâras and Others

(1) Maitreya said: 'Thus far I have described to you, oh Vidura, the glories of the Supersoul under the name of kâla, now try to understand from me how the repository of the Vedas [Brahmâ] created the things as they are.

(2) First [from the five types of ignorance] the idea came about that one would die [andha-tâmisra], then indignation [tâmisra], next all the craving of infatuation [mahâ-moha] and then there was the delusional of errors [like identifying oneself with the body etc., moha] as also the darkness of the nescience about one's own engagements [tamas]. (3) Seeing what a troublesome creation it was he [Brahmâ] could not really appreciate what he had done and thus he, after being purified by meditating upon the Supreme Lord, found the mind for another one.  (4) The great self-born one then created Sanaka, Sananda, Sanâtana and Sanat-kumâra [the four Kumâras] who are free from all fruitive action and lifelong celibates ['they whose seed goes upwards']. (5) He from within told his sons: 'Oh my sons, do procreate', but they did not want to, because they in their devotion for the Personality of Godhead were vowed to the principles of liberation. (6) Disrespected by the sons who refused to follow the order, he did his best to check the anger that rose in him. (7) In spite of the original father his meditative control, out of his anger from between his eyebrows instantly a child was born that had a color composed of red [for passion] and blue [for ignorance]. (8) The child cried loudly to the father of all the gods: 'Oh powerful one, oh ruler of destiny, assign me my names and tell me what my places are oh teacher of the universe'.

(9) He as the all-powerful one born from the lotus thus being asked, complied with the request and gently pacified the child with the words: ''Do not cry, I will do what you want. (10)  Because you oh chief of the demigods, as a boy were so anxiously crying loudly, the people will address you with the name Rudra. (11) The heart, the senses, the life air, the ether, the air, fire and water, earth and the sun, the moon as also austerity are the places reserved for you. (12) Your names are: Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahân, S'iva, Ritadhvaja, Ugraretâ, Bhava, Kâla, Vâmadeva and Dhritavrata. (13) Dhî, Dhriti, Rasalâ, Umâ, Niyut, Sarpi, Ilâ, Ambikâ, Irâvatî, Svadhâ and Dîkshâ are, oh Rudra, your eleven wives [the Rudrânîs]. (14) Accept these different names and places and the wives belonging to them and generate progeny with them on a large scale, for you are the master of the living beings.' (15) The one of the mixture of blue and red, he the powerful one thus being instructed by his spiritual master, brought forth the generations who were of the same strength, features and furious nature as he was. (16) But when he saw the activities of the sons generated by Rudra and how their endless numbers together devoured the entire universe, the father of the living beings got afraid. (17) 'Oh best of the demigods, [he said,] you have sufficiently created this kind of living beings. They, with the fiery flames of their eyes, scorch every direction and me also. (18) Be situated in penance, that will do you good and bring happiness to all living entities. Only by doing penance you will be able to bring about the universe the way it was before. (19) Through penance alone a person knows the supreme light and can fully respect the Supreme Lord beyond the senses who resides in the heart of everyone.'

(20) Maitreya said: 'Thus being instructed by the self-born one, he [Rudra] circumambulated the master of the Vedas saying 'So be it' and next entered the forest to do penance. (21) Determined to create he [Brahmâ] who by the Venerable One was empowered with the potency, then begot ten sons in order to populate the world: (22) Marîci, Atri, Angirâ, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vasishthha, Daksha and Nârada as number ten. (23) Nârada sprouted from his lap, Daksha from the thumb, from his life-air Vasishthha saw the light, while Bhrigu came forth from his touch and sage Kratu from his hand. (24) Pulaha generated from the navel, Pulastya from his ears, the great sage Angirâ from the mouth, from the eyes sage Atri came forth and sage Marîci appeared from the mind. (25) From the right side of the breast, where Nârâyana resides, religion manifested while irreligion, because of which the world fears the horrors of death, appeared from his back. (26) From the heart lust manifested, from the eyebrows anger, from between his lips greed, from the mouth the urge to speak originated while from his penis the oceans appeared and from the anus, the reservoir of all vices, the lowest activities. (27) From his shadow Kardama Muni, the husband of Devahûti, manifested. Thus the complete of this living universe of the creator evolved from both the master his body and his mind.

(28) Oh Vidura, we have heard that the daughter Vâk who was born from his body distracted the mind of Brahmâ and made him desirous of her even though she was not sexually inclined. (29) The sons, the sages headed by Marîci, who thus saw that his mind was seized by immorality, with due respect submitted the following: (30) 'That what you are doing now with your daughter without controlling your sexual desire you, nor anyone else, has been doing nor will be doing in the future oh master. (31) Certainly such an attitude does not befit the most powerful one whose good behavior and character, oh master of the universe, is an example that is followed by the world striving for prosperity. (32) Let us offer our obeisances to the Supreme Lord who from within the soul by the power of His own effulgence brought about this manifestation. May His sense of duty protect us all.' (33) Seeing all his sons who thus addressed him standing before him, the father of all fathers of mankind ashamed quitted his body in accepting the blame for the fog everywhere that is known as the darkness. (34) When the creator of all worlds one day wondered how he should create the three worlds the way they were before, the Vedic literature manifested itself from his four mouths. (35) Thus the four functions of [sacrificial] action [the offer, the performer, the fire and the offering] and the supplements of the Veda with their logical conclusions became manifest as also the four principles of religion [truth, purity, austerity and compassion] and the spiritual departments [âs'ramas] and vocational divisions [varnas].'

(36) Vidura said: 'Please, oh wealth of renunciation, can you tell by what mouth which Veda was produced by the god who is the controller of the creators of the universe?'

(37) Maitreya said: 'The four Vedas called Rig, Yajur, Sâma and Atharva appeared, beginning with the front [east, south, west and north], each from one of the mouths and in the same order followed the scriptural discussions [the S'âstra for the Hotâ priest], the rituals [the Ijya for the Adhvaryu priest], the recitation material [the Stutistoma for the Udgâtâ priest] and the  transcendental service of atonement [the Prâyas'citta for the Brahmâ ritvik]. (38) The same way beginning from the front mouth in the eastern direction the Vedic sciences of medicine [Âyurveda], archery [Dhanurveda],  music [Ghandarvaveda] and architecture [Sthâpatyaveda] were created [who together are called the Upavedas]. (39) Also the Itihâsas - the separate histories - and the collections of classical stories, the Purânas, who together are known as the fifth Veda, manifested from the mouths of him who can see in all directions. (40) From his eastern mouth as also from each of the other ones he sent out a pair of sacrifices: sodas'î, uktha [from the east], purîshi, agnishthoma [from the south], âptoryamâ, atirâtra [from the west] and vâjapeya and gosava [from the north]. (41) Education [vidyâ, also called purity through knowledge or s'auca], charity [dâna], penance [tapas] and truth [satya] are the four legs of religion that were created to the same number of orders of life [students, married people, withdrawn people and the renunciates] and vocations [the laborers, the traders, the rulers and the intellectuals]. (42) Next the vows appeared [for regulating the brahmacârî, the celibate student] of Sâvitra [three days of celibacy after the ceremony of the holy thread], Prâjâpatya [celibacy for one year], Brâhma [celibacy during the study of the Veda] and Brihat [lifelong celibacy] as also the vows [for regulating household life] of Vârtâ [vocations sanctioned by the scriptures], Sañcaya [officiating at ceremonies], S'âlîna [to subsist on everything that is acquired without asking] and S'îluñcha [to subsist on the remnants left behind in the fields and the market place]. (43) [Also the directions for] the [vânaprashtas or the] retired ones [thus manifested:] the vaikhânasas [subsisting on produce from the wild], the vâlakhilyas [they who give up their stock upon receiving new foodgrains], the audumbaras [who subsist on the food they find on their way] and the phenapas [those subsisting on fruits that fell from the trees, as also the directions for] the renounced order [of the sannyâsîs] consisting of the kuthîcakas [recluses living in a fixed place], bahûdakas [or bahvodhas, they who prefer knowledge before activities], hamsas [those fully on the path of transcendental knowledge] and the nishkriyas or paramahamsas  [those who attained spiritual wisdom and refrain from action]. (44) In the same order [the four branches of knowledge] appeared: ânvîkshikî [spiritual knowledge of liberation], trayî [knowledge of rituals], vârtâ [technical knowledge] and dandanîti [political science]. Also the four vyâhritis [of the first line and three words of the Gâyatrî mantra] thus appeared together with the Pranava [the mantra Aum] flowing from his heart. (45) From the hair of his body ushnik [a meter of poetry] was generated, from the skin of the mighty one gâyatrî [the three-foot] originated, trishthup [another meter] came from his flesh,  anushthup appeared from the veins and from the bones of the father of the living beings jagati was generated [two other meters]. (46) From the marrow of his bones pankti manifested itself while brihatî generated from the life breath [two types of verses]. (47) His individual soul manifested as the spars'a letters [the hard consonants] of the Sanskrit alphabet [ka to ma] while his body expressed itself in the Sanskrit vowels [a, â, i, î, u, û, ri, rî, l, e, ai, o, au]. His senses are called the sibilants [s'a, sha sa and ha], his strength became the semi-vowels [ya, la, ra and va] and from the inner joy of the lord of the living beings the seven musical notes manifested [*]. (48) The transcendental sound of His Soul, the Supersoul, that moves beyond the notion of being manifest or unmanifest, is the source from which the Absolute [of the full manifestation of Brahmâ] that is invested with multifarious energies, manifested itself in full.

(49) Having accepted another body he [again] put his mind to the matter of creation. (50) Oh son of the Kurus, knowing that in spite of the great, earthly power of the great sages the population was not growing, he again devoted his heart to the matter. He thought: (51) 'Alas, how surprising to be this busy all the time but not succeed in motivating my progeny for procreation! There must be some kind of divine ordinance working against me in this.' (52) While he thus observed and contemplated his situation a division in two manifested itself within his body of which one says that it is the human body created after his image [kâya - that what belongs to ka - Brahmâ]. (53) His form with them being divided then perfectly engaged in a sexual relationship. (54) The one of them who was the male became the fully independent father of manhood [the Manu] called Svâyambhuva and the one who was the woman was known as S'atarûpâ; she was the queen to the great soul that he was. (55) Because of the sex life according to the regulative principles [see verse 41] from that time on the generations increased. (56) Oh best of all, in due course of time he begot in S'atarûpâ five children: Priyavrata, Uttânapâda and three daughters, oh son of Bharata, Âkûti, Devahûti and Prasûti. (57) The one named Âkûti he handed over to sage Ruci, the middle one [Devahûti] he gave to sage Kardama and Prasûti was given to Daksha. Because of them the whole world became populated.'

*: The seven Vedic notes are: sa, ri, gâ, ma, pa, dha and ni [resp. c, d, e, f, g, a, bes] also called shadja, rishabha, gândhâra, madhyama, pañcama, dhaivata, and nishâda

Chapter 13: The Appearance of Lord Varâha

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'After listening to Maitreya Muni's most sacred words oh King, the best of the Kurus full of adoration for the talks about Vâsudeva inquired further. (2) Vidura said: 'Oh great sage, what did Svâyambhuva Manu, the king of all kings and dear son of Brahmâ, do after he obtained his loving wife? (3) Be so good to tell me about the character of this saintly, original king oh best of all. I'd very much like to hear about that king who took to the shelter of Vishvaksena [the omnipotent Lord Vishnu]. (4) Persons of fortitude and great effort in listening to that what by pure devotees is elaborately explained, will by dint of the statements of those who installed the lotus feet of the Lord of Liberation in their hearts, find the transcendental quality of a faithful mind.' (5) S'rî S'uka said: 'After the most gentle Vidura who, receiving the lotus feet of the One with the thousand heads on his lap, thus had spoken, the sage, whose hairs in the spirit of the words about the Supreme Lord stood on end in ecstasy, complimented him and gave a reply.

(6) Maitreya said: 'After Svâyambhuva Manu had appeared along with his wife, he as the father of mankind with folded hands and obeisances addressed the reservoir of Vedic wisdom [Brahmâ]: (7) 'You are the one progenitor of all living entities, the father and source of subsistence, but we however who all were born from you, wonder how we can be of service to you. (8) Give us, with all respect oh venerable one, directions for that purpose. What are the duties within our reach to be performed for you? What must one do for fame [His fame] all around in this world and what must one do in order to progress to the next world?'

(9) Brahmâ said: 'I am very pleased with you, my son, let there be all my blessings for the both of you oh lord of the world, because you without any reservation in your heart have surrendered your self to me for my instructions. (10) This is the exact way, oh hero, for offspring to honor the spiritual master. Those who have a sane mind and are beyond envy should to the full of their ability and most respectfully accept this instruction. (11) You therefore in that role take care to beget children by her with the same qualities as you have, so that they once they're born may rule over the world with the principles of religion, make their sacrifices and exercise respect for the Original Personality. (12) Consider protecting the living entities the best way to serve me, oh ruler of man. Hrishîkes'a, the Supreme Lord of the senses, will be pleased when you are the guardian of their lives. (13) The work of those who never satisfied the Supreme Lord Janârdana ['the Lord of all living beings'], the object of all sacrifice, is certainly of no avail because they did not respect their own self as being the Supreme Soul.'

(14) Manu said: 'I'll abide by what your powerful self has ordered oh killer of all sin, please tell me what my place and the place of the ones born from me is in this world. (15) Oh god of this planet, the earth, the dwelling place of all beings is immersed in the great waters [of the Garbhodhaka ocean of the created universe]. Could you please lift her up?'

(16) Maitreya said: 'The personality of transcendence [Brahmâ] who also saw that the earth was immersed in the waters thought: 'How shall I lift her up?' and spent a long time meditating as follows: (17) 'While I was engaged in her creation, the earth was inundated by a flood and got deeply immersed. What now would be the right course of action for us being engaged in this matter of creation? May the Lord from whose heart I was born guide me in this!' (18) While he was thinking thus all of a sudden from his nostril oh sinless one, a minute boar [Varâha] appeared not larger than the top of a thumb. (19) When he saw that happening all of a sudden the form expanded, miraculously transforming into the size of a gigantic elephant, oh son of Bharata. (20) Seeing the form of that boarlike appearance, he with Manu, the brahmins headed by Marîci and the Kumâras began to word the matter in different ways: (21) 'Who is this extraordinary being that pretends to be a boar? And how wondrous it is that he appeared from my nose! (22) One moment He has just the size of the tip of a thumb and in no time He is as big as a megalith! Would this be the Supreme Lord of sacrifice Vishnu? I am baffled!' (23) While Brahmâ thus was deliberating with his sons, the Supreme Lord of Sacrifice, the Original Person, produced a wild roar like He wanted to attack. (24) With the unprecedented voice that echoed in all directions the Lord created great joy in Brahmâ and the best of the brahmins. (25) Then the inhabitants of Tapoloka, Satyaloka and Janaloka [see 2.5: 39] hearing the sound of the loud roar of the all-merciful Lord who in the form of a boar ended all personal distress, all began to extoll Him with the holy mantras of the three Vedas.

(26) Knowing Himself very well as the form resulting from the spreading of the Vedic sound that originated from the knowledge of the authorities of the Truth, He roared once more in response to the transcendental glorifications of the wise and intelligent ones and playful as an elephant entered the water to their benefit. (27) Slashing His tail in the sky and quivering with the sharp and hard hairs of His skin, He scattered the clouds with His hooves and radiated with His glittering white tusks His glory as the Supreme Lord and Maintainer of the world. (28) Sniffing out the earth He who had assumed the transcendental body of a boar searched all around showing His frightening tusks, but all the brahmins in spite of it unafraid engaged in prayer when they saw Him  glancing them over as He entered the water. (29) The enormous mountain of His body drove by the force of the dive the ocean apart in two high waves because of which he like gifted with two arms in distress loudly prayed: 'Oh Master of all Sacrifices, please protect me!' (30) He as the Master of all Sacrifice penetrating with His arrow-sharp hooves the water then, reaching the limits of the unlimited ocean, found her. He saw her, the wealth of the living beings, lying there as she was before and lifted her up personally. (31) Rising to the surface He, with His tusks raising the submerged earth, appeared in His full splendor. But then He, glowing with a fierce anger, had to hold His cakra [His disc-weapon or wheel] against the demon [Hiranyâksha - 'the golden-eyed one'] who rushed towards Him with a club. (32) He then in an inimitable way skillfully killed the obstructive enemy the way an elephant disposes of a lion and had in the process His cheeks and tongue smeared with blood like he was an elephant that has been digging in the [reddish] earth. (33) Even as He bluish as a tamâla tree, like a playing elephant, upheld the earth on His curved tusks oh Vidura, they who were lead by Brahmâ could recognize Him as the Supreme Lord. Thereupon they with folded hands offered Him prayers from the Vedic hymns.

(34) The wise said: 'All glory and victory to You oh Unconquerable One, You who are understood by the performance of sacrifices. All our obeisances are for Him who shakes His body consisting of the three Vedas and in whose pores of the hairs in His skin this [Vedic truth] lies hidden. Our respects for You who had the calling to assume the form of a boar! (35) Oh Lord, the miscreants have difficulty perceiving this form of Yours that can be worshiped by performing sacrifices: with the Gâyatrî and other mantras one honors Your skin; with the kus'a grass [on which one sits when one meditates] one honors the hairs on Your body; with the clarified butter [one uses in sacrifices] one honors Your eyes, and with the four functions of sacrifice one respects Your four legs [see 3.12: 35]. (36) Your tongue is the offering plate and Your nostrils are another one oh Lord. In Your belly we recognize the plate to eat from and the holes of Your ears also constitute such a plate. Your mouth is the [Brahmâ] plate for the spiritual aspect of performing sacrifices and Your throat is the plate for soma [a ritual drink], but that which is chewn by Your teeth oh Supreme Lord, is what You consume by the sacrificial fire [agni-hotra]. (37) The three [upasada ishthis or] consecrations together constitute Your neck: Your repeated incarnations are the introductory offerings of oblations in the fire [called the dîkshanîya ishthi] and Your tusks are the [prâyanîya ishthi] course of the consecration and the [udayanîya ishthi] end of the consecration. Your tongue constitutes the [pravargya] invocations [to the three upasadas]. Your head is respected with the fires without sacrifices [satya] and the fires with sacrifices [âvasatya] and Your life breath is constituted by the combination of all sacrifices. (38) Your semen is the soma sacrifice, Your stability is respected with the rituals in the morning, at noon and in the evening oh Lord, the different layers of Your body are the seven types of sacrifice [see 3.12: 40] and the joints of Your body are the different sacrifices [called the satrânis] one performs in twelve days. You oh Lord, who are bound by sacrifices only, are the object of all the soma and asoma sacrifices. (39) We offer You our obeisances who as the Supreme Lord for all the ingredients and types of sacrifice can be worshiped by universal prayers. When one renounced and with devotion conquers the mind one can arrive at the realization of You as the essence of all sacrifices. You as the spiritual master of such knowledge, we again and again offer our obeisances. (40) Oh Supreme Lord, with the earth and its mountains so beautifully situated on the tips of Your protruding teeth oh Lifter of the Earth, You came out of the water like a lordly elephant that with its tusk captured a lotus flower together with its leaves. (41) This form of Yours of the Veda personified that as a boar sustains the planet earth on its tusks, shines with the splendor of great mountain peaks that look even more beautiful because of the clouds surrounding them. (42) You as a father lift up this mother earth as Your wife for the moving as also the nonmoving living beings to reside. Let us offer our obeisances to You and to her in whom You invested Your potency just as an expert setting ablaze arani wood. (43) Who else but You, oh master, could deliver the earth lying in the water? For You such deeds are not that wondrous, for the wonder of the miraculous universe that You by Your potencies created surpasses all others. (44) When You as the Vedas personified were shaking Your body, we as the inhabitants of Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka were sprinkled by the drops of water that remained in the hairs of Your shoulders and were thus completely purified oh Supreme Lord. (45) He who wants to know the limit of Your countless activities is out of his mind. The entire universe controlled by the material qualities is bewildered by the oneness of Your inner potency [of yogamâyâ]. Please oh Lord of the Opulences, grant us Your mercy!'

(46) Maitreya said: 'Thus being praised by the great sages and transcendentalists Lord Boar, the Maintainer, placed the earth on the water which He heavily touched with His hooves. (47) After the Almighty Personality of Godhead, Vishvaksena, the Master of All Living Entities, thus sportily had lifted the earth on top of the water the Lord returned to His abode. (48) With the one who in a devotional attitude listens to or recounts to others this auspicious and worthwhile story about Him who puts an end to the material motive, the Lord who is present in the heart [of everyone] very soon will be pleased. (49) What would be difficult to achieve for the one who enjoys the boundless mercy of His contentment? Anything removed from that mercy appears insignificant. Those devotees who wish nothing but His mercy He, personally residing in the heart, elevates to the supreme transcendence of His abode. (50) Indeed, can one be called a human being when one familiar with the true value of our human past resists the opportunity to drink in through one's ears the nectar of the stories about the Lord which puts an end to the pain of a material existence?'

Chapter 14: The Impregnation of Diti in the Evening

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'After hearing from sage Maitreya the description of the story about the Supreme Personality who for the sake of lifting up the world appeared as a boar, Vidura, vowed as he was, requested him with folded hands for more, since he did not feel completely satisfied. (2) Vidura said: 'Oh first among the sages, I heard you say that the demon Hiranyâksha was slain by the Lord, the original object of all sacrifices. (3) For what reason did He in His pastime of lifting the planet earth up on His tusks oh brahmin, have a fight with the king of the demons? (4) Please tell this faithful person, this devotee, in detail about His appearance oh great sage, for I, with my so very curious mind, am not yet satisfied.'

(5) Maitreya said: 'Dear devotee, oh great hero, that what you ask me about the topics concerning the Supreme Personality, constitutes for those who are destined to die the source of liberation from birth and death. (6) The son of king Uttânapâda [Dhruva] was as a child enlightened by Nârada about these subjects, and placed when he [at his death] left to ascend for the abode of the Lord, his foot upon the head of Mrityu [the god of death, as a footboard to enter the vimâna of Nanda and Sunanda, see 4.12: 30]. (7) Concerning this matter [of the appearance of Lord Varâha] I heard from Brahmâ, the god of gods, the following story that was told by him a long time ago because of questions asked by the demigods.

(8) Oh Vidura, one evening Diti, the daughter of Daksha, in distress because of sexual desire begged her husband Kas'yapa, the son of Marîci, to father a child. (9) After worshiping the Original Personality of All Sacrifices with oblations to His tongue which is the sacrificial fire, he sat fully absorbed in the temple room while the sun was setting.

(10) Diti said: 'Oh learned one, Cupid has with eyes for you aimed all his arrows at me and thus  distresses my poor self like a mad elephant attacking a banana tree. (11) Be so good to me, it hurts me to see the children and well-being of your co-wives, please grant [also] me and yourself [therewith] in every respect that wellness. (12) The fame of a husband who loves his wife will spread in the world because from the children of a good husband like yourself,  society surely will expand. (13) Long ago our father, the most opulent Daksha, affectionately asked each of his daughters: 'Whom would you like for your husband, my child?' (14) He, as the well-wisher of his children, handed, with respect for their wishes, all the thirteen of them over to you; they who are now all faithful to you. (15) Therefore be so kind to fulfill my desire oh lotus-eyed one; the pleas of those who in distress approach a person of stature oh great one, surely would not be in vain, would they?'

(16) Thus oh hero, the son of Marîci replied with pacifying words for she, poor and talkative, was highly agitated because of the lust that took possession of her. (17) 'I'll answer your plea and do what you want me to do my tormented sweetheart! Who would not grant the wishes of the one who stands for the realization of the three aims of life [of dharma, artha and kâma: of regulating the religion, the economy and sense gratification]? (18) Living with a companion a person following his vocation and completing all stages of life, can cross over the dangerous ocean of material existence like one crosses over an ocean with seaworthy vessels. (19) With someone who is the other half of one's body all desires can be steered in the right direction and with entrusting responsibilities to the other person one can lead a [relatively] carefree life. (20) The senses are for orders of life other than the householders difficult to conquer enemies; we who thus take shelter can conquer them easily like a fort commander can with invading plunderers. (21) Never will we be able to do for you what you have done for us oh queen of the house, not in all our life nor in the next one, nor will anyone else who appreciates your qualities. (22) With that being said, let me forthwith take care of this sexual interest of yours to beget a child; but first wait a few seconds so that I am beyond reproach. (23) This very time is the time least favorable for it, it is the horrid time at which the ghastly spirits and their master are one's constant companion. (24) At this time of the day oh chaste one, at dusk, [S'iva] the Lord and well-wisher of the ghostly ones who surround him, goes about as their king on the back of the bull [Nandî]. (25) With the beauty of the spotless radiating body of the demigod smeared with the dust and smoke that blew from the cremation of the dead, and with his matted hair covered by ashes, your [sister's, viz. Satî's] husband looks [upon all] with his triple vision [of sun, moon and fire]. (26) He regards no one in this world as his relative nor is anyone in his vision standing apart from him; he considers nobody greater nor does he regard anyone a criminal. Faithfully we duly honor his feet and assure us of the remnants of that what he has rejected of the food that was sacrificed. (27) Even though in respect of his irreproachable character, that is followed by the sages in their desire to put an end to the nescience of the masses, there is no one who is as great, he nevertheless, for the attainment of the devotees, personally performs like an antagonist [walking naked and smeared with ashes]. (28) The unfortunate ones who with what they do factually laugh about him, not being aware of his purpose of engagement in the self, cherish with luxuries as clothing, garlands and ointments their body as if it would be their true self, the body that ultimately serves as food for the dogs. (29) Brahmâ as also the other gods keep to the ritual code of conduct of him, the ruler over the material energy, the mâyâ resorting under his authority. Oh, the unruly actions of this great character are nothing but a diversion [in which he takes the karma upon himself]!' 

(30) Maitreya said: 'In spite of thus being informed by her husband, she, with her senses pressured by Cupid, grabbed the great brahmin sage by his clothes like she was a shameless public woman. (31) He then, with understanding for his wife's obstinacy to the forbidden act, offered providence his obeisances and lay with her in seclusion. (32) Thereafter he took a bath and meditated, in prayer [with the Gâyatrî] controlling his breath and voice, on the light of eternity with the help of the pure spirit of the Absolute. (33) Oh son of Bharata, Diti, ashamed of the faulty act approached the learned sage with her face turned downwards and spoke politely to him. (34) Diti said: 'Let this pregnancy of mine oh brahmin, oh noblest of all, not be ended by Rudra, for I have committed an offense against the master of the living beings. (35) My obeisances to Rudra, the ferocious, great demigod who fulfills all desires, the all-auspicious and forgiving one who immediately angrily chastises. (36) May he, the supreme, great and merciful person and brother-in-law married to Satî ['the chaste one', the sister of Diti] be pleased with us, he who is a god to all women for whom even the lowest have sympathy.'

(37) Maitreya said: 'The wife trembling [out of fear] because of having avoided the rules and regulations of the evening wished the welfare of her children in the world and was [then] addressed by this father of mankind. (38) Kas'yapa said: 'Because of your polluted mind, your defiling the holiness of the moment and also because you were too negligent about my directions, you were insufficiently attentive towards the gods also. (39) Oh unlucky one, from your condemned womb two mischievous sons will take birth and they, oh passionate one, will cause constant lamentation among the rulers of the three worlds. (40) They will kill poor and innocent living entities, torment women and enrage the great souls. (41) When that happens the Supreme Personality and Lord of the Universe who desires the welfare of the  common people, will descend in person and kill the both of them in great anger as if He were the mountain smasher with the thunderbolt himself [Indra].'

(42) Diti said: 'It is a great honor to be killed on the spot by the discus in the hand of the Fortunate One, I am [only] praying that  my sons may never find their end as a consequence of the rage of the brahmins, oh my husband. (43) A person who by a brahmin is chastised with a curse and he who creates fear among other living beings, does not carry the approval of the ones living in hell, nor of any of the other life forms an offender might take birth among.'

(44-45) Kas'yapa said: 'Because you immediately proved to be sorry with a proper confession and have a great adoration for the Supreme Personality, for Lord S'iva and also respect me, from one of the two sons [Hiranyakas'ipu] a son will be born [Prahlâda] who will carry the approval of the devotees. His transcendental glory will be recognized as being equal to the glory of the Supreme Lord. (46) Like the way gold of an inferior quality is rectified, saintly persons, who seek purification in striving for freedom from animosity and such, will follow in the footsteps of this disposition and character. (47) He, the Supreme Personality by whose grace the universe finds its happiness, will in the special care for that character in His devotees, be very pleased with someone with such a rock-solid belief. (48) He will certainly be the topmost devotee, the greatest soul with the greatest influence and be well matured by devotional service [*]. With his mind in ecstatic love, he will no doubt reach Vaikunthha [the ultimate reality, paradise, heaven] when he leaves this material world. (49) He will be a virtuous and qualified reservoir of all good qualities, he will rejoice in the happiness of others and be distressed when others are unhappy. He will have no enemies and put an end to all lamentation in the world just like the pleasant moon does after the distress of the summer sun. (50) Your grandson will, inside and outside of himself, behold the spotless form [of the Lord] with the lotus eyes, who assumes any form His devotee desires and who with a face decorated with brilliant earrings is the eminence of the beautiful Goddess of Fortune.'

(51) Maitreya said: 'Hearing that her grandson would be a great devotee Diti was delighted and found piece of mind in knowing that Krishna would kill her two sons.'

* Well matured means matured in three stages: sthâyi-bhâva, to have a certain emotional relationship with God; anubhâva, to experience certain emotions in that relationship, and mahâbhâva or the stage in which one experiences ecstatic feelings of love for God.  

Chapter 15: Description of the Kingdom of God

(1) Maitreya said: 'Diti was afraid that she by the power of [the seed of] the great Prajâpati for the time of a century would destroy the power of others and distress the God-fearing people. (2) The world was deprived of light because of this [threat] and thus the local authorities who saw their power diminished consulted with the creator of the universe [Lord Brahmâ] about the darkness that expanded in all directions. (3) The demigods said: 'You, oh mighty one, must be knowing about this darkness we are so very afraid of. Your supreme divinity is not affected by time and thus nothing is hidden for you. (4) Oh god of gods, sustainer of the universe, you as the crown jewel of all the guardians of the spiritual and material worlds know about the intentions of all living beings. (5) We offer you whose strength is found in wisdom our obeisances. Having obtained this body composed of external energy and in acceptance of your distinguished mode [of passion], we pay our respects oh unseen source. (6) The ones who are unfaltering in their devotion meditate upon you, the origin of all beings, the absolute consisting of the true and untrue and the self in which all worlds are connected. (7) For those who are mature in the practice of yoga and have attained your mercy in controlling the senses and mind by means of their breath, there is no defeat in any way. (8) Him whose directions are the lead for all living entities the way a rope is the lead for a bull, him under whose authority offerings are presented, that most important personality, you, we offer our obeisances. (9) Because of this darkness we cannot get around to our prescribed duties. We ask you to act to our good fortune oh great Lord, please grant us surrendered souls, the magnanimous mercy of your glance. (10) Oh god, this semen of Kas'yapa deposited in the womb of Diti, causes complete darkness in all directions like a fire loaded with too much firewood.'

(11) Maitreya said: 'Oh mighty-armed one, he, the self-born one who in the prayers was addressed as the Supreme Lord, with a smile satisfied the godly ones and gave a reply in sweet words. (12) Brahmâ said: 'They who before you were born from my mind and are headed by Sanaka [Sanâtana, Sanandana en Sanat-kumâra], traveled free from expectations the distances between the people of the spiritual and material worlds. (13) One day they who are free from all material contamination entered Vaikunthha, the eternal abode of Vishnu, the Supreme Lord, the realm for which one prays in all the worlds. (14) All the persons living there have the same form as the Lord of Vaikunthha and live free from any desire because of their devotional service of continuous worship of the Supreme Personality. (15) The Lord of all Fortune, the original person who is understood through the scriptures, dwells there as the personification of the religious principles in order to accept in His goodness our purity to the greater happiness of us who belong to Him. (16) In that realm where everything is spiritual and personal, there are forests that for the sake of happiness yield to all desires with [desire] trees full of splendid flowers and fruits throughout all the seasons. (17) Living in palaces with their wives the devotees free from all inauspicious qualities are always singing there about the Supreme Lord, and try to ignore the mind blowing fragrance that is carried by the wind of the mâdhavî flowers that full of nectar are blossoming in the midst of the water. (18) When the king of the bumblebees loudly sings the glories of the Lord, the tumult of the pigeons, cuckoos, cranes, cakravâkas and gallinules, swans, parrots, partridges and peacocks stops for a while. (19) The fragrant mandâra, kunda, kurabaka, utpala, campaka, arna, punnâga, nâgakes'ara, bakula, lily and pârijâta, all agree that the tulsî plant [the basil plant the Lord adorns Himself with and] which in the form of a garland is appreciated [by Him] for her smell, best of them all honors the good spirit of renunciation out there. (20) By simply being of obeisance to the Lord His feet the devotees earned the palaces standing everywhere that are made of lapis lazuli with emeralds and gold whose [female] inhabitants have large hips and beautiful smiling faces. But they, with their friendly laughing and joking, with their minds absorbed in Krishna never give rise to any lust. (21) In that house of the Lord [sometimes], reflected in the crystal clear walls inlaid with gold, the Goddess of Fortune is seen who is free from all faults. She then assumes a beautiful form with tinkling [bangles at her] feet and playing with a lotus flower; and that grace of her is something for which the other ladies manifest themselves with the greatest zeal as true scrubwomen. (22) They surrounded by maidservants worship in their gardens on coral banks to ponds with pellucid, nectarean water the Supreme Lord with tulsî and imagine, seeing the beauty reflected in the water of the goddess her locks, that the Lord kisses her face.  (23) How unfortunate are they who never get to this Vaikunthha creation of the Vanquisher of All Sin, but rather hear about other subject matters phrased in bad words that kill one's intelligence. Alas, such persons far removed from the values of life are, devoid of all shelter, cast into the deepest darkness. (24) They who are not of worship for the Supreme Lord and have not realized the human way of life and acquired knowledge about the Absolute and the proper code of conduct [dharma] the way we [Lord Brahmâ and the demigods] desired it, are alas bewildered by His omnipresent, illusory energy. (25) [But] following in the footsteps of [me] the chief of the demigods they will go to Vaikunthha, the realm situated above mine, who attracted to each other in discussions about the Lord His desirable, supreme qualities and glories feel ecstasy, have tears in their eyes and shiver with their bodies, and thus keep Yamarâja [the Lord of death] at a distance.'

(26) [Brahmâ continued:] 'When the sages [headed by Sanaka] by dint of their spiritual potency reached Vaikunthha, they experienced a transcendental ecstasy they never had experienced before. It was the place, radiating with the palaces of the most deserving and learned devotees, where the teacher of the universe rules who is the object of worship in all the worlds. (27) After passing there through six gates without taking much interest, they at the seventh gate ran into two demigods of the same age who carried valuable maces, bracelets, earrings, helmets and beautiful garments. (28) Placed around their necks there was between their four blue arms a garland of forest flowers with intoxicated bees around them. But looking about with their arched eyebrows, restless breathing and reddish eyes they seemed somewhat agitated. (29) Seeing the both of them standing at the gate the sons of Brahmâ, as they did before, passed without taking any notice the golden and diamond doors; they were the great sages who on their own accord moved everywhere without being checked or doubted. (30) When they saw them, four naked boys of age who had realized the truth of the self but who looked as if they were not older than five years, the two gatekeepers in disregard of the glory and the etiquette, in an attitude offensive to the Lord wrongfully blocked their way with their staffs. (31) Being faced with the slight hindrance of the two doorkeepers who refused them before the eyes of the inhabitants of Vaikunthha, despite them being by far the fittest of the Lord, their eyes in their eagerness to see their most beloved one suddenly turned red out of anger ['the younger brother of lust'].

(32) The sages said: 'Who are the two of you, who by dint of their actions in the past have attained the service of the Supreme Lord? Whoever of the devotees who in Him are without anxiety and enmity, can be as falsely engaged as you? Who in the world is of such a crude mentality that betrays the confidence? (33) No one here is strange to the Supreme Personality who contains all in His abdomen; the living entity has its place in the Supersoul the way the small portion of air in one's lungs is part of the air outside. As a sober person seeing the two of you dressed up like inhabitants of Vaikunthha, like awakend people who discriminate between body and soul, one wonders how such a terrible thing can exist. How in the world could this have risen with Him? (34) Therefore, in order to secure the grace of the Lord of Vaikunthha, according to our opinion the appropriate measure for you antipathetic minds who see things in opposition, is that the both of you depart from here for the material world where one lives with this threefold sinfulness that is the enemy of the living being [lust, anger and greed, see B.G. 16: 21].'

(35) The two [doorkeepers] who understood that a terrible brahmin curse had been pronounced by them, a curse that cannot be countered by any weapon, at once stricken with fear for the devotees of the Lord fell down to grasp their feet in great anxiety. (36) 'Let it be so that you have punished us for our sins. A lack of respect for great sages like you cannot go unpunished. But we pray that we, with a bit of your infinite compassion for our repentance, not in a state of illusion will lose the memory of  the Supreme Lord when we have to descend in the material world.'

(37) That very moment the Supreme Lord from whose navel the lotus sprouted learned about the offense against the righteous sages and came to their delight to the place accompanied by His Goddess of Fortune, walking with the very same lotus feet that are sought by the hermits and the wise. (38) Seeing Him coming forward with all His associates and paraphernalia, the sages, now seeing the one whom they always had been looking for, fell into ecstasy over the sight of the câmaras [fans of yak-tail] that like beautiful swans waved a cool breeze that moved the pearls of His white umbrella, making them look like drops of water to a reflected moon. (39) Blessing all with His auspicious face as the desirable shelter, He affectionately looked upon them and touched them expanding in their hearts. With His blackish skin and His broad chest decorated by the Goddess of Fortune, He spread the good fortune as the culmination of the spiritual worlds and the abode of the soul. (40) Covered by yellow cloth He had a brightly shining girdle around His hips and humming bees about His garland of forest flowers. On His wrists he had lovely bracelets and while one of His hands rested on the shoulder of the son of Vinatâ [Garuda] He waved with another one a lotus flower. (41) Shining brighter than lightening, the decoration of His alligator shaped earrings completed the countenance of His cheeks and straight nose. He wore a gem-studded crown,  carried a charming most precious necklace between His stout arms and the Kaustubha jewel adorned His neck. (42) With His presence He outshone the smiles of the Goddess of Beauty thus thought His devotees in their meditation. The sages could not get enough of the sight of the very beautiful figure so worshipable for me and for S'iva as also for all of you, and that made them joyously bow down their heads. (43) When the breeze, carrying the fragrance of tulsî leaves from the toes of the lotus feet, entered their nostrils, they experienced an inner transformation, even though they in body and mind were devoted to [the impersonal realization of] words. (44) Thereafter looking up they saw His face that resembled the inside of a blue lotus and also saw the even more beautiful jasmine flower lips smiling. Thus having achieved their life's aim they again looked down at the ruby red nails of His lotus feet and then meditated upon their shelter. (45) For those people who seek liberation in this world by the paths of yoga He is the object of meditation approved by the great ones. With the display of His human form pleasing the eyes He, eternally present as the Connecting One, is praised as the perfection of the eight achievements, a perfection that cannot be achieved by others [the so-called eight perfections or siddhis are: animâ: smallness, mahimâ: greatness, garimâ: weight, laghimâ: lightness, prâpti: free access, prâkâmyam: doing at wish, vas'itva: control over the elements and îs'itvam: lordship over all].

(46) The Kumâras said: 'Even though You are seated in the heart You are not manifest to the ones far removed from the soul. Today, oh Unlimited One, we see You face to face, You who through our ears reached our inner being when we heard our father [Brahmâ] describe the mysteries of Your appearance. (47) You oh Supreme Lord who with Your personality consisting of pure goodness, brings delight to all [who are like us], we at present know as the ultimate reality of the soul. This reality one may, according to the understanding of the sages who are not interested in a material life, grasp by Your grace in steadfast devotional service with a heart free from attachments. (48) They [who follow this practice] do not even care about Your imperishable beatitude [kaivalya, enlightenment] or about any other minor form of happiness with which they may fear the frowning of Your eyebrows. They, oh Supreme One, take shelter of Your lotus feet and the narrations about Your pure glories so worthy to be sung by the very expert knowers of Your rasas [the emotional mellows one may have with You]. (49) From the sinful lives we desired we may be of low births and have minds busy like bees, but if we may be engaged at Your lotus feet and fill our ears with Your transcendental qualities, our words will become as beautiful as the tulsî leaves at Your mercy. (50) We obtained so much satisfaction from seeing this eternal form that You manifested oh Lord of great renown. Let us therefore offer our obeisances to You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is recognized by spiritual persons like us and not by those who are not spiritual.'

Chapter 16: The Two Doorkeepers of Vaikunthha, Cursed by the Sages

(1) Brahmâ said: 'After having congratulated the four sages of yogic conscience for their words of praise, the Almighty One from the abode of Vaikunthha spoke. (2) The Supreme Lord said: 'These two attendants of Mine named Jaya and Vijaya certainly, because of ignoring Me, committed a great offense against you. (3) The punishment that you, devoted ones, awarded them, I approve oh great sages, since they turned against you in offense. (4) I therefore seek your forgiveness now because that offense to you oh brahmins who are the highest ones of God, is all Mine; I consider Myself the one who offended you since they who disrespected you are My attendants. (5) In general when a servant does something wrong, one blames the one in whose name the offense was committed. It harms the reputation of that person as much as leprosy harms the skin. (6) The nectar of the uncontaminated glories [of My name and fame] that reach one's ears, purifies the entire universe instantly including the lowest of the low. I am that person of the freedom from laxity and foolishness, of Vaikunthha, and for you having attained the glory of that superior place of pilgrimage, I would even cut off My own arm if that place would work against you. (7) Of those who serve in the dust of My sacred lotus feet the sins are all wiped out instantly and therefrom I acquired such a disposition that, even though I have no attachment to her, the Goddess of Fortune never leaves Me, while others have to observe sacred vows to obtain the slightest favor from her. (8) On the other hand I do not as much relish the oblations in the fire by the sacrificer who offers the ghee that is abundantly mixed with the food into that mouth of Mine, as I do enjoy the bits of food that satisfy the mouths of the performing brahmins who dedicated the results of their actions to Me. (9) If I with the power of My infinite and unhindered internal potency and with the Ganges water that washed from my feet with which Lord S'iva instantly sanctifies the three worlds, can bear on My crown the holy dust of the brahmin's feet, then who would not [be capable of the same]? (10) They who consider the best of the twice-born, the cows and the defenseless creatures that are all part of My body as different from Me because their faculty of judgment is impaired by sin, will, just like angry snakes, be torn apart by the furious, vulturelike messengers of the master of punishment [Yamarâja]. (11) But those who with gladdened hearts and with the nectar of their smiling, lotus like faces intelligently, like a son would do who pacifies by praise, with loving words manage to respect the brahmins who are of restrictive words, are in Me, for I am controlled by those brahmins. (12) Therefore let it be so that the exile of these two servants who oblivious to the intention of their master were in offense with you and have to face the immediate consequences thereof, may not be too long so that they soon will retrieve the favor of being near to Me.'

(13) Lord Brahmâ said: 'Even though they now had heard His loving, divine speech that was like a series of mantras, their souls being bitten by the snake of anger were not sated. (14) With their ears wide open hearing the excellent and carefully chosen words of momentous import, they had difficulty understanding them and, pondering deeply over their profundity, could not fathom the Lord His intention. (15) The great conclusion the Supreme Lord had revealed from His internal potency made the four brahmins in extreme delight with their hairs standing on end speak with folded hands. (16) The sages said: 'O Fortunate One, we do not understand oh Lord what You mean to say, because You, despite being the ruler, spoke of [us] being merciful with You! (17) You are the supreme director of the spiritual world and the highest authority of the brahmins who teach others. You oh master of the learned ones are the God of the gods, the Fortunate One who is the Soul, the worshipable deity. (18) From You there is the protection of the eternal occupation [sanâtana dharma] in all Your different appearances, You are the supreme objective of the religious principles; in our opinion You are the one unchanging reality. (19) Because by dint of Your mercy the transcendentalists who break with all material desires effortlessly conquer birth and death, it can never be so that You as such would depend on the mercy of others. (20) The Grace of Fortune [the goddess Lakshmî], of whom others in their wish for material benefit occasionally accept the dust of her feet on their heads, waits upon You, anxious to secure a place like the king of the bumblebees has with the aroma of the wreath of fresh tulsî leaves that is offered by the devotees. (21) How can You, who as the reservoir of all opulences are not that anxious about her impeccable devotional services, You, who for the pure devotees are the object of the greatest devotion, be sanctified by the dust on the path of the brahmins or find fortune by the S'rîvatsa mark [the few white hairs on Your chest]? (22) You, oh Fortunate One, are threefold [tapas, s'auca, dayâ] present in all the three [previous] yugas [see 3.11] for the protection of the animate and inanimate beings of this universe. May Your transcendental form consisting of pure goodness for the sake of the gods and the brahmins ban all ignorance and passion and thus bring us all the best. (23) If You as the protector of the brahmins - the highest class  - do not consider them worthy, do not consider them the best who deserve all respect and to be addressed in friendly terms, then oh God, Your auspicious path will be lost because of which the common people would accept the authority of wisdom. (24) And that is not what You want. You, who as the reservoir of all goodness wishes to do good to the people in general, destroyed by Your potencies the opposition. Oh Lord, You are the one of the threefold of nature and the maintainer of the universe and therefore Your potency remains undiminished [by the role You are playing now]. That submissive attitude is but [a game for] Your pleasure. (25) Whatever punishment, oh Lord, You think these two deserve who are of a better life, we wholeheartedly will accept. Take whatever measure You consider proper; we understand that we have cursed the sinless ones.'

(26) The Supreme Lord said: 'These two will elsewhere soon take birth from a godless womb. With a focus of mind intensified by anger they will remain firmly united with Me and soon return to My presence. Know that your curse was ordained by Me alone, oh learned ones.'

(27) Brâhma said: 'The sages now to their happiness had seen the beautiful to behold, self-illuminated realm of Vaikunthha, the abode of the irresistible Lord. (28) After circumambulating and offering the Supreme Lord their respects, they returned elated, applauding what they had learned about the glory of the Vaishnavas [the attendants of Lord Vishnu]. (29) The Supreme Lord then said to His two servants: 'Leave this place, let there be no fear, but live in togetherness. Even though I am capable of nullifying a brahmin's curse, I do not wish to do so, on the contrary, it has even My approval. (30) This departure has been foreseen by Lakshmî who was angry with you when you once prevented her from entering the gate while I was resting. (31) Unified in consciousness as My enemy you will find liberation from the consequence of disrespecting the brahmins and after only a short time return to Me.'

(32) After thus having addressed the two doorkeepers the Supreme Lord returned to His abode that is decorated with rows of palaces full of the wealth of the servitude of the goddess Lakshmî. (33) But that did not apply to the two excellent demigods who inevitably because of the curse of the brahmins had to miss the beauty and luster of Vaikunthha and fell into gloom. (34) Upon their fall from the abode of the Lord of Vaikunthha, a great roar of disappointment rose from all the fine palaces of the devotees. (35) These two prominent associates of the Lord have now entered the womb of Diti through the very powerful seed of Kas'yapa. (36) Because the Supreme Lord desired this to happen, all of you are now unsettled being faced with the prowess of these two unenlightened siblings. (37) With Him being the cause of the maintenance, creation and destruction of the universe, the bewildering yogamâyâ potency of the most ancient one is difficult to fathom for even the masters of yoga. But He is our Lord of Fortune and Master of the modes and will put things right. What [else] would be the purpose of our deliberation on this subject?'

Chapter 17: Victory of Hiranyâksha over All the Directions of the Universe

(1) Maitreya said: 'When the denizens of heaven heard the explanation of Brahmâ about the cause [of the darkness], they were freed from their fear and next all returned to their heavenly places. (2) Virtuous Diti, apprehensive about the lifelong trouble her husband spoke about in relation to her children, gave birth to twin sons. (3) When they were born, many most frightening, inauspicious signs could be seen in heaven, on earth and in the sky. (4) The mountains and the earth shook with earthquakes and there seemed to be fire coming from all directions with meteors falling, thunderbolts, comets and inauspicious constellations. (5) Sharp winds blew that constantly howled and armies of cyclones with dust-clouds for their ensigns uprooted the greatest trees. (6) Amassing clouds obscured the luminaries with lightning laughing loudly in the sky; everything was enveloped in darkness and nothing could be seen. (7) Stricken with sorrow, the ocean full of agitated creatures wailed with high waves and the drinking places and rivers were disturbed while the lotuses withered. (8) All the time misty halos appeared around the sun and moon who had eclipses, claps of thunder were heard and rattling sounds of chariots resounded from the mountain caves. (9) Inside the villages fearful she-jackals vomited fire from their mouths and there were the cries of owls and the ominous howling of jackals. (10) The dogs raised their heads uttering various cries as if they sang at times and then again were wailing. (11) The asses, oh Vidura, loudly braying ran madly hither and thither in groups, striking the earth hard with their hooves. (12) Frightened by the asses the birds flew shrieking from their nests and the cattle passed dung and urine in the cowsheds and the woods. (13) The cows in their fear yielded blood [in stead of milk] and clouds rained pus, the idols shed tears and trees fell down without a blast of wind. (14) The most auspicious planets and the other luminaries stood in conjunction, had retrograde courses or took conflicting positions. (15) Not knowing the secret of all these great omens of evil, except for the sons of Brahmâ all the people who saw more of this were afraid and thought that the world would end. (16) The two godforsaken, earliest Daityas in history grew up quickly, manifesting uncommon bodies that were like steel with the size of mountains. (17) With their brilliant bracelets nround their arms and the beauty of the decorated belts around their waists that outshone the sun, the earth shook at every step of their feet while the crests of their crows touched the sky as they blocked the view in all directions.

(18) Prajâpati Kas'yapa gave the two their names: the one of the twin who was first begotten from his flesh and blood [but was born later] he called Hiranyakas'ipu ['the one feeding on gold'] and the one who appeared first from Diti in the world [but was begotten later] he called Hiranyâksha ['the one with a mind for gold']. (19) Hiranyakas'ipu because of a blessing of Lord Brahmâ being puffed up without any fear that he would be killed by anyone, managed to seize control over the three worlds and their protectors. (20) Hiranyâksha, his beloved younger brother always willing to do him a favor, was, with a club in his hands ready to fight, traversing the higher spheres in search of violent opposition. (21) He had a temper difficult to control, tinkling anklets of gold and the adornment of a very large garland over his shoulders upon which rested his huge mace. (22) Proud as he was of the physical and mental strength conferred by the boon, he feared no one because no one could check him, and therefore the godly ones afraid of him hid themselves as if they were snakes frightened of Garuda. (23) Discovering that Indra and the demigods seeing his might had vanished and could not be found, the chief of the Daityas got excited and roared loudly. (24) Giving up his search the mighty being, wrathful like an elephant just for the sport dove deep into the ocean while producing that terrible sound.

(25) As he entered the ocean, the aquatics, the defenders of Varuna who stayed under water, were beset with fear that he would get hold of them and fled, daunted by his splendor, hurried away as far as they could. (26) Roaming the ocean for many years he with great force time and again struck the mighty, wind-tossed waves with his mace and thus reached Vibhâvarî, oh Vidura, the capital of Varuna. (27) There having reached the region of the unenlightened ones, he, just to make fun, with a smile like a lowborn one bowed before Varuna, the Lord and guardian of the aquatics and said: 'O great Lord, give me battle! (28) You are the guardian of this place, a renown ruler. By your power that reduced the pride of the conceited heroes and with which you conquered all Daityas and Dânavas in the world [viz. the sons of Diti and Daksha's daughter Danu, considered as demons], you once managed to perform a grand royal [râjasûya] sacrifice, oh master.'

(29) Thus profoundly being ridiculed by an enemy whose vanity knew no bounds, the respectable lord of the waters got angry, but controlling himself with reason he replied: 'O my best one, we have now left the path of warfare. (30) I can think of no other than the Most Ancient Person who in battle with you would be sufficiently skilled in the tactics of war to your satisfaction oh king of the world, oh king of the world. Approach Him who is even praised by heroes like you. (31) Reaching Him oh great hero, you will quickly be freed from your pride and lie down on the battlefield amid the dogs. It is for exterminating the evil that you are and to show the virtuous His grace, that He desires to assume His forms.'                             

Chapter 18: The Battle Between Lord Boar and the Demon Hiranyâksha
(1) Maitreya continued: 'Having heard the proud words of the Lord of the seas, the vainglorious one took little heed of them. From Nârada having learned about the whereabouts of the Lord, oh dear Vidura, he hurriedly betook himself to the place of punishment. (2) There he saw how the Victorious One bearing the earth high on the tips of His tusks, was putting him in His shadow with His radiant, reddish eyes. He laughed and said: 'Oh, a beast of the wilderness!' (3) He  told the Lord: 'Come and fight oh fool, leave the earth to us inhabitants of the lower worlds. The creator of the universe entrusted us this earth. My seeing You here will not be to Your wellbeing, oh summit of divinity who assumed the form of a boar. (4) Have our enemies called on You in order to kill us? You killed the ones attached to the world, while You remained out of view Yourself! Your bewildering internal potency is of no importance. I will erase the  grief of my relatives by killing You idiot! (5) When I have killed You smashing Your skull with the mace in my hand, all the sages and God-conscious people who where presenting their offerings to You will be released and automatically cease to exist without that root.'

(6) When He, hurt by the assailing abuse of words of the enemy, saw that the earth He was bearing on the tips of His tusks was affrighted, He bore the pain and came out of the water like a male elephant who in the company of his wives is attacked by a crocodile. (7) He who had golden hair and frightening teeth chased Him who came out of the water like the crocodile would do with the elephant. He roared like thunder: 'Is there anything a condemned poor devil [like You running away from me] is ashamed of?' (8) With the enemy looking on He [Lord Boar] placed the earth within His sight on the water and  invested her with the power of His own strength [to stay afloat]. [For that] He was praised by the creator of the universe and pleased with flowers by the ones in charge. (9) Hiranyâksha with his wealth of golden ornaments, his huge mace and his beautiful golden armor, followed Him closely behind and  constantly pierced the core of His heart with terribly angry abuses. But He laughed about it and addressed him. (10) The Supreme Lord said: 'We [boars] are indeed creatures of the jungle, for I seek to kill dogs just like you oh mischievous one.  [And as for your insults: We] heroes who are free from the bondage of death take no notice of the loose talk of someone bound [to this or that culture]. (11) We [digging up matters] are thieves of the reserves of the inhabitants of the lower worlds and are not ashamed about it. Despite being chased by your mace We somehow will manage to maintain in battle. Where can one go having challenged such a mighty adversary? (12) [You] being the commander of the leaders of foot soldiers have to take steps to defeat Us forthwith, without further consideration. And with killing Us you wipe the tears away of your kith and kin. Is it not so that he who does not fulfill the words of his promise deserves no place in an assembly?'

(13) Maitreya said: 'The attacker, thus being insulted and ridiculed by the Supreme One of Devotion got seriously agitated and furious as a challenged cobra. (14) Hissing of anger and stirred in all his senses because of his wrath, the demon quickly attacked and threw his mace at the Lord. (15) The Lord however stepped aside to evade the blow of the mace thrown by the enemy, just like an accomplished yogi eluding death. (16) After picking up his mace again he brandished it about repeatedly and bit his lip in the rage of his anger to rush towards the Lord for the second time. (17) But, oh gentle one [Vidura], He as an expert on this weapon with the help of His mace saved Himself by striking the enemy with it on his right eyebrow. (18) In this manner Hiranyâksha and the Lord both eager for the victory were furiously striking each other with their huge maces. (19) The two combatants with their bodies injured by the pointed maces, smelled the oozing blood, which increased their vigor to perform diverse maneuvers in their effort to win. It looked like an encounter between two bulls fighting about a cow.

(20) Oh descendant of Kuru, Brahmâ, the self-born one who desired to witness what transpired for the sake of the world came, accompanied by the sages, for the Daitya Hiranyâksha and the Supersoul of all sacrifices who had engaged His potency to appear in the form of a boar. (21) Upon seeing the power the Daitya Hiranyâksha had acquired and how he, unafraid, had arrived at an unavoidable opposition, the respectable Lord Brahmâ, the leader of thousands of sages, addressed the original Lord Nârâyana in His boar form. (22-23) Brahmâ said: 'This one, oh God, is to the gods, the brahmins, the cows, the normal living beings and the innocent souls who obtained Your feet, an evil-doer, a source of fear doing wrong by the power of a boon obtained from me. He wandering about as a pain to everyone as a demon has searched all the universe missing a proper adversary. (24) Play no innocent game with him oh God, aroused he is a snake full of tricks, arrogant, self-righteous and most wicked. (25) Please oh Infallible One, engage Your  internal potency and forthwith kill the sinner before he one moment seizes the opportunity to increase his formidable power. (26) This encroaching dark of night destroys the world, oh Soul of Souls, please bring victory to the God-conscious ones. (27) This auspicious moment called abhijit [the eight muhûrta, about midday] has almost passed now. For the welfare of us, Your friends, quickly dispose of this formidable foe. (28) The death of this one, who fortunately arrived here on his own accord, was ordained by You. Show him Your power in the duel, kill him and restore the peace of the worlds.'

Chapter 19: The Killing of the Demon Hiranyâksha

(1) Maitreya said: 'Hearing Brahmâ's sincere, nectarine words made the Lord heartily laugh who accepted them with a glance laden with love. (2) Then, jumping up, the Lord born from the nostril with His mace struck the demoniac enemy who was fearlessly stalking before Him sideways on the chin. (3) But that blow was stopped by Hiranyâksha's mace in such a way that the Lord His mace miraculously enough slipped from His hands and fell down whirling with an astonishing glow. (4) Even though Hiranyâksha thus had an excellent opportunity, he did not attack out of respect for the combat code that one does not attack someone who has no weapon. This excited the Lord. (5) As His mace fell, a cry of fear rose [among the bystanders] but the confrontation with Hiranyâksha's righteousness made the All-powerful Lord think of His Sudars'ana-cakra. (6) Playing with the vile son of Diti, this greatest one of His associates, He rotated His discus and met with various expressions of disbelief from those who unaware [of all His powers] crowded the sky and said: 'Hail to You, please kill him.'

(7) The Daitya upon seeing Him whose eyes were like the petals of lotus flowers, standing armed with His disc before him, prepared and looking at Him, his senses were overpowered by indignation and hissing like a serpent he bit his lips in great resentment. (8) With his fearful huge teeth and staring eyes burning like fire he then attacked Him with his club saying: 'And thus You are slain!', and hurled it at the Lord. (9) That mace, even though it had the force of a tempest oh seeker of truth, was by the Supreme Lord of sacrifices who had assumed the form of a boar, before the eyes of His enemy playfully knocked down with His left leg.

(10) He then said: 'Pick it up and try again if you are that eager to win'. At that time the thus challenged Hiranyâksha roaring loudly stroke again. (11) The Lord seeing the mace flying towards Him, stood firm and caught it as easily as Garuda would seize a serpent. (12) With his bravery frustrated the great demon shattered in his pride humiliated refused to take back the mace the Lord offered Him. (13) He instead of that took up a trident and flaming like fire ravenously went against the Varâha appearance of the Lord of Sacrifice, like someone with evil intentions going against a brahmin. (14) The shiny trident the mightiest among the Daityas with all his strength had hurled, in his flight shone all the brighter but was like Garuda's wing being clipped off by Indra [when Garuda once snatched a pot of nectar], cut to pieces by the sharp rim of the cakra. (15) When he saw his trident cut to pieces by the Lord His disc, he infuriated came roaring forward to strike the broad and S'rîvatsa-marked chest of the Lord, the abode of the goddess, hard with his fist. Thereafter the demon disappeared from sight. (16) Thus struck by him, oh Vidura, the Supreme Lord in His first incarnation as a boar was not in the least shaken. He was not more affected than an elephant hit with a bunch of flowers. (17) The people however now saw the Lord of the internal potency being sieged with an array of tricks and they fearfully thought that the end of the world was at hand. (18) Fierce winds were blowing and in all directions darkness spread because of the dust while stones came down as if an entire army was engaged. (19) The luminaries in the sky disappeared behind masses of clouds from which it thundered and lightened with a constant downpour of pus, hair, blood, stool, urine and bones. (20) Oh sinless one, from the mountains all kinds of weapons were discharged and naked demonesses with their hair hanging loose were seen who were armed with tridents. (21) Many savage devils and demons on foot, horseback, on chariots and elephants appeared, who shouted cruel words of murder. (22) Following this display of magical power by the demon the beloved enjoyer of the three sacrifices [of hearing, goods and breath, see B.G. 4: 26-27] desiring an end to it all cast the weapon of His most excellent presence [the Sudars'ana-cakra].

(23) At that very moment suddenly a shudder ran through the heart of Diti [the mother of the demon] and recalling the words of her husband [Kas'yapa] blood flowed from her breasts. (24) With his magic forces being dispelled the demon reappeared before the Supreme Lord and full of rage embraced Him in order to crush Him, but he found the Lord outside of his grip. (25) Hiranyâksha stroke Lord Adhokshaja [He beyond the control of the senses] with his fist as hard as a thunderbolt, but was hit by Him just below his ear, like the Lord of the Maruts [Indra] did with the demon Vritra. (26) Even though he by the Invincible Lord was slapped in a casual manner, the demon's body wheeled around, his eyes bulged out of their sockets and with his arms and legs lifeless and his hair scattered, he fell down like a gigantic tree uprooted by the wind.

(27) The self-born one [Brahmâ] and others who saw him lying on the ground with his glow still unfaded and his teeth through his lip, said, approaching in admiration: 'O who indeed could meet his final destination this way? (28) He upon whom the yogis absorbed in the union of their consciousness in seclusion meditate in seeking liberation from the unreal, material body, struck with one of His legs the son, the crest jewel of the Daityas who left behind his body gazing at His countenance. (29) Both the personal assistants of the Lord have been cursed to be born again in godless families for a couple of lives, after which they will return to their positions.'

(30) The demigods said: 'All obeisances to You, oh Enjoyer of all Sacrifices who for the sake of maintaining [this world] assumed a form of pure goodness. To our good fortune You've slain this one who was wreaking havoc in all the worlds. With devotion to Your feet, we are now at ease.'

(31) S'rî Maitreya said: 'After thus having killed the so very powerful Hiranyâksha, the Lord, the source of the boar incarnation, praised by the one seated on the lotus and the other gods, returned to His abode where His glory is celebrated continuously. (32) To you, dear friend, I explained as it was told to me, how the Supreme Lord descending in a material form put an end to the activities of the so very powerful Hiranyâksha who in a great fight was killed like a plaything.' "

(33) Sûta said: "Vidura, the great devotee thus from the son of Kushâru [Maitreya] hearing the narration about the Supreme Lord, achieved the highest bliss oh brahmin [S'aunaka]. (34) Considering the joy one derives from hearing stories about virtuous souls of name and fame, what a joy wouldn't one derive from listening to a story about Him with the S'rivatsa mark on His chest? (35) The king of the elephants [Gajendra] who was attacked by an alligator, meditated upon the lotus feet while his wives were crying and was thus quickly delivered from the danger [see 8.2-4]. (36) Who would not take shelter of Him who is so easily worshiped by men without pretensions; which grateful soul would not render service to the One who is impossible to worship for those who are not real seekers? (37) He who hears, chants and takes pleasure in this wonderful pastime of the Supreme One who as a boar raised the earth out of the ocean and killed Hiranyâksha, will instantly be freed, even if he finished off a brahmin, oh twice-born! (38) This narrative is most edifying, is very sacred, brings wealth, fame, longevity and will provide all that one needs. Whoever listens to it will on the battlefield find his life force and senses strengthened by it and at the end of one's life it will grant the shelter of Lord Nârâyana, oh dear S'aunaka."

Chapter 20: The Beings Created by Brahmâ

(1) S'aunaka said: "After the position of the earth was restored [by Lord Varâha] oh son of Romaharshana [Sûta], what did Svâyambhuva Manu [see 2.7: 2, 3.12: 54, 3.13: 2] do to show those to be born the path? (2) Vidura, the great, unalloyed devotee and intimate friend of Lord Krishna, abandoned his elder brother [Dhritarâshthra] because he and his hundred sons went against Krishna. (3) Born from the body of Vyâsa and in no way inferior to him in greatness, he with all his heart took shelter of Lord Krishna and followed those devoted to Him. (4) What was it that this hero of purity when he visited the holy places asked Maitreya, the foremost knower of spiritual life whom he had met at Kus'âvarta [Hardwar] where he resided? (5) When the two engaged in their conversation oh Sûta, that resulted in the  spotless narrations that like the waters of the Ganges vanquish all sins when one takes shelter of the Lord's lotus feet. (6) All good fortune to you! Tell us the stories about His selfless actions that are so worthy to be sung. What devotee appreciative of the devotional mellows [rasas] one has with Him would have enough of drinking in the nectar of the Lord's pastimes?"

(7) Thus being questioned by the sages assembled in the Naimishâranya forest, Sûta who had dedicated his mind to the Lord then said to them: "Just listen to this."

(8) Sûta said: "Vidura, having heard how the Lord had assumed the body of a boar, He by His own potency had uplifted the earth from the bottom of the ocean and as a good sport indifferently had killed Hiranyâksha, was overjoyed and addressed the sage. (9) Vidura said: 'Oh holy sage, knower of that which is beyond our scope, please tell me what Brahmâ has started after bringing forth the Prajâpatis who created mankind. (10) How did the learned ones headed by Marîci observe the brahminical order of Svâyambhuva Manu and how have they developed this world? (11) Have they operated being married, did they remain independent or have they all worked together bringing about all of this?'

(12) Maitreya said: 'By Mahâ-Vishnu, by the eternally active power of the hard to grasp divine ordinance, the equilibrium of the three modes of nature got disturbed, so that the complete of the Fortunate One His material elements was produced. (13) From the greatness of the cosmic intelligence [the mahat-tattva], as ordained by the divine, beginning from the [spatial force field of the] ether the birth of the basic reality of the material elements [the ego as known] in groups of five took place [the five elements, five senses, five sense objects and five sense organs] with the threefold of nature in which the element of passion [or quality of movement] predominates. (14) Those elements, which on themselves could not bring about the coherence of the material universe, produced, having combined with the union of the divine, a globe that shone like gold. (15) It lay in the waters of the causal ocean as an egg in an unconscious state for in fact quite a bit longer than a thousand [celestial] years before the Lord [as Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu] entered it. (16) From the Lord's navel the lotus of a thousand and more suns sprouted with a dazzling splendor [the galaxy, see 2.2: 24-25]. It is the abode of all conditioned souls where the self-born one [Lord Brahmâ, the Creator] found his existence as the first living entity. (17) When the Lord who sleeps in the causal waters entered Brahmâ's heart, he created the universe as he did before.

(18) First of all he from his shadow created the five types of ignorance called tâmisra [forgetfulness], andha-tâmisra [the illusion of death], tama [not knowing oneself], moha [the illusion of being matter] and mahâ-moha [mad after matter, craving; compare 3.12: 2]. (19) Dissatisfied Brahmâ threw off this body of ignorance which was then seized by Yakshas [evil spirits] and Râkshasas [wild men, demons] to serve as the darkness that is the source of hunger and thirst. (20) Controlled by that hunger and thirst they ran after him in order to eat him and cried in their affliction: 'Do not spare him!' (21) That disturbed the godhead and he told them: 'Do not eat me, but preserve me, for you Râkshasas and Yakshas are my sons!'

(22) The demigods who shine with the glory of the fear of God and were created first, took hold of the effulgent form of the daytime which as the vehicle of God was left behind. (23) The god, from his backside, next gave birth to the godless who fond of sex approached the Creator in lust for copulation. (24) At first the worshipable Lord had to laugh about being followed by the shameless ones of darkness, but he then terrified and annoyed, hurried to get away. (25) He turned to Him who bestows all boons and whose feet are sought, the Lord who dispels distress and who, in order to show His mercy to His devotees, manifests Himself in a suitable form: (26) 'Protect me oh Supersoul, following Your order I created those sinful living beings who approach me for having sex, oh Master. (27) Only You are capable of relieving the people who are afflicted by material miseries, only You can stop those who do not take shelter of Your feet.'

(28) He who unerringly knows the mind of each soul, seeing the distress of Lord Brahmâ told him: 'Cast off your impure body' and thus commanded he cast it off. (29) That body [in the form of a woman] was intoxicating with tinkling ankle bells, adorable feet, overwhelming eyes and a gold-ornamented shining girdle around the hips covered by fine cloth. (30) The breasts were tightly pressed together and raised high, the nose was well formed, the teeth beautiful, the smile lovely and the look defiant. (31) She hid herself out of shyness. Oh Vidura, all the godless ones fancying the braids of her dark hair were captivated by the woman: (32) 'Oh what a beauty, what a grace; oh what a budding youth! That she walks with us who are so desirous of her, as if she's free from passion!' (33) Indulging in all kinds of speculation about the evening twilight that had assumed the form of a young woman, the wicked-minded ones fond of her, full of respect asked her: (34) 'Who are you? Whom do you belong to, oh pretty one? Why have you come here, oh passionate lady? You are tantalizing us, unfortunate ones, with the priceless commodity of your beauty! (35) Whoever you may be oh beautiful girl, by the fortune of seeing you play with a ball, we onlookers have lost our head. (36) Moving your lotus feet about oh beautiful woman, you bounce that ball with the palm of your hand. The weight of your full grown breasts must be tiresome for that waist of yours. You look as if you're tired, please loosen the tie of your hair!'

(37) The godless this way with their minds clouded took the twilight of the evening for the wanton form of an alluring woman and seized her. (38) With a smile of deep significance the worshipful Lord then by the self-awareness of His own sweetness created the hosts of celestial musicians and dancing girls [the Gandharvas and Apsaras]. (39) The attractive form that factually was the shining moonlight He gave up and the Gandharvas headed by Vis'vâvasu gladly took possession of it. (40) When Lord Brahmâ, after he from sloth had created the ghosts and evil spirits, saw them naked and with disorderly hair, he closed his eyes. (41) They took possession of the body was thrown off that by the master of creation and which is known as yawning. With it one sees the living beings drooling in their sleep, which is an unclean state that [with the ghosts and evil spirits belonging to it] constitutes the bewilderment of which one speaks as insanity.(42) Recognizing himself as being full of energy the worshipful Brahmâ, the master of all beings, from his invisible form created the hosts of Sâdhyas and Pitâs [the invisible demigods and departed souls]. (43) They, the Pitâs, accepted that body, the source of their existence, and it is through that body that those well versed in the rituals offer their oblations [called s'râddha] to these Sâdhyas and Pitâs. (44) The Siddhas [the ones of special powers] and also the Vidyâdharas [the knowledgeable spirits] were created by his faculty of remaining hidden from vision. He gave them that wonderful form of himself known as Antardhâna [of being present but remaining unseen]. (45) From admiring himself seeing his reflection in the water the master in his self-awareness created the Kinnaras [the ones of power] and Kimpurushas [the monkey-like]. (46) They took possession of the form of the shadow he left behind, for the reason of which they every daybreak [during the brâhma-muhûrta, one and a half hours before sunrise] gather with their spouses to glorify his exploits in song. (47) Once fully stretching his body as he laid down, he to his great concern saw that the creation lacked in progress. Thereupon he out of his anger gave up that body also. (48) Oh Vidura, from the hairs falling from that body the beings without limbs were created. From their crawling bodies the snakes evolved from whom one with the vicious cobras sees the hood on their neck.

(49) When he [once] felt as if he had accomplished his life's purpose, from his mind finally sprouted the Manus [the original fathers of mankind] for promoting the welfare of the world. (50) He gave them the form of his own impassioned, personal body, seeing which those who were created earlier welcomed the Prajâpati [the founding father] with the following eulogy: (51) 'O Creator of the Universe, you created everything so very well: all the ritualistic customs you have settled so firmly for us to share in the sacrificial oblations! (52) By being of penance, through worship and by connectedness in yogic discipline being immersed in the finest absorption, you the first seer, the controller of the senses, have evolved the sages, your beloved sons. (53) Each of them you, the unborn one, have given a part of your own body that carries deep meditation, yogic union, supernatural ability, penance, knowledge and renunciation.'

Chapter 21: The Conversation Between Manu and Kardama

(1) Vidura said: 'Oh supreme one, be so good to describe the most esteemed dynasty of Svâyambhuva Manu, the sexual intercourse of which led to all the progeny. (2) Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, the two sons of Svâyambhuva Manu, ruled according to the principles of religion the world consisting of the seven continents. (3) The daughter of that Manu named Devahûti oh brahmin, was the wife of the father of mankind you spoke of [see 3.12: 27] as Kardama Muni, oh sinless one. (4) Can you tell me, eager as I am, the story about how the many offspring of Kardama Muni, who was in fact a great mystic yogi endowed with the eight perfections [see 3.15: 45], sprouted from her? (5) And how did the worshipful Ruci, oh brahmin, and Daksha, the son of Brahmâ, generate their offspring after securing the two other daughters of Svâyambhuva Manu as their wives?'

(6) Maitreya said: 'Lord Brahmâ told the supreme muni Kardama to beget children after he for ten thousand years had practiced penance on the bank of the river Sarasvatî. (7) Absorbed in that connectedness Kardama in his yoga was of devotional service unto Him, the Lord who bestows all mercy upon the surrendered souls. (8) The Supreme lotus-eyed Lord being pleased then showed him in Satya-yuga through the process of hearing oh Vidura, the absolute truth of His transcendental form. (9) He saw that that body of His was as effulgent and pure as the sun with a garland of white water lilies and lotuses and an abundance of slick blackish-blue locks of hair, a lotus-like face and dressed in spotless clothes. (10) Adorned with a crown and wearing earrings He, captivating the heart with His smiling glances, held a conch, a disc and a mace and played with a white lily. (11) He saw Him in the air standing with His lotus feet on the shoulders of Garuda with the famous Kaustubha jewel on His chest hanging down from His neck. (12) Having achieved his desire he whose heart had always been filled with love jubilantly fell down with his head to the ground and with folded hands pleased [Him] with prayers.

(13) The sage said: 'Oh worshipable Lord, now we have attained the complete success of having You, the Reservoir of All Goodness, before our eyes; a sight that is aspired [even] by yogis who attained the perfection of yoga after gradually elevating through many births. (14) Oh Lord, You even fulfill the desires of those who, because of Your deluding energy, have lost their intelligence and worship Your lotus feet - that are the boat for crossing over the ocean of mundane existence - for the purpose of obtaining the trivial pleasures of life that one also finds in hell. (15) Desiring to marry a girl of a likewise disposition who in one's marriage is as a cow of plenty, I also with doubtful intentions approached You, the root and source of everything and desire tree that fulfills all wishes. (16) Oh original father of all, the conditioned souls in the grip of desire are all bound by the rope of the words of You as the Lord of the living beings. I, following their example also offer my oblations to You, oh light of eternal time. (17) But those who gave up on the pursuance of their animalistic, earthly interests as also the people belonging to them, and by discussing Your qualities with each other took shelter under the umbrella of Your lotus feet, with the help of that intoxicating nectar put an end to their being a servant of their physical bodies. (18) The wheel of the universe which with a tremendous speed spins around the axle of the imperishable [nature] of You [Brahman] with three naves [sun, moon and stars], [twelve to] thirteen spokes [as lunar months], three hundred and sixty joints [as days in a demigod year], six rims [as seasons], and innumerable leaves [moments], cuts short the life-span of the universe but not the lives of the devotees. (19) You oh Supreme Lord as the One Self without a second, are desirous to bring about in Yourself and control by Your deluding yogamâyâ potency, the universes that You by dint of Your own potency create, maintain and again wind up like a spider does. (20) This material world with its gross and subtle elements that You manifest for us, was not just meant by You for providing sensual pleasures. Let that world be there also for our ultimate good [the beatitude] whenever we through Your causeless mercy may perceive the Fortunate One splendid with the tulsî [of the devotion for You]. (21) In order to realize the detachment from enjoying the fruits, You by Your energies brought about the material worlds. I continuously offer My obeisances to the worshipable lotus feet that shower benedictions on the insignificant ones.'

(22) The sage [Maitreya] said: 'Thus having been praised sincerely Lord Vishnu replied Kardama Muni with words sweet as nectar, while He, radiating affection standing on the shoulders of Garuda, smilingly looked on from below His expressive eyebrows. (23) The Supreme Lord said: 'Knowing your state of mind, I have already arranged that for which you exercised yourself with Me as the one and only to be worshiped. (24) The exclusive worship of Me the way it exists of people like you who have fixed their attention fully on Me, is never without meaning and purpose, oh leader of the people. (25) The son of the father of man, the emperor Svâyambhuva Manu, whose righteous actions are well known, lives in Brahmâvarta [the world as part of Brahmâ's lotus] where he rules over the seven oceans and the earth. (26) He, the saintly king, oh learned one, will along with his queen come to this place the day after tomorrow, wishing to meet you as an expert in religious matters. (27) He has a grown-up daughter with black eyes and a character full of good qualities and is searching for a husband. He will give you her hand in marriage oh master, for you are a suitable candidate. (28) She is the one your heart longed for all these years, she is your princess oh brahmin and will soon serve you to your desire. (29) She, from the seed sown in her by you, will give birth to nine daughters, and from those daughters the sages will beget all of their children. (30) When you've carried out My command properly and are completely purified unto Me in forsaking the fruits of action, you will finally attain Me. (31) And when you have shown compassion and have given assurance to all souls, you will be self-realized and perceive yourself and the universe as being in Me, as also Me being in you. (32) By your semen I will [appear] as My own plenary portion oh great sage and instruct your wife Devahûti in the doctrine of the ultimate reality.'

(33) Maitreya said: 'Thus having spoken to him, the Supreme Lord who could be directly perceived by the senses departed from lake Bindu-sarovar through which the river Sarasvatî flows. (34) While He before his eyes left by the path of perfection [to the spiritual world] that is praised by all liberated souls, the sage heard the hymns that form the Sâma Veda being vibrated by the wings of the Lord's carrier [Garuda]. (35) Then, after His departure, Kardama, the greatly powerful sage, stayed on the bank of lake Bindu, waiting for the things to come.

(36) Svâyambhuva Manu mounted together with his wife a gold-plated chariot, placed his daughter on it and traveled all over the earth. (37) Oh great archer, as the Lord had foretold, he reached the hermitage of the sage on the very day he completed his vows of austerity. (38-39) That holy auspicious water of the Sarasvatî river flooding the lake was the nectar that had been frequented by hosts of great sages. It was verily a lake of tears, the way it was called after the teardrops that fell down from the Lord's eyes when He was overwhelmed by His extreme compassion for this surrendered soul. (40) The place was holy with clusters of trees and creepers with the pleasant cries of good-natured animals and birds. Adorned by the beauty of groves of trees it was rich with fruits and flowers throughout all the seasons. (41) It teemed with the life of flocks of birds, intoxicated bees madly buzzing around, peacocks proudly dancing and merry cuckoos calling each other. (42-43) The lake was adorned by kadamba, campaka, as'oka, karañja and bakula flowers and âsana, kunda, mandâra, kuthaja trees and young mango trees and the pleasant sounds could be heard of kârandava ducks, plavas, swans, ospreys, waterfowls, cranes, cakravâka and cakora birds. (44) There were also masses of deer, boars, porcupines, gavayas [wild cows], elephants, baboons, lions, monkeys, mongooses and musk deer.

(45-47) When the first monarch with his daughter entered that eminent place, he saw the sage sitting in his hermitage, offering oblations in the sacred fire. His body shone brilliantly because of his prolonged, terrible penance of yoga and was not very emaciated, for the Lord had cast His affectionate, sidelong glance upon him and made him listen to His moonlike, nectarean words. He was tall with eyes as the petals of a lotus, had matted locks of hair and ragged clothes. Approaching him he appeared to be soiled like an unpolished gem. (48) The monarch having approached the cottage bowed before him, whereupon the sage received him with honor and gave him a welcome befitting a king. (49) After having accepted the respect offered, he then remained seated silently and was delighted to hear what the sage, thinking of what the Lord had told him, then in a pleasant tone of voice said:

(50) 'I am sure oh divine personality, that you tour around in order to protect the virtuous ones and put an end to the life of the wicked ones, since you are the person representing the Lord's protective potency. (51) According to the necessity you assume the different forms of the sun, the moon, the fire [Agni], the Lord of heaven [Indra], the wind [Vâyu], the one chastising [Yama], the religion [Dharma] and of the waters [Varuna]. I offer Lord Vishnu who is You my obeisances. (52-54) If you would not have mounted the chariot of victory bedecked with its mass of jewels and have twanged your bow so frighteningly, threatening all the culprits with your presence, if your leading a huge army of trampling foot soldiers would not have shaken the earth roaming the globe like the brilliant sun, then surely all moral codes and obligations of the vocations [varna] and age groups [âs'rama] as arranged by the Lord oh King, alas would have been broken by rogues. (55) When you would rest, unrighteousness would flourish with a lack of control over men who are simply after the money. This world would then be seized by the miscreants and come to naught [see also B.G. 3: 23]. (56) Nevertheless I ask you, oh heroic one, what the reason is of your visit, for that is what we without reservation will carry out with heart and soul.'

Chapter 22: The Marriage of Kardama Muni and Devahûti

(1) Maitreya said: 'After the sage this way had described the greatness of the virtues and activities of emperor Manu he fell silent. The emperor feeling somewhat embarrassed by it then addressed him. (2) Manu said: 'You [brahmins] were in your being connected in penance, knowledge and yoga and being turned away from sense gratification, by the Creator created from His mouth for the purpose of defending Him in the form of praises [Vedic hymns]. (3) And we were by the Father with the Thousand Feet [the Lord of the Universal Form] created from His thousand arms in order to protect them again. Thus the brahmins are called His heart and the kshatriyas [the rulers] His arms. (4) Because the godhead, the One Imperishable who is both cause and effect, defends the both of them, the brahmins and the kshatriyas protect each other as also the [interest of the] soul. (5) By just seeing how you oh supreme one, personally so lovingly explained what the duty of a king is to his subjects, all my doubts have resolved. (6) It is my good fortune oh powerful one, that I could see you who cannot be seen easily by those who are not acting in accord with the soul. Happily enough my head could touch the dust of your feet that bring all the blessing. (7) I am lucky to have been granted the great favor of being instructed by you. How lucky I am to have listened with pricked up ears to your pure words! (8) Oh sage, your honor, now be pleased yourself to listen to the prayer of this humble person whose mind is full of worries out of love for his daughter. (9) This daughter of mine, the sister of Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, is seeking a husband suitable for her age, character and good qualities. (10) The moment she heard from Nârada Muni about your noble character, learning, appearance, youth and virtues, she fixed her mind upon you. (11) Therefore, please accept her oh best of the twice-born ones, she is offered by me believing that she in every way is suitable for your household duties. (12) To deny a thing of one's desire that in fact came by itself is not commendable, not even for someone who is free from attachment to sensual pleasures, let alone someone addicted. (13) He who rejects what is offered [generously] and begs from a stingy person, looses his honor and will see his reputation and renown ruined. (14) Oh wise man, I heard that you intended to marry and hence have not taken the vow of perpetual celibacy. Then please accept my offer [*].'

(15) The rishi replied: 'Yes I would like to marry and your daughter has not promised herself to anyone. Based upon this a marriage of us according to the rules will be proper. (16) Let that desire of your daughter, which is recognized by scriptural authority, be fulfilled oh King. Who would not adore your daughter? Her bodily luster alone outshines the beauty of her ornaments! (17) [But...] wasn it not Vis'vâvasu [a Gandharva, a heavenly being] who, when he on the roof of the palace saw her with tinkling ankle bells and bewildered eyes playing with a ball, infatuated fell down from his elevated position ['his heavenly vehicle'] with a mind in disarray? (18) What man of wisdom wouldn't welcome her, that gem of womanhood who came of her own accord [to seek my hand] as the beloved daughter of Manu and sister of Uttânapâda, she who is not found by the ones who missed the feet of the goddess of fortune? (19) This is therefore my condition: I will accept the chaste girl for as long as it takes her to be with child from the semen of my body. I thereafter consider to take up the duties of service as respected by the best of the ones of perfection [the paramahamsas], that are nonviolent and about which the Lord spoke to me [in 3.21: 31]. (20) To me the highest authority is the Supreme Unlimited One, the Lord of the fathers of mankind [the Prajâpatis] from whom this wonderful creation emanated, He in whom it will dissolve and by whom it presently exists.'

(21) Maitreya said: 'He, oh great warrior, spoke this much only and became silent with his thoughts focussed on Vishnu's lotus navel. With a beautiful smile on his face, he then captured the mind of Devahûti. (22) After Manu had confirmed the decision taken by the queen mother [S'atarûpâ] and also had probed his daughter's mind about him, he extremely pleased gave her away who endowed with as many good qualities was a good match for him [Kardama]. (23) S'atarûpâ, the empress, lovingly gave in dowry to the bride and bridegroom valuable presents like ornaments, clothes and household articles. (24) The emperor relieved of the responsibility of giving his daughter to a suitable man then with an agitated mind full of anxiety enclosed her in his arms. (25) Unable to part from her he shed tears, drenching his daughter's hair over and over with the water from his eyes and cried: 'Oh dear mother, my dearest daughter!'

(26-27) After asking and receiving permission to leave him, the best of sages, the emperor with his wife mounted his chariot and headed along with his retinue for his capital, on the road enjoying the tranquil scenery of the hermitages of the sages on both the charming banks of the river the Sarasvatî. (28) Elated to know who was arriving, the subjects of Brahmâvarta went to meet him with songs, praise and instrumental music. (29-30) The city, rich with all kinds of wealth, was named Barhishmatî after the hairs of the shaking body of Lord Boar that had fallen down and turned into the evergreen kus'a and kâs'a grass [grasses used for sitting places and mats] with which the sages defeated the disturbers of their sacrifices in worship of Lord Vishnu. (31) Having spread that kus'a and kâs'a grass the greatly fortunate Manu had created a seat in worship of the Lord of Sacrifice [Vishnu] by whom he had achieved his position on earth. (32) Having arrived in the city of Barhishmatî where he thus far had lived, the mighty one entered his palace that eradicated the threefold miseries of life [of body and mind, as caused by others and of nature]. (33) He, not disturbed by others, enjoyed the pleasures of life together with his wife and subjects and was praised for his reputation of piety, for he was in his heart very drawn to listening with his wives each morning to the celestial musicians and talks about the Lord. (34) Even though Svâyambhuva Manu was absorbed in the deluding oneness of matter, he was as a saint. Being a supreme devotee of the Lord he could not be lead astray by his material enjoyments. (35) He did not spend his hours idle and spent his life till his last days with listening to, contemplating, recording and discussing the topics of Lord Vishnu. (36) In his being connected with the topics of Vâsudeva thus transcending the three destinations [according to the modes, see B.G. chapter 18], he made his era last for the time of seventy-one mahâyugas. (37) How can the miseries pertaining to body and mind, the powers of nature and other men and living beings oh Vidura, ever trouble someone who lives under the protection of the Lord? (38) He [Manu] who always cared about the welfare of all living beings spoke, on the request of the sages, about the many types of duties beneficial to human society of the status orientations [varnas and âs'ramas, the vocations and agegroups]. (39) This is what I could tell you about the wonderful character of Manu the first emperor, who deserved all praise. Now please listen to the advance of his daughter [Devahûti].'

*: Naishthhika-brahmacârîs vow for lifelong celibacy, upakurvâna-brahmacârîs do so up to a certain age.

Chapter 23: Devahûti's Lamentation

(1) Maitreya said: 'After the departure of the parents the chaste woman who understood the desires of her husband constantly served her spouse with a love as great as that of Pârvatî for S'iva, her Lord. (2) Intimately, with a pure soul, with great respect and sense-control she was of service with love and sweet words oh Vidura. (3) Forsaking lust, pride, envy, greed, sinful actions and vanity she always pleased her powerful husband diligently with good sense. (4-5) She, the daughter of Manu fully devoted to him who no doubt was the foremost sage among the divine rishis, expected greater blessings from him than from providence. But he saw that she had grown weak and emaciated because of the protracted religious observance and with an of love stammering voice he, overcome with compassion, spoke to her. (6) Kardama said: 'At present I am pleased with you oh respectful daughter of Manu, because of your most excellent, supreme service and devotion. But you do not properly take care of that body so extremely dear to this embodiment; you deplete it in my service. (7) The blessings of the Lord I achieved myself in my religious life of being fully engaged in austerity, meditation and fixing my mind in the knowledge, can just as well be obtained by you in your devotional service to me. Look at them with the help of the transcendental vision free from fear and lamentation that I grant you. (8) What material achievements compare to this grace of the Lord of Fortune? Those enjoyments find their end in a single movement of an eyebrow of the Lord of the Great Strides. Thanks to your conscientious service you can now enjoy the success of the supernatural gifts which for people who are proud of their lineage are so difficult to obtain.' (9) After he had spoken this way the woman who heard him excel in the special knowledge of yoga found satisfaction and with a voice choked with humility and love and a shining, smiling face with a slightly bashful glance, she spoke to him.

(10) Devahûti said: 'Oh best of the brahmins, oh mighty husband, I know of the mastery of your infallibility in the power of yoga. Let then now your promise be fulfilled that once we would have united in the body we may enjoy the greater glory of having progeny which for a chaste woman is of such a great value. (11) Do for the sake of this that what according to the scriptures needs to be done and by which this, because of an unfulfilled passion and by emotions struck, emaciated, poor body may be rendered fit for you. And please, oh Lord also think of a suitable mansion.'

(12) Maitreya said: 'Seeking the pleasure of his dearest, Kardama exercised his yogic power and produced instantly a high rising palace according to his idea of a desirable place, oh Vidura. (13) It answered all desires and was wonderfully bedecked with all sorts of jewels, all kinds of luxury increasing over time and pillars carved out of precious stone. (14-15) It was equipped with a heaven of paraphernalia and brought happiness throughout all seasons, was decorated with festoons and flags and wreaths of various colors and fabrics, charming sweet flowers humming with bees, fine cloth of linen and silk and was embellished with various tapestries. (16) In stories one over the other there were separate arrangements of beds, comfortable couches and fanned seats. (17) Here and there various artistic engravings were displayed with the extraordinary beauty of a floor with emeralds furnished with coral daises. (18) The doorways had thresholds of coral and doors beautifully bedecked with diamonds. Its domes of sapphire were crowned with golden pinnacles. (19) On the diamond walls there were the choicest rubies that seemed to give them eyes and it was furnished with various canopies and highly valuable gates of gold. (20) The many artfully crafted swans and groups of pigeons here and there made the real ones who thought to see their own kind repeatedly fly over and vibrate their sounds. (21) The pleasure grounds, resting chambers, bedrooms, inner and outer yards designed for comfort astonished the sage himself.

(22) Kardama, who could understand the heart of everyone, saw that Devahûti was not very happy to see such a mansion and then addressed her personally. (23) 'Oh fearful one, before you ascend this high rising palace, please bathe in the sacred lake created by Lord Vishnu [Bindu-sarovara] that fulfills all desires of man.' (24) She, the lotus-eyed one with her matted hair and dirty clothes, then complied with the words of her husband. (25) With her body and her breasts grubby and covered by dirt she entered the lake containing the sacred waters of the Sarasvatî river. (26) In the lake she saw a house with a thousand girls as fragrant as lotuses in the prime of youth. (27) Seeing her all of a sudden the damsels rose and said with folded hands: 'We are your maidservants, please tell us what we can do for you.' (28) After bathing her with the most costly oils, the respectful girls gave the virtuous wife spotless fine new clothes. (29) They also gave her the most valuable ornaments and very excellent splendid food and sweet intoxicating beverages containing all good qualities. (30) She next looked at the mirror image of her body that, freed from all dirt and clad in clean robes, by the utterly respectful maidservants was adorned with a garland and decorated with auspicious marks. (31) Washed from head to toe she was decorated with a golden necklace with locket and bangles and tinkling ankle bells made of gold. (32) About her hips she wore a girdle made of gold decorated with numerous jewels and she was also adorned with a precious pearl necklace and auspicious substances [like saffron, kunkuma - which is perfumed red powder for the breasts -, mustard seed oil and sandelwood pulp]. (33) With her beautiful teeth, charming eyebrows, lovely moist eyes that defeated the beauty of lotus buds and her bluish curly hair, she shone all over. (34) When she thought of her dear husband, the foremost among the sages, she [all of a sudden] found herself along with her maidservants there where he, the founding father, the Prajâpati was. (35) With that sudden return to her husband surrounded by the thousand maidens she was in awe about his yogic power.

(36-37) The sage, seeing her washed clean, shining forth with a soul of unprecedented beauty, girdled, with charming breasts, attended by a thousand celestial girls and excellently dressed, relished the sight and helped her ascend that elevated place, oh destroyer of the enemy. (38) Even though [he appeared to be] attached to his beloved one who was attended by the girls of heaven, he did not lose his glory. Together with her in the palace his person shone as charmingly as the moon in the sky surrounded by the stars causing rows of lilies to open in the night. (39) In that palace, that heavenly vehicle [a vimâna], he reached the pleasure grounds of the gods of heaven and the valleys of Indra, the king of the mountains, that are so beautiful with the falling waters of the Ganges and the cool breezes that arouse the passion. He who like treasurer Kuvera was surrounded by his damsels thus for a long time enjoyed his life while the ones of perfection, the Siddhas, vibrated the auspicious sounds of their praises. (40) Loved by his wife he enjoyed the gardens of Vais'rambhaka, Surasana, Nandana, Pushpabhadraka, Caitrarathya and lake Mânasa-sarovara. (41) With that splendrous and grand palace answering to every desire he moved through the worlds just like the air that reaches everywhere, and surpassed therewith the palaces, the heavenly vehicles, of the greatest gods. (42) What would be difficult to achieve for those men who are determined, for those who have taken refuge of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality that vanquish all danger?

(43) After having shown his wife the entire universe with all its arrangements and many wonders, the great yogi returned to his hermitage. (44) In order to sexually please his wife, the daughter of Manu, he divided himself in nine forms and enjoyed the many years with her like in a moment. (45) In the palace lying on an excellent bed conducive to their love, she in the company of her most handsome husband did not notice the passage of time. (46) Thus for the enjoying couple immersed in their lusts by the power of yoga a hundred autumns passed as in a trice. (47) Powerful Kardama as a knower of the soul knew each his desire. He made love to her as her other half and deposited with the body that he had divided in nine his semen in her. (48) Soon thereafter Devahûti gave birth to [nine] female children who all in every limb were as charming as a fragrant red lotus. (49) Seeing that her husband was about to leave home, she gave a beautiful smile but was innerly upset with a heart in distress. (50) Suppressing her tears, scratching the floor with the radiant, gemlike nails of her foot and with her head bent down, she slowly expressed herself in charming words.

(51) Devahûti said: 'All that you have promised my Lord has been fulfilled, but you should grant the surrendered soul that I am freedom from fear also. (52) My dear brahmin, it is left to your daughters to find a suitable husband. But who is there to comfort me when you have left for the forest? (53) Disregarding the knowledge of the Supreme Soul so much idle time has passed my master, with us indulging in pleasing our senses. (54) Attached to the gratification of our senses my love for you went without recognizing your transcendental existence. May that love nevertheless protect me against all fear. (55) Association with those engaged in sense gratification is the cause of the cycle of birth and death, while ignorantly acting like that in association with a saintly person leads to liberation. (56) When one's work here is not performed for the sake of a higher, more righteous life, when one's righteous life does not lead to detachment and when one's detachment does not lead to devotional service at the place where the Lotus Feet are worshipped, one is a zombie, dead while being alive. (57) It suffers no doubt that I was [the one who] completely [was] deceived by the outer material potency of the Lord, because I despite having achieved you did not seek liberation from material bondage.'


Chapter 24: The Renunciation of Kardama Muni
(1) Maitreya said: 'The merciful sage who thus from his renunciation spoke to the praiseworthy daughter of Manu, replied what he remembered of what was said by Lord Vishnu. (2) The sage said: 'Do not blame yourself like this princess! Oh irreproachable lady, the infallible Supreme Lord will very soon appear in your womb. (3) May God bless you for taking up the sacred vows of sense control, religious observance, austerities and giving money in charity by which you worship the Supreme Controller with great faith. (4) He, being worshiped by you, will spread my fame. He as your son will cut the knot in your heart by teaching the knowledge of Brahman [the Absolute Truth].'

(5) Maitreya said: 'Devahûti in her great respect for the lead of this father of mankind, had full faith in him and thus worshiped the most worshipable one, the Original Personality of God who is situated in everyone's heart. (6) After many, many years the Supreme Lord, the killer of Madhu, entered the semen of Kardama and appeared the way fire does in firewood. (7) At that time musical instruments resounded from the rainclouds in the sky, the Gandharvas sang for Him and the Apsaras were dancing in joyful ecstasy. (8) The gods moving through the sky showered flowers and all directions, all the waters and each his mind became happy. (9) The self-born one [Brahmâ] then came  together with Marîci and the other sages to that place of Kardama where the Sarasvatî river flows. (10) Oh killer of the enemy [Vidura], the independent unborn one [Lord Brahmâ] knew that the Supreme Lord, the highest authority of Brahman, out of pure goodness as a plenary portion had appeared to teach the philosophy of analytical yoga [Sânkhya yoga]. (11) After with a pure heart having worshiped [the personality of] Vishnu, the unborn one glad in all his senses about His action, said the following to Kardama and Devahûti.

(12) Brahmâ said: 'Kardama, fully accepting my instructions oh son, you have honored me and succeeded in worshiping me without duplicity. (13) This is the exact way for sons to render service to their father. With due respect saying 'Yes sir', the son should obey the commands of his spiritual teacher [or father]. (14) These thin-waisted chaste daughters of yours dear son, will with their offspring in different ways contribute to this creation. (15) Please give therefore today your daughters away to the foremost sages according to the temperament and taste of the girls, and thus spread your fame over the universe. (16) I know that the original enjoyer, the bestower of all that is desired by the living entities, descended by dint of His internal potency and has assumed the body of Kapila Muni oh sage. (17) By spiritual knowledge and the science of the yogic uniting of consciousness He who is known by His golden hair, His lotus eyes and lotus-marked feet, will uproot the foundation of profit-minded labor. (18) Know oh Devahûti that the killer of the demon Kaithabha has entered your womb and with cutting the knot of ignorance and doubt will travel all over the world. (19) This personality will be the leader of the perfected ones, His Vedic analysis will carry the approval of the teachers of example [the âcâryas] and to your greater fame, He will be celebrated in the world as Kapila.'

(20) Maitreya said: 'Having assured the couple this way Hamsa [another name for Brahmâ as flying the transcendental swan], the creator of the universe, together with the Kumâras [his sons] and Nârada [his spokesman] returned to his supreme position over the three worlds. (21) After the departure of Brahmâ oh Vidura, Kardama according to the instruction handed his daughters over to the sages who then were responsible for generating the world population. (22-23) Kalâ he handed over to Marîci, Anasûyâ he gave to Atri, S'raddhâ he gave to Angirâ and Havirbhû was given to Pulastya. Gati he gave to Pulaha and the virtuous Kriyâ he found suitable for Kratu. He gave Khyâti to Bhrigu and Arundhatî was given away to sage Vasishthha. (24) Atharvâ he gave to S'ânti by whom the sacrificial ceremonies are performed. Thus the foremost brahmins married to their wives. They were supported by Kardama. (25) Thus being married oh Vidura, the sages took leave of Kardama to return to their hermitages. They departed filled with joy about what they had obtained.

(26) Kardama knowing that He had descended who appears in the three yugas [Vishnu, only seen as a covered 'channa' - avatâra in the last, fourth yuga] as the supreme intelligence of all the wise, then approached Him in seclusion. He offered his obeisances and spoke to Him as follows: (27) 'Oh, finally after such a long time the gods are of mercy for those who have to suffer being entangled in their own misdeeds in this world. (28) After many births, mature yogis perfect by their absorption in yoga endeavor in seclusion to see His feet. (29) That very same Supreme Lordship, He who is there to support His devotees, has today appeared in our homes, despite the negligence of us ordinary householders high and low. (30) To be true to Your words You have descended in my house with the wish to disseminate the spiritual knowledge of the Fortunate One who is there to the greater honor and glory of the devotees. (31) While You Yourself are without a material form, You please the ones following Your path with whichever of those truly apt forms that You assume. (32) The seat of Your feet is always worth the worshipful respect of all men of learning who desire to understand the Absolute Truth. I surrender myself to You who are full of riches, renunciation, fame, knowledge, strength and beauty [the so-called six opulences of the Lord]. (33) I surrender myself to You Lord Kapila, who are the supreme, transcendental personality, the origin of the world, the full awareness of time and the three modes of nature, the Maintainer of All the Worlds and the sovereign power who by His own potency absorbs the manifestations after their dissolution. (34) Today I ask You the following, oh father of all created beings. Since You relieved me of my debts and fulfilled my desires, I ask You to accept me as someone on the path of an itinerant mendicant so that I may wander about with You in my heart and keep myself far from lamentation.'

(35) The Supreme Lord said: 'That what I have to say of the scriptures or from My own mind concerns in fact the [spiritual] authority for the people. I as promised took My birth with you for the sake of that authority, oh sage. (36) This birth of Mine in the world is there to explain to the ones who seek liberation from the troubles of a material existence, the truths [of Sânkhya yoga] so highly celebrated in self-realization. (37) Please know that because this path is so difficult to comprehend and has been lost in the course of time, this body was assumed by Me to introduce it again. (38) Go now to operate with My approval, as you wish, in accord with the renounced order. In order to conquer insurmountable death, for the sake of eternal life please engage in My devotional service. (39) With your intellect always fixed upon Me, the supreme, self-effulgent soul present in the heart of every living being, you will see Me in your own heart and achieve freedom from fear and lamentation. (40) I will give this knowledge of the soul that leads to a spiritual life and puts an end to all fruitive activity, also to My mother so that she also will conquer the fear.'

(41) Maitreya said: 'The progenitor of human society thus addressed by Kapila, circumambulated Him and, verily pacified, then left for the forest. (42) The sage accepted the vow of silence and traveled, taking shelter of the soul only, unaccompanied the earth without having a dwelling place or making fire. (43) He fixed his mind upon the Parabrahman [the spirit of the Absolute in the Beyond, the essence of the Supreme Lord], who free from the modes of nature manifests as the three modes and can only be realized through devotion. (44) By not identifying with the body and taking no interest in the material affair and the duality, he saw, with an equal vision having turned inward, himself perfectly composed with a sober and undisturbed mind like an ocean with its waves pacified. (45) Established within with his transcendental devotional service to Vâsudeva, the Personality of Godhead, the omniscient Supersoul within everyone, he was liberated from material bondage. (46) He saw the Supreme Personality of God as the soul situated in all living beings and also that all living beings have their existence in the Supreme soul. (47) Free from all like and dislike he, with a mind equal to everyone, liberated in the connectedness of his devotional service to the Supreme Lord, attained the ultimate goal of the devotee.'

Chapter 25: The Glories of Devotional Service

(1) S' S'aunaka said: "Although unborn Himself, the Supreme Lord personally from His own potency took birth as Lord Kapila, the analyst of the ultimate truth, in order to disseminate transcendental knowledge for the human race. (2) Hearing repeatedly about Him, the foremost of all yogis and the godhead of the Vedas the greater of whom cannot be found among men, pleases me in all my senses. (3) Please describe to me faithfully all the praiseworthy, self-inspired actions of the Supreme Lord who is so full of the delight of the soul."

(4) Sûta said: "Being a friend of Vyâsadeva the venerable sage Maitreya who was pleased with being asked about transcendental knowledge then spoke as follows to Vidura. (5) Maitreya said: 'When the father had left for the forest, Lord Kapila stayed behind at lake Bindu-sarovara with the desire to please His mother. (6) When He [some day] comfortably sat down before her, Devahûti remembered the words of Brahmâ and addressed Him. He, her son, could show her the path to the goal of the ultimate reality.

(7) Devahûti said: 'Oh my Lord, I am very disgusted with the prevalence of untruth of my agitated senses because of which I fell into the abyss of ignorance. (8) At the end of many births, by Your mercy I now have attained You who are my transcendental eye to overcome the darkness of ignorance that is so difficult to defeat. (9) He who is the origin, de Supreme Lord of all beings and the Master of the Universe has, with You, alike the sun, risen to the eye that was blinded by the darkness of ignorance. (10) You engaged me in this misconception of 'I' and 'mine' [of false ego], so now be pleased my Lord to dispel the delusion. (11) With the desire to know about the material and personal aspect [prakriti and purusha], I offer You my obeisances who are the greatest of all the seers of the true nature. I have taken to the shelter of Your feet because You are the person deserving it, You are for the ones depending on You the ax that cuts the tree of an existence ruled by matter.'

(12) Maitreya said: 'Thus hearing about His mother's innocent and commonly human wish to be successful on the path of liberation, He with a gladdened mind slightly smiling with His beautiful face, expounded on the way of the transcendentalists. (13) The Supreme Lord said: 'The discipline of yoga of relating to the soul for the sake of complete detachment from whatever pleasure and distress, is the ultimate benefit for mankind that carries My approval. (14) Oh pious mother, I will now explain that to you what I formerly explained to the sages who were eager to hear about all the ins and outs of the yoga system. (15) The living being its [state of] consciousness is considered [responsible] for its bondage and liberation. In attraction to the three modes of nature one is materially conditioned, but if one attaches to the soul of the universe [the Original Person], one is of liberation. (16) From the impurities of lust and greed and such, that result from the misconception of 'I' and 'mine', one is freed when the mind is pure in being equipoised, without distress and pleasure. (17) It is in that state that the person, who pure and transcendental to the material world is not bound and fragmented, does not see himself as someone different but as innerly enlightened. (18) With a mind full of spiritual knowledge, renunciation and connectedness in devotion one is indifferent about one's material existence, which is then less of influence. (19) There is no yogic path as auspicious for the perfection of the spirit as the performance of devotional service for the Supreme Lord, the complete of the Soul. (20) Any man of knowledge knows that strong attachment constitutes the entanglement of the soul, but that that same attachment for devotees opens the door to liberation. (21) Being tolerant, compassionate, friendly to all living beings and inimical to no one, peaceful and abiding by the scriptures, the sâdhu [the man of virtue, of holiness, a seer] is adorned with sublime qualities. (22) They who are persistent in performing devotional service unto Me, staunch for My sake refrain from acting in desire and give up family ties and friendships. (23) Delighted to listen to the stories about Me they fix their minds upon Me and chant [My names], without causing distress with their various penances. (24) Oh virtuous mother, try to develop attachment to these devotees who are free from all attachments, for they are the ones who compensate for the harmful effects of being materially entangled. (25) Through association with those who cherish the truth, the stories cultivated in discussing My heroism become a joy to the ear and heart, so that, when one firmly convinced experiences the attraction, soon devotion will follow. (26) A person finding himself situated in devotional service will sincerely strive to control his mind on the path of yoga when he, constantly thinking about My management, in his bhakti has developed a distaste for gratifying his senses in relation to what he sees [now] and hears about [the past and future]. (27) As a person not serving the modes of nature, one attains through spiritual knowledge, with renunciation developed in yoga fixed on Me and devoted to Me, in this very life the Supersoul within.'

(28) Devahûti said: 'What is unto You the proper concept of devotion that is fit for me and from which I immediately will find liberation at Your feet? (29) What oh embodiment of truth, is the nature of the yoga to perceive the Supreme One you spoke about and with how many divisions is reality understood by it? (30) Please explain this to me whose intelligence is but slow oh my Lord, so that I by Your grace may easily comprehend what is so difficult to understand for a woman.'

(31) Maitreya said: 'Kapila understanding what His mother wanted, born from her body sympathized with her and described thus the truths handed down in disciplic succession of what one calls analytical yoga, a form of yoga which in fact concerns a development of mystical yoga in devotional service. (32) The Fortunate One said: 'The divine of [by one's senses and their ruling divinities] relating to the qualities of matter works in accord with the scriptures when someone in relation to the goodness [the Lord] innerly is not divided. Factually the devotional service free from desires unto the Lord - that is better than the single mastery [of the state of salvation] - is something to which one is naturally inclined. (33) The way food is consumed by the fire of digestion this service quickly dissolves the subtle internal dealings of one's material motivation [the 'subtle body']. (34) Pure devotees who engaged in the service of My lotus feet endeavor to attain Me, never ever desire to be one with Me. They assemble to glorify My personal activities in association. (35) Oh mother, they see My smiling face and eyes as beautiful as the morning sun and speak with Me in favorable terms about the benevolence of My transcendental forms. (36) By those forms who are so charming in all their limbs, exalted pastimes, smiling glances and their words, their minds and senses are captivated because of which unwillingly in their devotion the subtlety of My heaven is secured. (37) As a consequence they do not desire My opulence or the eightfold mastery over the material illusion [the siddhis, see 3.15:45], nor do they follow a desire for the splendor of Supreme Divinity. Those devotees full of bliss about Me as the Supreme One, just enjoy their simple lives. (38) Oh mother, My devotees will never, by no [change of] time or weapon of destruction, lose Me [and My opulence] who was chosen by them as their dearest self, son, friend, preceptor, benefactor and deity. (39-40) That way roaming in both this world and the world of subtle experiences, those who in relation to My embodiment in this world have given up on wealth, cattle, houses and everything else, unflinching in their devotion worship Me, the all-pervading Lord of liberation, because I take them to the beyond of birth and death. (41) No other person or anything else but Me, the Supreme Lord and original ruler over matter and the person, the Soul of all souls, can put an end to the terrible fear [of birth and death]. (42) In fear of Me the wind blows and the sun shines, in fear of Me Indra showers rain and fire burns and in fear of Me death is all around. (43) United in spiritual knowledge and renunciation, yogis free from fear in bhakti yoga take shelter of My feet for the ultimate benefit. (44) The only way for people to find in this world the ultimate perfection of life is to steadily focus their mind in an intensive practice of devotional service to Me.'


Chapter 26: Fundamental Principles of Material Nature

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'I will now describe to you the different categories of reality, knowing which anyone can be released from the [yoke of the] modes of material nature. (2) I will explain that to you about which one speaks as the spiritual knowledge [the jñâna] that cuts the knots [of egoism] in the heart and constitutes the ultimate truth of one's self-realization. (3) The Supreme Soul, the Original Person is beginningless and is, situated in the beyond of all matter, transcendental to the modes of nature. He can be perceived everywhere as the self-effulgence of the entire creation that is maintained by Him. (4) That very person, the greatest of the great, accepted out of his own free will as His pastime the subtle material energy that is invested with the three modes and relates to the divinity [of Vishnu]. (5) Nature by means of the modes created the variegated forms of the materially living beings. They in this world being confronted with it, were from the first day on illusioned by it because they [those forms] constitute the covering of their spiritual knowledge. (6) Because the living entity identifies himself with the material action that was brought about by the modes of nature and is other than himself, he unjustly considers himself the doer. (7) He because of that bound to a conditioned life thus became dependent, even though he is the naturally joyful and independent witness who does not do anything. (8) The knowers of truth understand that the body and the senses of one's respect are subject to the causation of the material modes of nature and that the spiritual soul above all matter is responsible for the experience of happiness and distress [see also B.G. 13: 21].'

Devahûti said: 'Kindly explain to me the characteristics of the energies and the Original Person [prakriti and purusha] who together constitute the cause of the manifest and unmanifest reality this creation consists of.'

The Supreme Lord said: 'The undifferentiated, eternal reality that differentiated in the form of material nature [prakriti] as a combination of the three modes, this cause belonging to the effect [of this material manifestation], is called the primary nature [the primal ether or pradhâna]. (11) That primary nature is known as the basis from which the five gross and five subtle elements, the ten senses of perception and action and the four internal sense departments [of mind, ego, consciousness and  intelligence] evolved who together add up to a number of twenty-four [see also elements]. (12) The five gross elements are to be exact: earth, water, fire, air and ether. Of the subtle elements there are, to My notion, as many. They are the smell and so on [taste, color, touch and sound]. (13) The ten senses are the organs of [perception of] hearing, touching, seeing, tasting and smelling, with the [organs of action known as the] mouth, the hands, the legs, the genitals and the organs of excretion as the tenth. (14) Mind, intelligence, ego and consciousness are the four aspects of the internal, subtle sense one distinguishes when one pays attention to the different characteristics of the [brain] functions. (15) Thus are with the classification I provided the material qualities of the Absolute Truth of Brahman summed up [called saguna brahman]. One speaks thereto of time as the twenty-fifth element.

The influence of the Original Personality of God is said to be the time factor that is feared by some who are deluded by the ego of being in contact with the material nature of one's individual existence. (17) The [expanding, accelerating] movement of material nature without her interaction of the modes and their specific qualities oh daughter of Manu, is the [space]time [the fourth dimension] from which we in our world know Him, the Supreme Lord. (18) He who abides within in the form of the original person [purusha] and without in the form of time [the twenty-fifth element], exists by [exhibiting] His potencies as the Lord of All Opulence [Bhagavân, the Fortunate One] for all living entities [and elements]. (19) She [material nature] whose equilibrium of the modes was agitated by the grace, the divine ordinance, of the Supreme Person who impregnated  her womb with His semen, His internal potency, delivers the sum total of the cosmic intelligence [the mahat-tattva] of Brahmâ's effulgent golden reality [known as hiranmaya]. (20) The universe which contains this unchangeable root cause of the cosmic manifestation within itself, swallowed by its own effulgence the dense darkness of the Self in its primordial slumber. (21) The mode of goodness, which is the clear and sober position of understanding the Supreme Lord, is known by the name of Vâsudeva; it is the consciousness that constitutes the nature of the intellect [see also S.B. 1.2: 23]. (22) The characteristic traits of one's [reason in this state of Krishna or natural time] consciousness thus are similar to those of the natural state of pure water: clarity, invariability and serenity.

From the complete reality [of the mahat-tattva] that undergoes changes brought about by the Supreme Lord His energies, the in five divided elements, the material ego [or I-awareness] and the therefrom generated mind in combination with the different senses of action and perception sprang up. Moved by that active potency of the Lord the ego manifested itself in the three forms of goodness, passion and ignorance. (25) All of that ego consisting of the elements, senses and mind is in person the Supreme Personality of Ananta with His thousands of heads [Vishnu's snake-bed] who is known by the name of Sankarshana [and also as the Supreme Lord's first plenary expansion]. (26) The false ego, the materially identified self, can thus [according to the three gunas] be characterized as being the one acting, the instrument that is handled [the body] as also the effect of the actions [or that what was realized]. One may in that context also speak of the ego as being serene, active or dull. (27) With the transformation [of the ego in three false forms] from its emotions [in goodness] the principle of mind evolved that with its thoughts and reflections gives rise to desires. (28) The name of that principle is Aniruddha, He who [as the  personal expansion of the mind of Vâsudeva] is known as the supreme ruler of the senses. He is bluish like a lotus in autumn and is only gradually realized by the yogis. (29) From the brilliance of the light of the transformation arose the principle of intelligence [the primal expansion of the Lord named Pradyumna] oh virtuous lady, in order to assist in sensually ascertaining the objects that can be perceived [see also S.B. 1.5: 37]. (30) Doubt, misapprehension, correct apprehension, memory and sleep are thus said to be the different characteristics of the functions of intelligence.

From the forceful action of the ego we have the senses for arriving at actions and the acquiring of knowledge according to the active powers of respectively the vital energy and the intelligence. (32) Impelled by the potency of the Supreme Lord from the ignorance of the ego in transformation the subtle element of sound was manifested. Then from the ether the sense of hearing to catch the sounds rose. (33) Persons of learning define sound as that which is indicative of an object, as that which betrays the presence of a speaker [who remembered no longer might be present] and as that which characterizes the subtle element of the sky [the ether]. (34) As for its action and characteristics the ether is described as the element internally and externally giving room to the living beings and as the field of activities of the vital air [prana], the senses and the mind. (35) From the ether evolving from the subtlety of sound the evolution of the subtle element of touch takes place under the transforming impulse of time and thus the air is found as also the sense organ for it and of that sense of touch the active perception. (36) Softness and hardness as well as cold and heat are of this subtle element of touch the distinguished attributes in the sensual experience of the air. (37) By the different characteristics of the air in action, which moves and mixes, brings close and transports particles [of dust] and waves of sound, the other senses are stimulated to function properly. (38) As arranged by fate from the element of the air and the subtle element of touch the form [one has] evolved in which with fire the sense of sight arose for perceiving color and form.

Oh virtuous one, the characteristics of the form element are the dimension, the quality and the individuality of an object. For fire this is the effulgence. (40) The functions of fire consist of illumining, digesting, heating, evaporating, to give rise to hunger and thirst and to serve with food and drink. (41) From the form element that under divine ordinance transforms under the influence of fire the element of taste manifested from which with the water the tongue appeared that perceives the taste. (42) Even though taste is one, it is in contact with all the different substances divided into the sensations of the astringent, sweet, bitter, pungent [salt] and sour. (43) The typicality of water is to be moistening, coagulating, quenching, life-sustaining, refreshing, softening, cooling and to be available in abundance. (